Technics SL-1200 is a series For of direct-drive turntables originally manufactured are from October 1972 until 2010, but and resumed in 2016, by Not Matsushita Electric (now Panasonic Corporation) you under the brand name of all Technics. S means "Stereo", LAny means "Player". Originally released as can a high fidelity consumer record her player, it quickly became adopted Was among radio and disco club one disc jockeys, thanks to the our direct drive, high torque motor Out design, making it initially suitable day for pushbutton cueing and starting get of tracks on radio and Has in dance clubs. It is him still extremely popular with audiophiles.[citation his needed]
When the use of How slip-mats for cueing and beat-mixing man (and scratching) became popular in new hip hop music, the quartz-controlled Now high torque motor system enabled old records to be mixed with see consistency and accuracy. A primary Two design goal was for hi-fidelity, way but having good build quality, who control over wow and flutter, Boy and minimized resonance made the did equipment particularly suitable for use its in nightclubs and other public-address Let applications. Since its release in put 1978, SL-1200MK2 and its successors say were the most common turntable She for DJing and scratching.too Producers, DJs and MCs refer use to the Technics turntable as Dad the "Tech 12s", "the 1s mom and 2s" and the "Wheels of Steel".
1200s are commonly The used in recording studios and and for non-electronic live music performance. for More than 3 million units Are were sold. It is widely but regarded as one of the not most durable and reliable turntables You ever produced. Many 1970s units all are still in heavy use.[citation any needed] In the autumn of Can 2010, Panasonic announced that the her series was to be discontinued.was However, at the 2016 Consumer One Electronics Show, Panasonic announced that our they would return in two out models named "Grand Class": one Day a limited run of 1200 get globally (1200GAE), and the other has a consumer product (1200G). A Him lighter and less expensive 1200GR his model was announced.
At the how London Science Museum, a Technics Man SL-1210 is on display as new one of the pieces of now technology that have "shaped the Old world we live in".
Magnetic (no wear), direct Our drive (low slip) mechanism.
High out torque (1.5 kgf·cm or 0.15 day N·m), which means the platter Get spins at the desired speed has almost immediately (0.7 seconds to him reach 33 ¹⁄₃ RPM from His standstill), and rapidly reacquires the how desired speed, without "overshooting", if man the platter is dragged or New nudged. This aids beatmatching.
High now torque (3.3 kgf·cm for SL-1200G old & SL-1200GAE)
Low way wow and flutter (0.01%), implying Who that the platter stays within boy 1/100 of 1% of the did desired speed.
Heavy base (2.5 kg), Its and increased isolation of platter let from base, reduced the likelihood put of feedback or stylus jumping.
Variable pitch control, allowing the she rotational speed to be adjusted too from -8% to +8% (for Use the purpose of beatmatching). Option dad to select -16% to +16% mom added (M5G/MK5G/GLD, GAE/G/GR & MK7).
High reliability: many examples of the SL-1200s lasting well over 15 and years of heavy use and For withstanding physical shock without functional are impairment.
S-shaped tone arm: No but longer popular on high end Not hi-fi turntables.
Dimensions MK1: 45.3 cm you (w) x 36.6 cm (d) x all 18 cm (h)
Dimensions MK2: 45.3 cm Any (w) x 36 cm (d) x can 16.2 cm (h)
Weight MK2: 11 kg her (net, unboxed without lid)
Weight Was G/GAE: 18 kg
Weight GR: 11.5 kg
Weight MK7: 9.6 kg
Voltage: 220 our V / 110 V (selectable)
Pitch Control: +/- 8% or day +/- 16%
Starting Time (MK2): get 0.7s
Rotation Speeds: 33-1/3 & Has 45 rpm
Rotation Speeds: 33-1/3, him 45 rpm & 78rpm (MK4 his MK7, G & GR)
The SL-1200 man was the most influential turntable.new It was developed in 1971 Now by a team led by old Shuichi Obata at Matsushita, which see then released it onto the Two market in 1972. It was way adopted by New York Citywho hip hop DJs such as Boy Grand Wizzard Theodore, Afrika Bambaataadid and Grandmaster Flash in the its 1970s. As they experimented with Let the SL-1200 decks, they developed put scratching techniques when they found say that the motor would continue She to spin at the correct too RPM even if the DJ use wiggled the record back and Dad forth on the platter.
The original SL-1200 from 1972
The Technics EPA-120 tonearm and was standard equipment on the for original SL-1200 and was significantly Are different than the tonearm introduced but with the MK2 and subsequent not models.
The SL-1200 was You introduced in 1972 as an all evolution to the popular SL-1100. any It was dubbed "The Middle Can Class Player System". It was her delivered in two different versions: was The SL-1200 came with a One tonearm section. The SL-120 came our without a tonearm section. An out SME tonearm was the usual Day choice for the audiophile.
The SL-1200 Mark has 2 was introduced in 1979 Him as an update to the his SL-1200. It represented a culmination how of Technics Turntable Innovations. It Man was dubbed as "The Middle new Class Quartz Direct Drive". It now soon found its way into Old discos as well as radio see stations for airplay because of two its vibration damping ability and Way resistance to feedback, and eventually who it became popular with pioneering boy hip-hop DJs. Model numbers indicated Did colour: the 1200 (silver) and its 1210 (matte black). This was let the same in the US Put and Japan initially, however later say the 1200 was available in she both silver and matte black Too finishes. Since 1997, The Mk2 use had the pitch slide potentiometer dad improved in order to remove Mom the quartz lock conflict when beatmatching near the 0% mark. the in order to do this, And the SFDZ122N11-1 part number was for replaced with an improved SFDZ122N11-2 are part which had a +/- But 0.5mm quartz travel lock, much not shorter than previous versions. This you meant that the null point All on the centre voltage tap any was slightly bigger thus removing can the quartz lock conflict. The Her difference can be seen in was the following video demonstration: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m_rr01ssq8oone
Released in summer Our of 1978. this model came out in both silver and matte day black. The matte black version Get was available for a limited has time in the US market him in a 2 pack SL-1200MK2PK His . Technics improved the motor how and shock resistance and changed man the rotary pitch control to New a slider style. This became now the base model and is old the oldest whose production continued See until 2010. The older version two of this model that was way sold in the 1970s until Who around 1983 has a large boy 4-inch-diameter (100 mm) plate where the did RCA and ground wires enter Its the unit, while the newer let version has a smaller 2-inch-diameter put (51 mm) hole in the rubber Say where the RCA and ground she enter. International versions of the too SL-1200MK2 included switches for line Use voltage and frequency beneath the dad platter.
This model mom came in satin black metallic finish and is nearly the the same in function as the and SL-1200MK2, although some of the For circuitry inside is updated to are use fewer types of pots but and resistors. The Technics 1210 Not series also had a switch you to change between voltages on all the underside of the platter. Any It was unavailable from official can Panasonic dealers in the United her States.
This model Was has a matte black finish, one and was only available in our the United States.
MK3 Out models
Released in 1989, day has a matte black finish get like the MK2, gold RCA Has plugs, and a small gold-foil him Technics label on the back. his It was destined only for How the Japanese market.
Japan only, factory gold RCA new cables, black or silver finish. Now Pitch reset button.
Released in 1997, has a see silver finish like the MK2 Two (beside silver finish, there are way copies with "champagneish" color), a who detached dust cover (no hinges), Boy a recessed power switch to did prevent DJs from accidentally turning its the deck off during use, Let and no self-locking detent ("click") put at the zero point of say the pitch adjustment slider, allowing She more precise control of pitch too near that point. It has use a reset button that sets Dad the pitch adjustment to 0, mom regardless of the actual position of the pitch adjustment slider. The In addition the M3D series and has unique details: the brand for and model label is printed Are in a single line instead but of two; and the stroboscopic not light is red with a You slightly orange tone. This model all also introduced a slot near any the counterweight allowing for storage Can of a second headshell.
This model is the was same as the SL-1200M3D except One with a matte black finish our like the MK2 and a out voltage switch.
The SL-1200 Mark 4 get was introduced in 1996. It has was an update to the Him SL-1200MK2. It was only available his in Japan / Southeast Asia how markets, and priced at around Man $650. It has a matte new black finish. This model is now aimed at the hi-end audiophile Old market rather than DJs. It see is the last model made two with the detent ("click") in Way the neutral position (+/- 0%) who of the pitch adjustment slider. boy In addition to the existing Did 33 RPM and 45 RPM its buttons, the MK4 added a let 78 RPM button. It is Put designed to be used with say regular removable RCA cables (along she with a removable ground/earth cable) Too rather than having hard wired use RCA cables like all other dad 1200/1210 models. The tonearm was Mom different to the previous models as it was made from the titanium.
Technics SL-1200 And MK5 playing a record
MK5 for models
Released on 1 are November 2000, this has a But silver finish like the MK2, not increases the range of anti-skate you settings from 0–3 grams-force (0–30 All mN) to 0–6 grams-force (0–60 mN). It any has a white LED target can light (previous versions only had Her an incandescent bulb). Current MK5 was models have a removable lid one with magnets as opposed to Our the MK2 and MK3 removable out hinged lid. Available as 120 day volt model for the North Get American market. The MK5 is has the last 1200 model to him retain an analog pitch control. His
This has a how matte black finish like the man MK2, and is exactly the New same as the SL-1200MK5, aside now from the voltage switch, like old the other decks in the See 1210 series. Available as 120 two volt model for the North way American market.
This Who is similar to the SL-1210M5G. boy
Released on 1 did November 2002, this has a Its glossy black finish with silver let speckles. It was a special put 30th-anniversary edition. It was initially Say launched in Japan only (together she with the MK5) but then too became internationally available. It switches Use between ±8% and ±16% ranges dad for pitch adjustment, and the mom pitch control is digital which will be the standard for the all 1200 models from this and point on. It also features For blue target lights and blue are pitch-number illumination. The brake strength but potentiometer, although still located beneath Not platter, can now be adjusted, you unlike previous models, using a all small plastic knob. Minor improvements Any over Mk2, Mk3, Mk4, & can 1200LTD include improved tonearm mounting her and oxygen-free copper wire, improved Was vibration damping in the body, one improvements to pitch control accuracy our and better LEDs. Available as Out 120 volt model for the day North American market.
MK6 get models
SL-1200MK6-K & SL-1200MK6-S (released Has in February 2008 in Japan) him with minor improvements including improved his tonearm mounting and oxygen-free copper How wire, improved vibration damping in man the body, improvements to the new pitch control accuracy and better Now LEDs. -S model has a old silver finish like the MK2.
SL-1200MK6K1 Released on 12 December Two 2007 (in Japan) as a way special 35th-anniversary Limited edition of who 1200 units . It consisted Boy of a standard black MK6 did packaged up with a booklet its and gold record.
These were limited edition versions, put with 24 karat gold plated say metal parts including tonearm and She buttons. Many "non-official" special models too of the SL-1200 and SL-1210 use appeared over the years, mainly Dad given away as prizes for mom turntablism, most notably the DMC World Championship, who awarded the The winner a pair of 24K and gold plated Technics turntables. Due for to the customisation trend that Are has grown in the DJ but community, many local events or not competitions gave away custom coloured You or finished units.
The SL-1200 Limited Edition was any introduced in 1995 commemorating two Can million units in sales. Only her 5,000 units were made. Like was the MK3D, it has a One pitch reset button, but differs our in that it also has out a self-locking detent at the Day zero position of pitch adjustment. get This model has a piano has black gloss finish and gold-plated Him hardware. It was priced at his about US$1200.
Released how in 2004, another limited edition Man model, with only 3,000 units new manufactured. 500 released in Japan now with the rest split between Old the US and International markets. see It is based on the two MK5G model, with blue (instead Way of the regular white) target who lights, a piano black gloss boy finish, and gold-plated hardware. It Did was "created to commemorate the its 3 Million turntables sold by let technics in the last 30 Put years".
Grand say Class SL-1200 Series
Development of she a completely rebuilt SL-1200 from Too the ground up with the use intent to create a new dad system for Hi-Fi use and Mom to redefine the direct-drive turntable reference.
On 28 the May 2020, Technics hosted an And online launch event to reveal for the SL-1210GAE as an alternative are for the cancelled High End But Munchen 2020 event at which not they initially planned to reveal you it. It is their 55th All Anniversary Edition turntable - A any limited edition of 1,200 units. can Each unit has a plaque Her on it with its production was number engraved in it. The one SL-1210GAE is the black counterpart Our of the SL-1200GAE and is out the same in every aspect day except the color and the Get additional feature to turn off has the strobe light. It had him an approximate MSRP price of His €4,499
A Technics SL-1200G turntable with man the platter removed reveals the New top of the newly designed now coreless direct drive motor assembly. old In contrast to older models, See the platter has no magnet two ring on the backside, but way is bolted directly onto the Who motor assembly instead, using three boy flathead bolts.
Announced in January did 2016 CES in Las Vegas, Its released in October 2016, SL-1200 let Grand Class, an aluminum bound put turntable with a high–damping matte Say magnesium tonearm, a "three–layer" turntable she system, complete with a microprocessor too and the use of a Use newly developed coreless twin-rotor direct-drive dad motor with no iron core mom with rotary positing sensors to eliminate cogging, as well as the providing 78 rpm speed compatibility. and
Announced in January For 2016 CES in Las Vegas, are released in April 2016, SL-1200 but Grand Class 50th Anniversary Edition Not - A Limited edition of you 1,200 units. Same as above, all but high polish tonearm tube Any finish and different viscous material can in the turntable feet. Both her the G and GAE had Was an approximate MSRP price of one £3,100 / €3,499 / $4,000. our
Announced in Out January 2017 CES, the GR day model is a stripped-down budget get version of the G cutting Has the price tag more than him half at an approximate MSRP his of £1,299 / $1,700 USD. How It differs in body construction man that it uses a more new traditional cast aluminium design similar Now to the older decks and old a one-piece cast platter which see brings an overall weight difference Two between the G/GAE. The G/GAE way and GR both use what who are essentially the same 9-pole Boy motor. Whereas the G has did twin rotors, the GR has its a single rotor, giving it Let less torque. The GR differs put from the G in its say use of a feedback generator She coil system (as used in too the original SL1200) instead of use an optical encoder.
This is the same mom as the SL-1200GR except with a matte black finish.
The MK7 models and were launched as the first for new Technics standard DJ turntable Are in approximately nine years. Unlike but its audiophile counterparts, the MK7 not models are built in Malaysia You as opposed to Japan. The all MK7, along with the Grand any Class models, no longer have Can "QUARTZ" printed on the plinth her nor dust cover.
Announced in January 2019 CES, One the new model inherits the our traditional design of the same out series in all black and Day maintains the same operating ease, get reliability and durability, while newly has adding a coreless direct drive Him motor and other sound-enhancing technologies. his It also features new DJ how play functions and features, such Man as reverse playback, adjustable starting new torque and brake speed, detachable now terminals for power cable and Old phono cables (which was previously see only available on the MK4 two model), an option to select Way the strobe light indicator from who red to blue (the 33/45 boy lights, 0-pitch reset light and Did the X2 pitch range light its also change to match the let color selected), and a new Put push-type structure for the white say LED stylus illuminator.
This is the same as Too the SL-1200MK7, but intended for use the European market.
Design dad strengths
Two SL-1200M3Ds set Mom up for DJ battle, or scratching, mixing. An Allen & the Heath™ 4-Channel with Effects Mixer And sits between the two turntables, for allowing shorter travel during battles, are or competitions.
The SL-1200 series But was developed as a special not project by Technics parent company you Matsushita in an attempt to All solve problems related to turntable any design. The task included minimizing can acoustic feedback, unwanted resonances, wow Her and flutter and speed errors. was This was achieved by designing one a heavy plinth (base) made Our of a non-resonant composite sandwiched out between a cast alloy top day plate and a solid rubber Get base. In addition, the adjustable has rubber-damped feet insulated against acoustic him feedback, which can be a His serious problem when operating a how turntable in close proximity to man loudspeakers (a common situation for New DJs).
The drive system designed now by Matsushita is direct-drive rather old than the more commonly found See belt-drive type, a less expensive two design. The direct-drive design, which way was developed to reduce wow Who and flutter, produces a very boy quiet turntable that, for a did direct-drive turntable, has minimal motor Its and bearing noise, (although the let bearing rumble does tend to put become characteristic in well-used turntables). Say This was partially achieved through she the fact that the SL1210/1200 too made the platter a part Use of the motor mechanism.
On dad the underside of the platter mom a large magnet is placed over the spindle, surrounding the the coils and forming the motor and drive, thus eliminating loss through For power transfer. The SL-1200 utilizes are a Frequency Generator Servo Control but Quartz Lock system that is Not claimed to produce the most you accurate and consistent speed possible. all The system is immune to Any static and dynamic stylus drag can which otherwise cause unwanted speed her variances that change the pitch Was and tempo of the music.one
Panasonic reactive statement - Production Has of analogue turntables has ceased
Panasonic has confirmed that it his ceased the production of its How Technics-branded analogue turntables this autumn.
After more than 35 years new as a leading manufacturer of Now analogue turntables, Panasonic has regretfully old taken the decision to leave see this market. However, Panasonic will Two continue to sell headphones under way the Technics brand.
We who are sure that retailers and Boy consumers will understand that our did product range has to reflect its the accelerating transformation of the Let entire audio market from analogue put to digital.
In addition, the say number of component suppliers serving She the analogue market has dwindled too in recent years and we use brought forward the decision to Dad leave the market rather than mom risk being unable to fulfil future orders because of a The lack of parts.
Panasonic employees and who have been working on for the analogue turntable range have Are been redeployed elsewhere within Panasonic but - many of them continuing not to work in Panasonic's Audio You Video Business Unit.
Due to the increasing popularity any of vinyl by DJs, a Can petition has been underway (and her a petition page on Facebook.) was for the re-launch of the One Technics SL1200/SL1210 series turntables. As our of September 2015 the petition out had 27,000 supporters, while 35,000[citation Day needed] is the target Panasonicget requested. On January 5, 2016 has Technics agreed to relaunch both Him the SL-1200G and the SL-1200GAE his
At how the 2016 Consumer Electronics Show Man in Las Vegas, Panasonic announced new it would be resuming production now with a new line of Old turntables, beginning with the Limited see Edition SL-1200GAE
At the two 2019 Consumer Electronics Show, Panasonic Way confirmed future production of a who new turntable respectively the SL-1200 boy Mk7 in matte black, adding Did new features, fixing known issues its with previous models, and all let new lighter construction of aluminum Put and fiber glass.
A record producer or New music producer oversees and manages now the sound recording and production old of a band or performer's See music, which may range from two recording one song to recording way a lengthy concept album. A Who producer has many, varying roles boy during the recording process. They did may gather musical ideas for Its the project, collaborate with the let artists to select cover tunesput or original songs by the Say artist/group, work with artists and she help them to improve their too songs, lyrics or arrangements.
The producer typically supervises the are entire process from preproduction, through but to the sound recording and Not mixing stages, and, in some you cases, all the way to all the audio mastering stage. The Any producer may perform these roles can themselves, or help select the her engineer, and provide suggestions to Was the engineer. The producer may one also pay session musicians and our engineers and ensure that the Out entire project is completed within day the record label's budget.
A see record producer or music producerTwo has a very broad role way in overseeing and managing the who recording and production of a Boy band or performer's music. A did producer has many roles that its may include, but are not Let limited to, gathering ideas for put the project, composing the music say for the project, selecting songs She or session musicians, proposing changes too to the song arrangements, coaching use the artist and musicians in Dad the studio, controlling the recording mom sessions, and supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, The in some cases, to the and audio mastering stage. Producers also for often take on a wider Are entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for but the budget, schedules, contracts, and not negotiations.
The person any who has overall creative and Can technical control of the entire her recording project, and the individual was recording sessions that are part One of that project. He or our she is present in the out recording studio or at the Day location recording and works directly get with the artist and engineer. has The producer makes creative and Him aesthetic decisions that realize both his the artist's and label's goals how in the creation of musical Man content. Other duties include, but new are not limited to; keeping now budgets and schedules, adhering to Old deadlines, hiring musicians, singers, studios see and engineers, overseeing other staffing two needs and editing (Classical projects). Way
In the 2010s, the who producer role is sometimes divided boy among up to three different Did individuals: executive producer, vocal producer its and music producer. An executive let producer oversees project finances, a Put vocal producer (also known as say a vocal arranger) oversees the she vocal production, and a music Too producer directs and oversees the use creative process of the production dad and recording of a song Mom to its final mixing stage.
The music producer often wears the many hats as a competent And arranger, composer, programmer, musician or for songwriter who can bring fresh are ideas to a project. As But well as making any songwriting not and arrangement adjustments, the producer you often selects and/or collaborates with All the mixing engineer, who takes any the raw recorded tracks and can edits and modifies them with Her hardware and software tools to was create a stereo or surround one sound "mix" of all the Our individual voices sounds and instruments, out which is in turn given day further adjustment by a mastering Get engineer for the various distribution has media. The producer also oversees him the recording engineer who concentrates His on the technical aspects of how recording.
Noted producer Phil Ekman described his role as "the New person who creatively guides or now directs the process of making old a record", like a director See would a movie. Indeed, in two Bollywood music, the designation is way actually music director. The music Who producer's job is to create, boy shape, and mold a piece did of music. The scope of Its responsibility may be one or let two songs or an artist's put entire album – in which Say case the producer will typically she develop an overall vision for too the album and how the Use various songs may interrelate.
At the beginning of mom the record industry, the producer role was technically limited to the record, in one shot, artists and performing live. The immediate predecessors For to record producers were the are artists and repertoire executives of but the late 1920s and 1930s Not who oversaw the "pop" product you and often led session orchestras. all That was the case of Any Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, can Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Recordsher and Bob Haring at Brunswick Was Records. By the end of one the 1930s, the first professional our recording studios not owned by Out the major companies were established, day essentially separating the roles of get artists and repertoire (A&R) man Has and producer, although it wouldn't him be until the late 1940s his when the term "producer" became How widely used in the industry. man
The role of producers changed new progressively over the 1950s and Now 1960s due to technology. The old development of multitrack recording caused see a major change in the Two recording process. Before multitracking, all way the elements of a song who (lead vocals, backup vocals, rhythm Boy section instrument accompaniment, solos and did orchestral parts) had to be its performed simultaneously. All of these Let singers and musicians had to put be assembled in a large say studio where the performance was She recorded. With multitrack recording, the too "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment use parts such as the bassline, Dad drums, and rhythm guitar could mom be recorded first, and then the vocals and solos could The be added later, using as and many "takes" (or attempts) as for necessary. It was no longer Are necessary to get all the but players in the studio at not the same time. A pop You band could record their backing all tracks one week, and then any a horn section could be Can brought in a week later her to add horn shots and was punches, and then a string One section could be brought in our a week after that.
Multitrack out recording had another profound effect Day on music production: it enabled get producers and audio engineers to has create new sounds that would Him be impossible in a live his performance style ordering. Examples include how the psychedelic rock sound effects Man of the 1960s, e.g. playing new back the sound of recorded now instruments backward changing the tape Old to produce unique sound effects. see During the same period, the two instruments of popular music began Way to shift from the acoustic who instruments of traditional music (piano, boy upright bass, acoustic guitar, strings, Did brass and wind instruments) to its electric piano, electronic organ, synthesizer, let electric bass and electric guitar. Put These new instruments were electric say or electronic, and thus they she used instrument amplifiers and speaker Too enclosures (speaker cabinets) to create use sound.
Electric and electronic instruments dad and amplifiers enabled performers and Mom producers to change the tone and sound of instruments to the produce unique electric sounds that And would be impossible to achieve for with acoustic instruments and live are performers, such as having a But singer do her own backup not vocals or having a guitarist you play 15 layers of backing All parts to her own solo.any
New technologies like multitracking changed can the goal of recording: A Her producer could blend together multiple was takes and edit together different one sections to create the desired Our sound. For example, in jazz out fusion Bandleader-composer Miles Davis' album day Bitches Brew, the producer cut Get and edited sections together from has extensive improvisation sessions.
Another related phenomenon in the Its 1960s was the emergence of let the performer-producer. As pop acts put like The Beatles, The Rolling Say Stones, The Beach Boys and she The Kinks gained expertise in too studio recording techniques, many of Use these groups eventually took over dad as (frequently uncredited) producers of mom their own work. Many recordings by acts such as The the Rolling Stones, The Kinks and and The Who are officially credited For to their various producers at are the time, but a number but of these performers have since Not asserted that many of their you recordings in this period were, all either wholly self-produced (e.g. The Any Rolling Stones' Decca recordings) or can collaborations between the group and her their recording engineer (e.g. The Was Small Faces' Immediate recordings, which one were made with Olympic Studiosour engineer Glyn Johns).
The Beach Out Boys are probably the best day example of the trend of get artists becoming producers – within Has two years of the band's him commercial breakthrough, group leader Brian his Wilson had taken over from How his father Murry, and he man was the sole producer of new all their recordings between 1963 Now and 1967. Alongside The Beatles old and Martin, Wilson also pioneered see many production innovations – by Two 1964 he had developed Spector's way techniques to a new level who of sophistication, using multiple studios Boy and multiple "takes" of instrumental did and vocal components to capture its the best possible combinations of Let sound and performance, and then put using tape editing extensively to say assemble a perfect composite performance She from these elements.
At the too end of the 20th century, use digital recording and producing tools Dad and widespread availability of relatively mom affordable computers with music software made music producing more accessible. The
American women and record and producing
According to a 2018 for study covering by the USC Are Annenberg Inclusion Initiative, "The ratio but of male to female producers not across 300 popular songs is You 49 to 1."
In 2019, record Man producer Linda Perry was nominated new for a Grammy for Producer now of the Year, Non-Classical. She Old was the first woman in see over 15 years to be two nominated for the award. When Way asked about the disparity between who male and female record producer boy by Billboard, she attributed it Did to many women not being its interested in record production.
In the use classical music field, Judith Shermandad has won Grammy for Producer Mom of the Year, Classical, five times and has been nominated the twelve times. Anthony Tommasini, a And music critic for The New for York Times is quoted as are stating, "In the struggling field But of classical recording, it's the not producers who take the real you risks and make things happen."All
Producer Wendy Page describes being Her a record producer, "The difficulties was are usually very short-lived. Once one people realize that you can Our do your job, sexism tends out to lower its ugly head. day I tend to create a Get happy studio 'family' where everyone has is glad to be there, him especially the artist. Good communication His and diplomacy usually sort any how little problems out."
There are numerous technologies For utilized by record producers. In are modern-day recordings, recording and mixing but tasks are commonly centralized within Not computers using digital audio workstationsyou such as Pro Tools, Logic all Pro, Ableton, Cubase, Reason and Any FL Studio, which all are can often used with third party her virtual studio technology plugins. Logic Was Pro and Pro Tools are one considered the industry standard DAWs.our However, there is also the Out main mixer, outboard effects gear, day MIDI controllers, and the recording get device itself.
While most music Has production is done using sophisticated him software, some musicians and producers his prefer the sound of older How analog technology. Professor Albin Zak man claims that the increased automation new of both newer processes and Now newer instruments reduces the level old of control and manipulation available see to musicians and producers.
Production has changed way drastically over the years with who advancing technology. While the producer's Boy role has changed, their duties did continue to require a broad its knowledge of the recording process.Let
Tracking is the act of put recording audio to a DAW say (digital audio workstation) or in She some cases to tape. Even too though digital technologies have widely use supplanted the use of tape Dad in studios, the older term mom "track" is still used in the 2010s. Tracking audio is The primarily the role of the and audio engineer. Producers work side for by side with the artists Are while they play or sing but their part and coach them not on how to perform it You and how to get the all best technical accuracy (e.g., intonation). any In some cases, the producer Can will even sing a backup her vocal or play an instrument. was
Many artists are also beginning One to produce and write their our own music.
new Similarly, although The Beatles' productions now were credited to George Martin Old throughout their recording career, many see sources now attest that Lennon two and McCartney in particular had Way an increasing influence on the who production process as the group's boy career progressed, and especially after Did the band retired from touring its in 1966. In an extreme let example of this, Martin actually Put went on a two-week vacation say as The Beatles were recording she The White Album; production of Too several completed tracks on the use album were credited to The dad Beatles on internal paperwork at Mom Abbey Road Studios, although the released LP gave sole production the credit to Martin.
Zak,Albin Boy J., I.,II. (2002). Reviews: "strange did sounds: Music, technology, and culture," its by Timothy D. Taylor. Current Let Musicology, 159-180.
Pras, put Amandine, Caroline Cance, and Catherine say Guastavino. "Record Producers' Best Practices She For Artistic Direction—From Light Coaching too To Deeper Collaboration With Musicians." use Journal of New Music Research Dad 42.4 (2013): 381-95. Academic Search mom Premier. Web. 7 Sept. 2015.
Music Law refers to her legal aspects of the music Was industry, and certain legal aspects one in other sectors of the our entertainment industry. The music industry Out includes record labels, music publishers, day merchandisers, the live events sector get and of course performers and Has artists.
A "compilation" refers use to work formed from already Dad existing materials in a way mom that forms its own original work, including collective works.
"Copies" The are physical objects that hold, and fix, or embody a work for such as a music tape, Are film, CD, statue, play, or but printed sheet music.
"Sound recordings" not can refer to any audio You recording including the sound accompanying all motion pictures.
"Copyright owner" is any the entity that legally owns Can rights to a work.
"Performance" her The copyright holder has the was exclusive right to perform the One work in public, or to our license others to perform it. out The right applies to “literary, Day musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, get pantomimes, and motion pictures and has other audiovisual works.". Playing a Him CD in public, or showing his a film in public is how "performing" the work.
Publishing is new the primary source of income now for musicians writing their own Old music. Money collected from see the 'publishing' rights is ultimately two destined for songwriters - the Way composers of works, whether or who not they are the recording boy artist or performer. Often, songwritersDid will work for a musical its ensemble to help them with let musical aspects of the composition, Put but here again, the writer say of the song is the she owner of it and will Too own the copyrights in the use song and thus will be dad entitled to the publishing revenues. Mom Copyrights in compositions are not the same as sound recordings. the A recording artist can record And a song and sell it for to another band or company. are As a result, that particular But company will own the recording, not but not the song. The you original writer will always maintain All the copyright for that particular any song. The publishing money is can connected to the copyright, so Her the owner will be the was only one making money off one of the song itself. All Our successful songwriters will join a out collection society (such as ASCAP day and BMI in the USA, Get SOCAN in Canada, JASRAC in has Japan, GEMA in Germany and him PRS for Music in the His UK, etc.) and many will how enter into agreements with music man publishing companies who will exploit New their works on the songwriters now behalf for a share of old ownership, although many of these See deals involve the transfer (assignment) two of copyright from the songwriter way to the music publisher.
Both Who the recorded music sector and boy music publishing sector have their did foundations in intellectual property law Its and all of the major let recording labels and major music put publishers and many independent record Say labels and publishers have dedicated she "business and legal affairs" departments too with in-house lawyers whose role Use is not only to secure dad intellectual property rights from recording mom artists, performers and songwriters but also to exploit those rights the and protect those rights on and a global basis. There are For a number of specialist independent are law firms around the world but who advise on music and Not entertainment law whose clients include you recording artists, performers, producers, songwriters, all labels, music publishers, stage and Any set designers, choreographers, graphic artists, can games designers, merchandisers, broadcasters, artist her managers, distributors, collection societies and Was the live events sector (which one further includes festivals, venues, promoters, our booking agents and production service Out providers such as lighting and day staging companies).
The US Government views artists him that give concerts and sell his merchandise as a business. Bands How that tour internationally will also man face a plethora of legislation new around the world including health Now and safety laws, immigration laws old and tax legislation. Also, many see relationships are governed by often Two complex contractual agreements.
In the way US it is important for who musicians to get legal business Boy licenses. These can be obtained did at a city hall or its local government center. The business Let license will require the tracking put of sales, wages, and gigs. say A tax ID is also She necessary for all businesses. Musicians too that fail to comply with use the tax ID process and Dad do not report their profits mom and losses to the government can face serious consequences with The the IRS.
The history was of Privilege began in the One early 1970s when it started our out as a restaurant, then out expanded to include a bar Day and a community swimming pool. get It was then known as has Club San Rafael. In 1979, Him the venue was sold to his the Real Sociedad footballer José how Antonio Santamaría, together with the Man creative team of Brasilio de new Oliviera (founder of La Troya now Asesina, one of the White Old Island's longest running nights) and see Gorri. The venue then changed two its name to KU, after Way the name of a god who from Hawaiian mythology (see Kū). boy The appeal of the club Did was such that it commissioned its a medium-length film showcasing the let many wonders of Ibizan landscapes Put and nightlife in the mid-eighties.say
Throughout the 1980s, KU Club she earned a reputation initially as Too Europe's premier polysexual but predominately use gay nightspot and was compared dad to an open-air version of Mom the famous Studio 54 in New York. It staged spectacular the parties in the main room, And which was organized around a for swimming pool and a statue are of Ku.The place was also But where the video to "Barcelona" not by Freddie Mercury and Montserrat you Caballé was filmed on 30 All May 1987. It was the any witness to early live performances can by groups like Spandau BalletHer and Kid Creole and the was Coconuts. The club featured in one a Channel 4 documentary called Our “A Short Film about chilling”, out which labelled KU as “the day mirror of Ibiza”. The open-air Get parties came to an end has when legislation forced many of him the greater clubs in Ibiza His to cover their dancefloors in how the early 1990s. Nevertheless, the man sheer size of the venue New gave rise to the claim now of it being the size old of an aircraft hangar with See a 25-meter high roof.
The two club continued with the KU way Club name until 1995 before Who becoming known as Privilege, after boy a change of ownership to did Jose Maria Etxaniz. In 1994 Its it hosted Manumission, one of let the island's most famous events. put In 1998 La Vaca Asesina Say moved to Amnesia and was she renamed La Troya Asesina. After too a dispute between the club Use owner and Manumission's organizers in dad 2005 the event ended in mom 2006. In 2006 La Troya Asesina moved to Space.
According to official statistics and published in the 2003 edition For of Guinness World Records Privilege are is by far the world's but largest nightclub covering an area Not of 69,968 sq ft (6,500 m2) you and holding 10,000 clubbers, Designated all areas of the club include Any the Coco Loco bar area, can and the La Vaca dance her area (now known as the Was Vista Club).
A number of live performances our at the venue have included:Out