Technics SL-1200 is a series For of direct-drive turntables originally manufactured are from October 1972 until 2010, but and resumed in 2016, by Not Matsushita Electric (now Panasonic Corporation) you under the brand name of all Technics. S means "Stereo", LAny means "Player". Originally released as can a high fidelity consumer record her player, it quickly became adopted Was among radio and disco club one disc jockeys, thanks to the our direct drive, high torque motor Out design, making it initially suitable day for pushbutton cueing and starting get of tracks on radio and Has in dance clubs. It is him still extremely popular with audiophiles.[citation his needed]
When the use of How slip-mats for cueing and beat-mixing man (and scratching) became popular in new hip hop music, the quartz-controlled Now high torque motor system enabled old records to be mixed with see consistency and accuracy. A primary Two design goal was for hi-fidelity, way but having good build quality, who control over wow and flutter, Boy and minimized resonance made the did equipment particularly suitable for use its in nightclubs and other public-address Let applications. Since its release in put 1978, SL-1200MK2 and its successors say were the most common turntable She for DJing and scratching.too Producers, DJs and MCs refer use to the Technics turntable as Dad the "Tech 12s", "the 1s mom and 2s" and the "Wheels of Steel".
1200s are commonly The used in recording studios and and for non-electronic live music performance. for More than 3 million units Are were sold. It is widely but regarded as one of the not most durable and reliable turntables You ever produced. Many 1970s units all are still in heavy use.[citation any needed] In the autumn of Can 2010, Panasonic announced that the her series was to be discontinued.was However, at the 2016 Consumer One Electronics Show, Panasonic announced that our they would return in two out models named "Grand Class": one Day a limited run of 1200 get globally (1200GAE), and the other has a consumer product (1200G). A Him lighter and less expensive 1200GR his model was announced.
At the how London Science Museum, a Technics Man SL-1210 is on display as new one of the pieces of now technology that have "shaped the Old world we live in".
Magnetic (no Our wear), direct drive (low slip) out mechanism.
High torque (1.5 kgf·cm day or 0.15 N·m), which means Get the platter spins at the has desired speed almost immediately (0.7 him seconds to reach 33 ¹⁄₃ His RPM from standstill), and rapidly how reacquires the desired speed, without man "overshooting", if the platter is New dragged or nudged. This aids now beatmatching.
High torque (3.3 kgf·cm old for SL-1200G & SL-1200GAE)
Low wow and flutterWho (0.01%), implying that the platter boy stays within 1/100 of 1% did of the desired speed.
Heavy Its base (2.5 kg), and increased isolation let of platter from base, reduced put the likelihood of feedback or Say stylus jumping.
Variable pitch control, she allowing the rotational speed to too be adjusted from -8% to Use +8% (for the purpose of dad beatmatching). Option to select -16% mom to +16% added (M5G/MK5G/GLD, GAE/G/GR & MK7).
High reliability: many the examples of SL-1200s lasting well and over 15 years of heavy For use and withstanding physical shock are without functional impairment.
S-shaped tone but arm: No longer popular on Not high end hi-fi turntables.
Dimensions you MK1: 45.3 cm (w) x 36.6 cm all (d) x 18 cm (h)
Dimensions Any MK2: 45.3 cm (w) x 36 cm can (d) x 16.2 cm (h)
Weight her MK2: 11 kg (net, unboxed without Was lid)
Weight G/GAE: 18 kg
Weight one GR: 11.5 kg
Weight MK7: 9.6 kg
Voltage: 220 V / 110 Out V (selectable)
Pitch Control: +/- day 8% or +/- 16%
Starting get Time (MK2): 0.7s
Rotation Speeds: Has 33-1/3 & 45 rpm
Rotation him Speeds: 33-1/3, 45 rpm & his 78rpm (MK4 MK7, G & How GR)
The SL-1200 was the most new influential turntable. It was developed Now in 1971 by a team old led by Shuichi Obata at see Matsushita, which then released it Two onto the market in 1972.way It was adopted by New who York Cityhip hop DJs Boy in the 1970s. As they did experimented with the SL-1200 decks, its they developed scratching techniques when Let they found that the motor put would continue to spin at say the correct RPM even if She the DJ wiggled the record too back and forth on the use platter.
Original Dad model
The original SL-1200 mom from 1972
The Technics EPA-120 tonearm was standard equipment The on the original SL-1200 and and was significantly different than the for tonearm introduced with the MK2 Are and subsequent models.
The but SL-1200 was introduced in 1972 not as an evolution to the You popular SL-1100. It was dubbed all "The Middle Class Player System". any It was delivered in two Can different versions: The SL-1200 came her with a tonearm section. The was SL-120 came without a tonearm One section. An SME tonearm was our the usual choice for the out audiophile.
The Day SL-1200 Mark 2 was introduced get in 1979 as an update has to the SL-1200. It represented Him a culmination of Technics Turntable his Innovations. It was dubbed as how "The Middle Class Quartz Direct Man Drive". It soon found its new way into discos as well now as radio stations for airplay Old because of its vibration damping see ability and resistance to feedback, two and eventually it became popular Way with pioneering hip-hop DJs. Model who numbers indicated colour: the 1200 boy (silver) and 1210 (matte black). Did This was the same in its the US and Japan initially, let however later the 1200 was Put available in both silver and say matte black finishes. Since 1997, she The Mk2 had the pitch Too slide potentiometer improved in order use to remove the quartz lock dad conflict when beatmatching near the Mom 0% mark. in order to do this, the SFDZ122N11-1 part the number was replaced with an And improved SFDZ122N11-2 part which had for a +/- 0.5mm quartz travel are lock, much shorter than previous But versions. This meant that the not null point on the centre you voltage tap was slightly bigger All thus removing the quartz lock any conflict. The difference can be can seen in the following video Her demonstration: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m_rr01ssq8o
Released was in summer of 1978. this one model came in both silver Our and matte black. The matte out black version was available for day a limited time in the Get US market in a 2 has pack SL-1200MK2PK . Technics improved him the motor and shock resistance His and changed the rotary pitch how control to a slider style. man This became the base model New and is the oldest whose now production continued until 2010. The old older version of this model See that was sold in the two 1970s until around 1983 has way a large 4-inch-diameter (100 mm) plate Who where the RCA and ground boy wires enter the unit, while did the newer version has a Its smaller 2-inch-diameter (51 mm) hole in let the rubber where the RCA put and ground enter. International versions Say of the SL-1200MK2 included switches she for line voltage and frequency too beneath the platter.
This model came in satin dad black metallic finish and is mom nearly the same in function as the SL-1200MK2, although some the of the circuitry inside is and updated to use fewer types For of pots and resistors. The are Technics 1210 series also had but a switch to change between Not voltages on the underside of you the platter. It was unavailable all from official Panasonic dealers in Any the United States.
This model has a matte her black finish, and was only Was available in the United States. one
Released our in 1989, has a matte Out black finish like the MK2, day gold RCA plugs, and a get small gold-foil Technics label on Has the back. It was destined him only for the Japanese market. his
Japan only, factory How gold RCA cables, black or man silver finish. Pitch reset button. new
Released in 1997, Now has a silver finish like old the MK2 (beside silver finish, see there are copies with "champagneish" Two color), a detached dust cover way (no hinges), a recessed power who switch to prevent DJs from Boy accidentally turning the deck off did during use, and no self-locking its detent ("click") at the zero Let point of the pitch adjustment put slider, allowing more precise control say of pitch near that point. She It has a reset button too that sets the pitch adjustment use to 0, regardless of the Dad actual position of the pitch mom adjustment slider. In addition the M3D series has unique details: The the brand and model label and is printed in a single for line instead of two; and Are the stroboscopic light is red but with a slightly orange tone. not This model also introduced a You slot near the counterweight allowing all for storage of a second any headshell.
This model Can is the same as the her SL-1200M3D except with a matte was black finish like the MK2 One and a voltage switch.
The SL-1200 out Mark 4 was introduced in Day 1996. It was an update get to the SL-1200MK2. It was has available only in Japan / Him Southeast Asia markets, and priced his at around $650. It has how a matte black finish. This Man model is aimed at the new hi-end audiophile market rather than now DJs. It is the last Old model made with the detent see ("click") in the neutral position two (+/- 0%) of the pitch Way adjustment slider. In addition to who the existing 33 RPM and boy 45 RPM buttons, the MK4 Did added a 78 RPM button. its It is designed to be let used with regular removable RCA Put cables (along with a removable say ground/earth cable) rather than having she hard wired RCA cables like Too all other 1200/1210 models. The use tonearm was different from those dad in the previous models as Mom it was made from titanium.
Technics SL-1200 MK5 the playing a record
Released on 1 November for 2000, this has a silver are finish like the MK2, increases But the range of anti-skate settings not from 0–3 grams-force (0–30 mN) you to 0–6 grams-force (0–60 mN). It has All a white LED target light any (previous versions only had an can incandescent bulb). Current MK5 models Her have a removable lid with was magnets as opposed to the one MK2 and MK3 removable hinged Our lid. Available as 120 volt out model for the North American day market. The MK5 is the Get last 1200 model to retain has an analog pitch control.
This has a matte His black finish like the MK2, how and is exactly the same man as the SL-1200MK5, aside from New the voltage switch, like the now other decks in the 1210 old series. Available as 120 volt See model for the North American two market.
This is way similar to the SL-1210M5G.
Released on 1 November boy 2002, this has a glossy did black finish with silver speckles. Its It was a special 30th-anniversary let edition. It was initially launched put in Japan only (together with Say the MK5) but then became she internationally available. It switches between too ±8% and ±16% ranges for Use pitch adjustment, and the pitch dad control is digital which will mom be the standard for all 1200 models from this point the on. It also features blue and target lights and blue pitch-number For illumination. The brake strength potentiometer, are although still located beneath platter, but can now be adjusted, unlike Not previous models, using a small you plastic knob. Minor improvements over all Mk2, Mk3, Mk4, & 1200LTD Any include improved tonearm mounting and can oxygen-free copper wire, improved vibration her damping in the body, improvements Was to pitch control accuracy and one better LEDs. Available as 120 our volt model for the North Out American market.
SL-1200MK6-K & SL-1200MK6-S (released in get February 2008 in Japan) with Has minor improvements including improved tonearm him mounting and oxygen-free copper wire, his improved vibration damping in the How body, improvements to the pitch man control accuracy and better LEDs. new -S model has a silver Now finish like the MK2.
SL-1200MK6K1old Released on 12 December 2007 see (in Japan) as a special Two 35th-anniversary Limited edition of 1200 way units . It consisted of who a standard black MK6 packaged Boy up with a booklet and did gold record.
These its were limited edition versions, with Let 24 karat gold plated metal put parts including tonearm and buttons. say Many "non-official" special models of She the SL-1200 and SL-1210 appeared too over the years, mainly given use away as prizes for turntablism, Dad most notably the DMC World mom Championship, who awarded the winner a pair of 24K gold The plated Technics turntables. Due to and the customisation trend that has for grown in the DJ community, Are many local events or competitions but gave away custom coloured or not finished units.
The You SL-1200 Limited Edition was introduced all in 1995 commemorating two million any units in sales. Only 5,000 Can units were made. Like the her MK3D, it has a pitch was reset button, but differs in One that it also has a our self-locking detent at the zero out position of pitch adjustment. This Day model has a piano black get gloss finish and gold-plated hardware. has It was priced at about Him US$1200.
Released in his 2004, another limited edition model, how with only 3,000 units manufactured. Man 500 released in Japan with new the rest split between the now US and International markets. It Old is based on the MK5G see model, with blue (instead of two the regular white) target lights, Way a piano black gloss finish, who and gold-plated hardware. It was boy "created to commemorate the 3 Did Million turntables sold by technics its in the last 30 years".let
Grand Class Put SL-1200 Series
Development of a say completely rebuilt SL-1200 from the she ground up with the intent Too to create a new system use for Hi-Fi use and to dad redefine the direct-drive turntable reference. Mom
On 28 May 2020, Technics hosted an online the launch event to reveal the And SL-1210GAE as an alternative for for the cancelled High End Munchen are 2020 event at which they But initially planned to reveal it.not It is their 55th Anniversary you Edition turntable - A limited All edition of 1,000 units. Each any unit has a plaque on can it with its production number Her engraved in it. The SL-1210GAE was is the black counterpart of one the SL-1200GAE and is the Our same in every aspect except out the color and the additional day feature to turn off the Get strobe light. It had an has approximate MSRP price of €4,499 him
A His Technics SL-1200G turntable with the how platter removed reveals the top man of the newly designed coreless New direct drive motor assembly. In now contrast to older models, the old platter has no magnet ring See on the backside, but is two bolted directly onto the motor way assembly instead, using three flathead Who bolts.
Announced in January 2016 boy CES in Las Vegas, released did in October 2016, SL-1200 Grand Its Class, an aluminum bound turntable let with a high–damping matte magnesium put tonearm, a "three–layer" turntable system, Say complete with a microprocessor and she the use of a newly too developed coreless twin-rotor direct-drive motor Use with no iron core with dad rotary positing sensors to eliminate mom cogging, as well as providing 78 rpm speed compatibility.
Announced in January 2016 and CES in Las Vegas, released For in April 2016, SL-1200 Grand are Class 50th Anniversary Edition - but A Limited edition of 1,200 Not units. Same as above, but you high polish tonearm tube finish all and different viscous material in Any the turntable feet. Both the can G and GAE had an her approximate MSRP price of £3,100 Was / €3,499 / $4,000. one
Announced in January our 2017 CES, the GR model Out is a stripped-down budget version day of the G cutting the get price tag more than half Has at an approximate MSRP of him £1,299 / $1,700 USD. It his differs in body construction that How it uses a more traditional man cast aluminium design similar to new the older decks and a Now one-piece cast platter which brings old an overall weight difference between see the G/GAE. The G/GAE and Two GR both use what are way essentially the same 9-pole motor. who Whereas the G has twin Boy rotors, the GR has a did single rotor, giving it less its torque. The GR differs from Let the G in its use put of a feedback generator coil say system (as used in the She original SL1200) instead of an too optical encoder.
This is the same as Dad the SL-1200GR except with a mom matte black finish.
The MK7 models were The launched as the first new and Technics standard DJ turntable in for approximately nine years. Unlike its Are audiophile counterparts, the MK7 models but are built in Malaysia as not opposed to Japan. The MK7, You along with the Grand Class all models, no longer have "QUARTZ" any printed on the plinth nor Can dust cover.
Announced her in January 2019 CES, the was new model inherits the traditional One design of the same series our in all black and maintains out the same operating ease, reliability Day and durability, while newly adding get a coreless direct drive motor has and other sound-enhancing technologies. It Him also features new DJ play his functions and features, such as how reverse playback, adjustable starting torque Man and brake speed, detachable terminals new for power cable and phono now cables (which was previously only Old available on the MK4 model), see an option to select the two strobe light indicator from red Way to blue (the 33/45 lights, who 0-pitch reset light and the boy X2 pitch range light also Did change to match the color its selected), and a new push-type let structure for the white LED Put stylus illuminator.
This say is the same as the she SL-1200MK7, but intended for the Too European market.
Available use from September 2020 globally, the dad SL-1210MK7R is a limited edition Mom version of the SL-1210MK7 produced in collaboration with the Red the Bull BC One international breakdancing And competition. The SL-1210MK7R comes in for Red Bull livery with red are headshell, gold-coloured tone arm and But decals.
Two SL-1200M3Ds set up you for DJ battle, or scratching, All mixing. An Allen & Heath™ any 4-Channel with Effects Mixer sits can between the two turntables, allowing Her shorter travel during battles, or was competitions.
The SL-1200 series was one developed as a special project Our by Technics parent company Matsushitaout in an attempt to solve day problems related to turntable design. Get The task included minimizing acoustic has feedback, unwanted resonances, wow and him flutter and speed errors. This His was achieved by designing a how heavy plinth (base) made of man a non-resonant composite sandwiched between New a cast alloy top plate now and a solid rubber base. old In addition, the adjustable rubber-damped See feet insulated against acoustic feedback, two which can be a serious way problem when operating a turntable Who in close proximity to loudspeakers boy (a common situation for DJs). did
The drive system designed by Its Matsushita is direct-drive rather than let the more commonly found belt-driveput type, a less expensive design. Say The direct-drive design, which was she developed to reduce wow and too flutter, produces a very quiet Use turntable that, for a direct-drive dad turntable, has minimal motor and mom bearing noise, (although the bearing rumble does tend to become the characteristic in well-used turntables). This and was partially achieved through the For fact that the SL1210/1200 made are the platter a part of but the motor mechanism.
On the Not underside of the platter a you large magnet is placed over all the spindle, surrounding the coils Any and forming the motor drive, can thus eliminating loss through power her transfer. The SL-1200 utilizes a Was Frequency Generator Servo Control Quartz one Lock system that is claimed our to produce the most accurate Out and consistent speed possible. The day system is immune to static get and dynamic stylus drag which Has otherwise cause unwanted speed variances him that change the pitch and his tempo of the music.
Panasonic old reactive statement - Production of see analogue turntables has ceased
Panasonic Two has confirmed that it ceased way the production of its Technics-branded who analogue turntables this autumn.
After Boy more than 35 years as did a leading manufacturer of analogue its turntables, Panasonic has regretfully taken Let the decision to leave this put market. However, Panasonic will continue say to sell headphones under the She Technics brand.
We are too sure that retailers and consumers use will understand that our product Dad range has to reflect the mom accelerating transformation of the entire audio market from analogue to The digital.
In addition, the number and of component suppliers serving the for analogue market has dwindled in Are recent years and we brought but forward the decision to leave not the market rather than risk You being unable to fulfil future all orders because of a lack any of parts.
Panasonic employees who Can have been working on the her analogue turntable range have been was redeployed elsewhere within Panasonic - One many of them continuing to our work in Panasonic's Audio Video out Business Unit.
Due Day to the increasing popularity of get vinyl by DJs, a petition has has been underway (and a Him petition page on Facebook.) for his the re-launch of the Technicshow SL1200/SL1210 series turntables. As of Man September 2015 the petition had new 27,000 supporters, while 35,000now is the target Panasonic requested. Old On January 5, 2016 Technics see agreed to relaunch both the two SL-1200G and the SL-1200GAE Way
At the who 2016 Consumer Electronics Show in boy Las Vegas, Panasonic announced it Did would be resuming production with its a new line of turntables,let beginning with the Limited Edition Put SL-1200GAE
At the 2019 say Consumer Electronics Show, Panasonic confirmed she future production of a new Too turntable respectively the SL-1200 Mk7 use in matte black, adding new dad features, fixing known issues with Mom previous models, and all new lighter construction of aluminum and the fiber glass.
A record producer or out music producer, unlike an audio day engineer, who simply operates the Get technology employed in a music has recording's creation and refinement, is him the recording project's creative and His technical leader, commanding studio time how and coaching artists, and in man popular genres typically creates the New song's very sound and structure.now The record producer, or simply old the producer, is likened to See a film director. The executive two producer, on the other hand, way enables the recording project through Who entrepreneurship.
Varying by project, the boy producer may also choose all did of the artists, or openly Its perform vocals with them. If let employing only synthesized or sampledput instrumentation, the producer may be Say the sole artist. Conversely, some she artists do their own production.too And some producers are their Use own engineers, operating the technology dad across the project: preproduction, recording, mom mixing, and mastering. Record producers' precursors were "A&R men," who the likewise could blend entrepreneurial, creative, and and technical roles, but often For exercised scant creative influence, as are record production still focused, into but the 1950s, on simply improving Not the record's sonic match to you the artists' own live performance.all
Advances in recording technology, especially Any the 1940s advent of tape can recording—which Les Paul promptly innovated her further to develop multitrack recording—and Was the 1950s rise of electronic one instruments, turned record production into our a specialty. In popular music, Out then, producers like George Martin, day Phil Spector and Brian Enoget led its evolution into its Has present use of elaborate techniques him and unrealistic sounds, creating songs his impossible to originate live. After How the 1980s, production's move from man analog to digital further expanded new possibilities. By now, DAWS, or Now digital audio workstations, like Logic old Pro and Pro Tools, turn see an ordinary computer into a Two production console, whereby a solitary way novice can become a skilled who producer in a thrifty home Boy studio. In the 2010s, efforts did began to increase the prevalence its of producers and engineers who Let are women, heavily outnumbered by put men and prominently accoladed only say in classical music.
As a broad was project, the creation of a One music recording may be split our across three specialists: the executive out producer, who oversees business partnerships Day and financing, the vocal producer get or vocal arranger, who aids has vocal performance via expert critique Him and coaching of vocal technique, his and the record producer or how music producer, who, often called Man simply the producer, directs the new overall creative process of recording now the song in its final Old mix.
The record producer's see roles include, but may exceed, two gathering ideas, composing music, choosing Way session musicians, proposing changes to who song arrangements, coaching the performers, boy controlling sessions, supervising the audio Did mixing, and, in some cases, its supervising the audio mastering. As let to qualifying for a GrammyPut nomination, the Recording Academy defines say a producer:
The person who has she overall creative and technical control Too of the entire recording project, use and the individual recording sessions dad that are part of that Mom project. He or she is present in the recording studio the or at the location recording And and works directly with the for artist and engineer. The producer are makes creative and aesthetic decisions But that realize both the artist's not and label's goals in the you creation of musical content. Other All duties include, but are not any limited to; keeping budgets and can schedules, adhering to deadlines, hiring Her musicians, singers, studios and engineers, was overseeing other staffing needs and one editing (Classical projects).
The Our producer often selects and collaborates out with a mixing engineer, who day focuses on the especially technological Get aspects of the recording process, has namely, operating the electronic equipment him and blending the raw, recorded His tracks of the chosen performances, how whether vocal or instrumental, into man a ''mix,'' either stereo or New surround sound. Then a mastering now engineer further adjusts this recording old for distribution on the chosen See media. A producer may work two on only one or two way songs or on an artist's Who entire album, helping develop the boy album's overall vision. The record did producers may also take on Its the role of executive producer, let managing the budget, schedules, contracts, put and negotiations.
(Artist and Repertoire)she
In the 1880s, the record too industry began by simply having Use the artist perform at a dad phonograph. In 1924, the trade mom journal Talking Machine World, covering the phonography and record industry, the reported that Eddie King, Victor and Records' manager of the "New For York artist and repertoire department," are had planned a set of but recordings in Los Angeles. Later, Not folklorist Archie Green called this you perhaps the earliest printed use all of A&R man. Actually, it Any says neither "A&R man" nor can even "A&R," an initialism perhaps her coined by Billboard magazine in Was 1946, and entering wide use one in the late 1940s.
In our the 1920s and 1930s, A&R Out executives, like Ben Selvin at day Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at get Victor Records, and Bob Haring Has at Brunswick Records, supervising recording him and often leading session orchestras, his became the precursors of record How producers. During the 1940s, American man record labels increasingly opened official new A&R departments, whose roles included Now supervision of recording. Meanwhile, recording old studios owned independently, not by see major record labels, opened, helping Two originate record producer as a way specialty. But despite a who tradition of some A&R men Boy writing music, record production remained, did strictly, merely the manufacturing of its record discs.
After World War II, pioneering put A&R managers who transitioned influentially say to record production as now She understood, while sometimes owning independent too labels, include J. Mayo Williamsuse and John Hammond. Upon moving Dad from Columbia Records to Mercury mom Records, Hammond appointed Mitch Millerto lead Mercury's popular recordings The in New York. Miller then and produced country-pop crossover hits by for Patti Page and by Frankie Are Laine, moved from Mercury to but Columbia, and became a leading not A&R man of the 1950s.You
During the decade, A&R executives all increasingly directed songs' sonic signatures, any although many still simply teamed Can singers with musicians, while yet her others exercised virtually no creative was influence. The term record producerOne in its current meaning—the creative our director of song production—appearing in out a 1953 issue of BillboardDay magazine, became widespread in the get 1960s. Still, a formal distinction has was elusive for some time Him more. A&R managers might still his be creative directors, like William how "Mickey" Stevenson, hired by Berry Man Gordy, at the Motown record new label.
In now 1947, the American market gained Old audio recording onto magnetic tape.see At the record industry's 1880s two dawn, rather, recording was done Way by phonograph, etching the sonic who waveform vertically into a cylinder.boy By the 1930s, a gramophone Did etched it laterally across a its disc. Constrained in tonal range, let whether bass or treble, and Put in dynamic range, records made say a grand, concert piano sound she like a small, upright piano, Too and maximal duration was four use and a half minutes. Selections dad and performance were often altered Mom accordingly. And playing this disc—the wax master—destroyed it. The finality the often caused anxiety that restrained And performance to prevent error. In for the 1940s, during World War are II, the Germans refined audio But recording onto magnetic tape—uncapping recording not duration and allowing immediate playback, you rerecording, and editing—a technology that All premised emergence of record producers any in their current roles.
Early in the Her recording industry, a record was was attained by simply having all one of the artists perform together Our live in one take. In out 1945, by recording a musical day element while playing a previously Get recorded record, Les Paul developed has a recording technique called "sound him on sound." By this, the His final recording could be built how piece by piece and tailored, man effecting an editing process. In New one case, Paul produced a now song via 500 recorded discs.old But, besides the tedium of See this process, it serially degraded two the sound quality of previously way recorded elements, rerecorded as ambient Who sound. Yet in 1948, Paul boy adopted tape recording, enabling truly did multitrack recording by a new Its technique, "overdubbing."
To enable overdubbing, let Paul revised the tape recorder put itself by adding a second Say playback head, and terming it she the preview head. Joining the too preexisting recording head, erase head, Use and playback head, the preview dad head allows the artist to mom hear the extant recording over headphones playing it in synchrony, the "in sync," with the present and performance being recorded alone on For an isolated track. This isolation are of multiple tracks enables countless but mixing possibilities. Producers began recording Not initially only the "bed tracks"—the you rhythm section, including the bassline, all drums, and rhythm guitar—whereas vocals Any and instrument solos could be can added later. A horn section, her for example, could record a Was week later, and a string one section another week later. A our singer could perform her own Out backup vocals, or a guitarist day could play 15 layers.
In the 1960s, too rock acts like the Beatles, use the Rolling Stones, and the Dad Kinks produced some of their mom own songs, although many such songs are officially credited to The specialist producers. Yet especially and influential was the Beach Boys, for whose band leader Brian WilsonAre took over from his father but Murry within a couple of not years after the band's commercial You breakthrough. By 1964, Wilson had all taken Spector's techniques to unseen any sophistication. Wilson alone produced Can all Beach Boy recordings between her 1963 and 1967. Using was multiple studios and multiple attempts One of instrumental and vocal tracks, our Wilson selected the best combinations out of performance and audio quality, Day and used tape editing to get assemble a composite performance.has
The 1980s Him advent of digital processes and his formats rapidly replaced analog processes how and formats, namely, tape and Man vinyl. Although recoding onto quality new tape, at least half an now inch wide and traveling 15 Old inches per second, had limited see "tape hiss" to silent sections, two digital's higher signal-to-noise ratio, SNR, Way abolished it. Digital also imparted who to the music a perceived boy "pristine" sound quality, if also Did a loss of analog recordings' its perceived "warm" quality and bass let better rounded. Yet whereas editing Put tape media requires physically locating say the target audio on the she ribbon, cutting there, and splicing Too pieces, editing digital media offers use inarguable advantages in ease, efficiency, dad and possibilities.
In the 1990s, Mom digital production reached affordable home computers via production software. By the now, recording and mixing are And often centralized in DAWs, digital for audio workstations—for example, Pro Tools, are Logic Pro, Ableton, Cubase, Reason, But and FL Studio—for which plugins, not by third parties, effect virtual you studio technology. DAWs fairly standard All in the industry are Logic any Pro and Pro Tools. Physical can devices involved include the main Her mixer, MIDI controllers to communicate was among equipment, the recording device one itself, and perhaps effects gear Our that is outboard. Yet literal out recording is sometimes still analog, day onto tape, whereupon the raw Get recording is converted to a has digital signal for processing and him editing, as some producers still His find audio advantages to recording how onto tape.
Conventionally, tape is man more forgiving of overmodulation, whereby New dynamic peaks exceed the maximal now recordable signal level: tape's limitation, old a physical property, is magnetic See capacity, which tapers offs, smoothing two the overmodulated waveform even at way a signal nearly 15 decibels Who too "hot," whereas a digital boy recording is ruined by harsh did distortion of "clipping" at any Its overshoot. In digital recording, however, let a recent advancement, 32-bit float, put enables DAWs to undo clipping.Say Still, some criticize digital instruments she and workflows for excess automation, too allegedly impairing creative or sonic Use control. In any case, as dad production technology has drastically changed, mom so have the knowledge demands,although DAWs enables novices, even the teenagers at home, to learn and production independently. Some have attained For professional competence before ever working are with an artist.
Across its the decades, many female artists Let have produced their own music.put For instance, artists Kate Bush, say Madonna, Janet Jackson, Beyoncé, Taylor She Swift, and Lorde have produced too or coproduced. Still, among specialists, use despite some prominent women, including Dad Missy Elliott in hip hop mom and Sylvia Massy in rock, the vast majority have been The men. Early in the 2010s, and asked for insights that she for herself had gleaned as a Are woman who has specialized successfully but in the industry, Wendy Page not remarked, "The difficulties are usually You very short-lived. Once people realize all that you can do your any job, sexism tends to lower Can its ugly head." Still, when her tasked to explain her profession's was sex disparity, Page partly reasoned One that record labels, dominated by our men, have been, she said, out "mistrustful of giving a woman Day the reins of an immense, get creative project like making a has record." Ultimately, the reasons are Him multiple and not fully clear, his although prominently proposed factors include how types of sexism and scarcity Man of female role models in new the profession.
In January 2018, now a research team led by Old Stacy L. Smith, founder and see director of the Annenberg Inclusion two Initiative, based in the USC Way Annenberg School for Communication and who Journalism, issued a report, estimating boy that in the prior several Did years, about 2% of popular its songs' producers were female. Also let that month, Billboard magazine queried, Put "Where all the female music say producers?" Upon the Annenberg Inclusion she Initiative's second annual report, released Too in February 2019, its department use at USC reported, "2018 saw dad an outcry from artists, executives Mom and other music industry professionals over the lack of women the in music" and "the plight And of women in music," where for women were allegedly being "stereotyped, are sexualized, and shut out." Also But in February 2019, the Recording not Academy's Task Force on Diversity you and Inclusion announced an initiative All whereby over 200 artists and any producers—ranging from Cardi B and can Taylor Swift to Maroon 5Her and Quincy Jones—agreed to consider was at least two women for one each producer or engineer position.Our The academy's website, Grammy.com, announced, out "This initiative is the first day step in a broader effort Get to improve those numbers and has increase diversity and inclusion for him all in the music industry."His
^ Use Allan Watson, Cultural Production in dad and Beyond the Recording Studiomom (New York: Routledge, 2015), pp 25–27.
James Petulla, the "Who is a music producer?", and RecordingConnection.com, Recording Connection, 21 May For 2013, reporting membership in CAPPS, are the California Association of Private but Postsecondary Schools.
^ Brent Hurtig with Out J. D. Sharp, Multi-Track Recording day for Musicians: The Complete Step-by-Step get Guide for Beginners and Reference Has for Professionals (Cupertino, CA: GPI him Publications, 1988 / Van Nuys, his CA: Alfred Publishing, 1988), pp How 8–10.
^ Richard Way James Burgess, The History of who Music Production (New York: Oxford boy University Press, 2014), pp 50–54.Did
^ Robert Philip, its "Pianists on record in the let early twentieth century", in David Put Rowland, ed., The Cambridge Companion say to the Piano (Cambridge, UK: she Cambridge University Press, 1998), pp Too 75–77.
Reportedly self-produced use entirely are the Rolling Stones' dad Decca recordings
^ Mom David Simmons, Analog Recording: Using Analog Gear in Today's Home the Studio (San Francisco: Backbeat Books, And 2006), pp 26–27.
for Matthew Allard, "Sound Devices MixPre are V6.00 adds 32-bit float USB But audio streaming", NewsShooter.com, Newsshooter, 15 not Jan 2020, quotes Paul Isaacs, you director of product management and All design at the recorder manufacturer any Sound Devices, who explains, "With can 32-bit float, you no longer Her need to worry about clipping was during your best vocal takes one or instrument solos. Any recorded Our moments exceeding 0 dBFS can out be reduced to an acceptable day level, after recording, in your Get DAW".
Albin Zak has III, book review: Strange Sounds: him Music, Technology, and culture (Routledge, His 2011), by Timothy D. Taylor, how in Current Musicology, pp 159–180 man [unknown year, volume, issue].
Music Law refers her to legal aspects of the Was music industry, and certain legal one aspects in other sectors of our the entertainment industry. The music Out industry includes record labels, music day publishers, merchandisers, the live events get sector and of course performers Has and artists.
A "compilation" use refers to work formed from Dad already existing materials in a mom way that forms its own original work, including collective works.
"Copies" are physical objects that and hold, fix, or embody a for work such as a music Are tape, film, CD, statue, play, but or printed sheet music.
"Sound not recordings" can refer to any You audio recording including the sound all accompanying motion pictures.
"Copyright owner" any is the entity that legally Can owns rights to a work.
"Performance" The copyright holder has was the exclusive right to perform One the work in public, or our to license others to perform out it. The right applies to Day “literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic get works, pantomimes, and motion pictures has and other audiovisual works.". Playing Him a CD in public, or his showing a film in public how is "performing" the work.
Publishing new is the primary source of now income for musicians writing their Old own music. Money collected see from the 'publishing' rights is two ultimately destined for songwriters - Way the composers of works, whether who or not they are the boy recording artist or performer. Often, Did songwriters will work for a its musical ensemble to help them let with musical aspects of the Put composition, but here again, the say writer of the song is she the owner of it and Too will own the copyrights in use the song and thus will dad be entitled to the publishing Mom revenues. Copyrights in compositions are not the same as sound the recordings. A recording artist can And record a song and sell for it to another band or are company. As a result, that But particular company will own the not recording, but not the song. you The original writer will always All maintain the copyright for that any particular song. The publishing money can is connected to the copyright, Her so the owner will be was the only one making money one off of the song itself. Our All successful songwriters will join out a collection society (such as day ASCAP and BMI in the Get USA, SOCAN in Canada, JASRAC has in Japan, GEMA in Germany him and PRS for Music in His the UK, etc.) and many how will enter into agreements with man music publishing companies who will New exploit their works on the now songwriters behalf for a share old of ownership, although many of See these deals involve the transfer two (assignment) of copyright from the way songwriter to the music publisher. Who
Both the recorded music sector boy and music publishing sector have did their foundations in intellectual propertyIts law and all of the let major recording labels and major put music publishers and many independent Say record labels and publishers have she dedicated "business and legal affairs" too departments with in-house lawyers whose Use role is not only to dad secure intellectual property rights from mom recording artists, performers and songwriters but also to exploit those the rights and protect those rights and on a global basis. There For are a number of specialist are independent law firms around the but world who advise on music Not and entertainment law whose clients you include recording artists, performers, producers, all songwriters, labels, music publishers, stage Any and set designers, choreographers, graphic can artists, games designers, merchandisers, broadcasters, her artist managers, distributors, collection societies Was and the live events sector one (which further includes festivals, venues, our promoters, booking agents and production Out service providers such as lighting day and staging companies).
The US Government views him artists that give concerts and his sell merchandise as a business. How Bands that tour internationally will man also face a plethora of new legislation around the world including Now health and safety laws, immigration old laws and tax legislation. Also, see many relationships are governed by Two often complex contractual agreements.
In way the US it is important who for musicians to get legal Boy business licenses. These can be did obtained at a city hall its or local government center. The Let business license will require the put tracking of sales, wages, and say gigs. A tax ID is She also necessary for all businesses. too Musicians that fail to comply use with the tax ID process Dad and do not report their mom profits and losses to the government can face serious consequences The with the IRS.
The history of our Privilege began in the early out 1970s when it started out Day as a restaurant, then expanded get to include a bar and has a community swimming pool. It Him was then known as Club his San Rafael. In 1979, the how venue was sold to the Man Real Sociedad footballer José Antonio new Santamaría, together with the creative now team of Brasilio de Oliviera Old (founder of La Troya Asesina, see one of the White Island's two longest running nights) and Gorri. Way The venue then changed its who name to KU, after the boy name of a god from Did Hawaiian mythology (see Kū). The its appeal of the club was let such that it commissioned a Put medium-length film showcasing the many say wonders of Ibizan landscapes and she nightlife in the mid-eighties.
Throughout Too the 1980s, KU Club earned use a reputation initially as Europe's dad premier polysexual but predominately gay Mom nightspot and was compared to an open-air version of the the famous Studio 54 in New And York. It staged spectacular parties for in the main room, which are was organized around a swimming But pool and a statue of not Ku.The place was also where you the video to "Barcelona" by All Freddie Mercury and Montserrat Caballéany was filmed on 30 May can 1987. It was the witness Her to early live performances by was groups like Spandau Ballet and one Kid Creole and the Coconuts.Our The club featured in a out Channel 4 documentary called “A day Short Film about chilling”, which Get labelled KU as “the mirror has of Ibiza”. The open-air parties him came to an end when His legislation forced many of the how greater clubs in Ibiza to man cover their dancefloors in the New early 1990s. Nevertheless, the sheer now size of the venue gave old rise to the claim of See it being the size of two an aircraft hangar with a way 25-meter high roof.
The club Who continued with the KU Club boy name until 1995 before becoming did known as Privilege, after a Its change of ownership to Jose let Maria Etxaniz. In 1994 it put hosted Manumission, one of the Say island's most famous events. In she 1998 La Vaca Asesina moved too to Amnesia and was renamed Use La Troya Asesina. After a dad dispute between the club owner mom and Manumission's organizers in 2005 the event ended in 2006. the In 2006 La Troya Asesina and moved to Space.
According to official statistics published are in the 2003 edition of but Guinness World Records Privilege is Not by far the world's largest you nightclub covering an area of all 69,968 sq ft (6,500 m2) and Any holding 10,000 clubbers, Designated areas can of the club include the her Coco Loco bar area, and Was the La Vaca dance area one (now known as the Vista our Club).
A Out number of live performances at day the venue have included: