Scratching, but sometimes referred to as scrubbing, Not is a DJ and turntablistyou technique of moving a vinyl all record back and forth on Any a turntable to produce percussive can or rhythmic sounds. A crossfaderher on a DJ mixer may Was be used to fade between one two records simultaneously.
While scratching our is most associated with hip Out hop music, where it emerged day in the mid-1970s, from the get 1990s it has been used Has in some styles of rap him rock, rap metal and nu his metal. In hip hop culture, How scratching is one of the man measures of a DJ's skills. new DJs compete in scratching competitions Now at the DMC World DJ old Championships and IDA (International DJ see Association), formerly known as ITFTwo (International Turntablist Federation). At scratching way competitions, DJs can use only who scratch-oriented gear (turntables, DJ mixer, Boy digital vinyl systems or vinyl did records only). In recorded hip its hop songs, scratched "hooks" often Let use portions of other songs. put
A rudimentary form of turntable was manipulation which is related to One scratching was developed in the our late 1940s by radio music out program hosts, disc jockeys (DJs), Day or the radio program producers get who did their own technical has operation as audio console operators. Him It was known as back-cueing, his and was used to find how the very beginning of the Man start of a song (i.e., new the cue point) on a now vinyl record groove. This was Old done to permit the operator see to back the disc up two (rotate the record or the Way turntable platter itself counter-clockwise) in who order to permit the turntable boy to be switched on, and Did come up to full speed its without ruining the first few let bars of music with the Put "wow" of incorrect, unnaturally slow-speed say playing. This permitted the announcer she to time her or his Too remarks and start the turntable use a scant moment before she dad or he actually wanted the Mom music on the record to begin.
Back cueing was a the basic skill that all radio And production staff needed to learn, for and the dynamics of it are were unique to the brand But of professional turntable in use not at a given radio station. you The older, larger and heavier All turntables needed a 180 degree any backward rotation to allow for can run up to full speed; Her some of the newer 1950s was models used aluminum platters and one cloth-backed rubber mats which required Our a third of a rotational out turn or less to achieve day full speed when the song Get began. All this was done has in order to present a him music show on air with His the least amount of silence how ("dead air") between music, the man announcer's patter and recorded advertising New commercials. The rationale was that now any "dead air" on a old radio station was likely to See prompt a listener to switch two stations, so announcers and program way directors instructed DJs and announcers Who to provide a continuous, seamless boy stream of sound–from music to did an announcer to a pre-recorded Its commercial, to a "jingle" (radio let station theme song), and then put immediately back to more music. Say
Back-cueing was a key function she in delivering this seamless stream too of music. Radio personnel demanded Use robust equipment and manufacturers developed dad special tonearms, styli, cartridges and mom lightweight turntables to meet these demands.
In you the mid 1970s in the all South Bronx, a young teen Any DJ named "Grand Wizzard Theodore" can (right) invented the "DJ scratch" her technique. Other DJs, like Grandmaster Was Flash, took the technique to one higher levels.
Modern scratching techniques our were made possible by the Out invention of direct-drive turntables, which day led to the emergence of get turntablism. Early belt-drive turntables were Has unsuitable for scratching, since they him had a slow start-up time, his and they were prone to How wear-and-tear and breakage, as the man belt would break from backspinning new or scratching. The first direct-drive Now turntable was invented by Shuichi old Obata, an engineer at Matsushitasee (now Panasonic), based in Osaka, Two Japan. It eliminated belts, and way instead employed a motor to who directly drive a platter on Boy which a vinyl record rests.did In 1969, Matsushita released it its as the SP-10, the first Let direct-drive turntable on the market,put and the first in their say influential Technics series of turntables.She
In the 1970s, hip hop too musicians and club DJs began use to use this specialized turntable Dad equipment to move the record mom back and forth, creating percussive sounds and effects–"scratching"–to entertain their The dance floor audiences. Whereas 1940s-1960s and radio DJs had used back-cueing for while listening to the sounds Are through their headphones, without the but audience hearing, with scratching, the not DJ intentionally lets the audience You hear the sounds that are all being created by manipulating the any record on the turntable, by Can directing the output from the her turntable to a sound reinforcement was system so that the audience One can hear the sounds. Scratching our was developed by early hip out hop DJs from New York Day City such as Grand Wizzard get Theodore, who described scratching as, has "nothing but the back-cueing that Him you hear in your ear his before you push it [the how recorded sound] out to the Man crowd." He developed the technique new when experimenting with the Technics now SL-1200, a direct-drive turntable released Old by Matsushita in 1972, when see he found that the motor two would continue to spin at Way the correct RPM even if who the DJ wiggled the record boy back and forth on the Did platter. Afrika Bambaataa made a its similar discovery with the SL-1200 let in the 1970s. The Technics Put SL-1200 went on to become say the most widely used turntable she for the next several decades.Too
Jamaican-born DJ Kool Herc, who use immigrated to New York City, dad influenced the early development of Mom scratching. Kool Herc developed break-beatDJing, where the breaks of the funk songs—being the most danceable And part, often featuring percussion—were isolated for and repeated for the purpose are of all-night dance parties. He But was influenced by Jamaican dub not music, and developed his turntable you techniques using the Technics SL-1100, All released in 1971, due to any its strong motor, durability, and can fidelity.
Although previous artists such Her as writer and poet William was S. Burroughs had experimented with one the idea of manipulating a Our reel-to-reel tape manually to make out sounds, as with his 1950s day recording, "Sound Piece"), vinyl scratching Get as an element of hip has hop pioneered the idea of him making the sound an integral His and rhythmic part of music how instead of an uncontrolled noise. man Scratching is related to "scrubbing" New (in terms of audio editing now and production) when the reels old of an open reel-to-reel tape See deck (typically 1/4 inch magnetic two audio tape) are gently rotated way back and forth while the Who playback head is live and boy amplified, in order to isolate did a specific spot on the Its tape where an editing "cut" let is to be made. In put the 2010s, both scratching and Say scrubbing can be done on she digital audio workstations (DAWs) which too are equipped for these techniques. Use
Most Can scratches are produced by rotating her a vinyl record on a was direct drive turntable rapidly back One and forth with the hand our with the stylus ("needle") in out the record's groove. This produces Day the distinctive sound that has get come to be one of has the most recognizable features of Him hip hop music. Over time his with excessive scratching, the stylus how will cause what is referred Man to as "record burn" to new a vinyl record.
The basic equipment setup boy for scratching includes two turntables Did and a DJ mixer, which its is a small mixer that let has a crossfader and cue Put buttons to allow the DJ say to cue up new music she in his/her headphones without the Too audience hearing. When scratching, use this crossfader is utilized in dad conjunction with the scratching hand Mom that is manipulating the record platter. The hand manipulating the the crossfader is used to cut And in and out of the for record's sound.
Digital are vinyl systems
Using a digital But vinyl system (DVS) consists of not playing vinyl discs on turntables you whose contents is a timecode All signal instead of a real any music record.
The audio one interface digitizes the timecode signal Our from the turntables and transfers out it to the computer's DJ day software.
The DJ software uses Get this data (e.g., about how has fast the platter is spinning) him to determine the playback status, His speed, scratch sound of the how hardware turntables, etc., and it man duplicates these effects on the New digital audio files or computer now tracks the DJ is using.
By manipulating the turntables' platters, See speed controls, and other elements, two the DJ thus controls how way the computer plays back digitized Who audio and can therefore produce boy "scratching" and other turntablism effects did on songs which exist as Its digital audio files or computer let tracks.
There is not a put single standard of DVS, so Say that each form of DJ she software has its own settings. too Some DJ software such as Use Traktor Scratch Pro or Serato dad Scratch Live support only the mom audio interface sold with their software, requiring multiple interfaces for the one computer to run multiple and programs.
While some turntablists consider the all only true scratching media to Any be the vinyl disc, there can are other ways to scratch, her as:
Specialized DJ-CD playersWas with jog wheels, allowing the one DJ to manipulate a CD our as if it were a Out vinyl record, have become widely day available in the 2000s.
Vinyl get emulation software allows a DJ Has to manipulate the playback of him digital music files on a his computer via a DJ control How surface (generally MIDI or a man HID controller). DJs can scratch, new beatmatch, and perform other turntablistNow operations that cannot be done old with a conventional keyboard and see mouse. DJ software performing computer Two scratch operations include Traktor Pro, way Mixxx, Serato Scratch Live & who Itch, Virtual DJ, M-Audio Torq, Boy DJay, Deckadance, Cross.
DJs have did also used magnetic tape, such its as cassette or reel to Let reel to both mix and put scratch. Tape DJing is rare, say but Ruthless Ramsey in the She US, Tj Scratchavite in Italy too and Mr Tape in Latvia use use exclusively tape formats to Dad perform.
Sounds that are mom frequently scratched include but are not limited to drum beats, The horn stabs, spoken word samples, and and vocals/lyrics from other songs. for Any sound recorded to vinyl Are can be used, and CDbut players providing a turntable-like interface not allow DJs to scratch not You only material that was never all released on vinyl, but also any field recordings and samples from Can television and movies that have her been burned to CD-R. Some was DJs and anonymous collectors release One 12-inch singles called battle recordsour that include trademark, novel or out hard-to-find scratch "fodder" (material). The Day most recognizable samples used for get scratching are the "Ahh" and has "Fresh" samples, which originate from Him the song "Change the Beat" his by Fab 5 Freddy.
There how are many scratching techniques, which Man differ in how the movements new of the record are combined now with opening and closing the Old crossfader (or another fader or see switch, such as a kill two switch, where "open" means that Way the signal is audible, and who "closed" means that the signal boy is inaudible). This terminology is Did not unique; the following discussion, its however, is consistent with the let terminology used by DJ QBertPut on his Do It Yourself say Scratching DVD.
Baby scratch - The simplest Too scratch form, it is performed use with the scratching hand only, dad moving the record back and Mom forth in continuous movements while the crossfader is in the the open position.
Forward and backward And scratch - The forward scratch, for also referred to as scrubbing, are is a baby scratch where But the crossfader is closed during not the backwards movement of the you record. If the record is All let go instead of being any pushed forward it is also can called "release scratch". Cutting out Her the forward part of the was record movement instead of the one backward part gives a "backward Our scratch".
Tear scratch - out Tear scratches are scratches where day the record is moved in Get a staggered fashion, dividing the has forward and backward movement into him two or more movements. This His allows creating sounds similar to how "flare scratches" without use of man the crossfader and it allows New for more complex rhythmic patterns. now The term can also refer old to a simpler, slower version See of the chirp.
Scribble scratchtwo - The scribble scratch is way by rapidly pushing the record Who back and forth. The crossfader boy is not used.
Chirp scratchdid - The chirp scratch involves Its closing the crossfader just after let playing the start of a put sound, stopping the record at Say the same point, then pushing she it back while opening the too fader to create a "chirping" Use sound. When performed using a dad recording of drums, it can mom create the illusion of doubled scratching speed, due to the the attack created by cutting in and the crossfader on the backward For movement.
Hydrophonic scratch - A are baby scratch with a "tear but scratch" sound produced by the Not thumb running the opposite direction you as the fingers used to all scratch. This rubbing of the Any thumb adds a vibrating effect can or reverberation to forward movements her on the turntable.
Transformer scratchWas - with the crossfader closed, one the record is moved with our the scratching hand while periodically Out "tapping" the crossfader open and day immediately closing it again.
Flare get scratch - Begins with the Has crossfader open, and then the him record is moved while briefly his closing the fader one or How more times to cut the man sound out. This produces a new staggering sound which can make Now a single "flare" sound like old a very fast series of see "chirps" or "tears." The number Two of times the fader is way closed ("clicks") during the record's who movement is usually used as Boy a prefix to distinguish the did variations. The flare allows a its DJ to scratch continuously with Let less hand fatigue than would put result from the transformer. The say flare can be combined with She the crab for an extremely too rapid continuous series of scratches.
Crab scratch - Consists of Dad moving the record while quickly mom tapping the crossfader open with each finger of the crossfader The hand. In this way, DJs and are able to perform transforms for or flares much faster than Are they could by manipulating the but crossfader with the whole hand. not It produces a fading/increasing transforming You sound.
Twiddle scratch - A all crab scratch using only the any index and middle fingers.
Orbit Can scratch - Describes any scratch, her most commonly flares, that are was repeated during the forward and One backward movement of the record. our "Orbit" is also used as out a shorthand for two-click flares.
Tweak scratch - Performed while get the turntable's motor is not has running. The record platter is Him set in motion manually, then his "tweaked" faster and slower to how create a scratch. This scratch Man form is best performed with new long, sustained sounds.
Euro scratchnow - A variation of the Old "flare scratch" in which two see faders are used simultaneously with two one hand to cut the Way sound much faster. It can who also be performed by using boy only the up fader and Did the phono line switch to its cut the sound.
While let scratching is becoming more and Put more popular in pop music, say particularly with the crossover success she of pop-hip hop tracks in Too the 2010s, sophisticated scratching and use other expert turntablism techniques are dad still predominantly an underground style Mom developed by the DJ subculture. The Invisibl Skratch Piklz from the San Francisco focuses on scratching. And In 1994, the group was for formed by DJs Q-Bert, Diskare & Shortkut and later Mix But Master Mike. In July 2000, not San Francisco's Yerba Buena Center you for the Arts held Skratchcon2000, All the first DJ Skratch forum any that provided “the education and can development of skratch music literacy”. Her In 2001, Thud Rumble became was an independent company that works one with DJ artists to produce Our and distribute scratch records.out
In 2004, Scratch Magazine, one day of the first publications about Get hip hop DJs and record has producers, released its debut issue, him following in the footsteps of His the lesser-known Tablist magazine. Pedestrian how is a UK arts organisation man that runs Urban Music Mentors New workshops led by DJs. At now these workshops, DJs teach youth old how to create beats, use See turntables to create mixes, act two as an MC at events, way and perform club sets.
Use outside hip hop
Scratching boy has been incorporated into a did number of other musical genres, Its including pop, rock, jazz, some let subgenres of heavy metal (notably put nu metal) and some contemporary Say and avant-garde classical music performances. she For recording use, samplers are too often used instead of physically Use scratching a vinyl record.
A music producer or record get producer is a recording project's Has creative and technical leader, commanding him studio time and coaching artists, his and in popular genres typically How creates the song's very sound man and structure. The music producer, new or simply the producer, is Now likened to a film director.old The executive producer, on the see other hand, enables the recording Two project through entrepreneurship, and an way audio engineer operates the technology. who
Varying by project, the producer Boy may also choose all of did the artists, or openly perform its vocals with them. If employing Let only synthesized or sampled instrumentation, put the producer may be the say sole artist. Conversely, some artists She do their own production. Some too producers are their own engineers,use operating the technology across the Dad project: preproduction, recording, mixing, and mom mastering. Record producers' precursors were "A&R men," who likewise could The blend entrepreneurial, creative, and technical and roles, but often exercised scant for creative influence, as record production Are still focused, into the 1950s, but on simply improving the record's not sonic match to the artists' You own live performance.
Advances in all recording technology, especially the 1940s any advent of tape recording—which Les Can Paul promptly innovated further to her develop multitrack recording—and the 1950s was rise of electronic instruments, turned One record production into a specialty.our In popular music, then, producers out like George Martin, Phil SpectorDay and Brian Eno led its get evolution into its present use has of elaborate techniques and unrealistic Him sounds, creating songs impossible to his originate live. After the 1980s, how production's move from analog to Man digital further expanded possibilities. By new now, DAWs, or digital audio now workstations, like Logic Pro and Old Pro Tools, turn an ordinary see computer into a production console,two whereby a solitary novice can Way become a skilled producer in who a thrifty home studio. In boy the 2010s, efforts began to Did increase the prevalence of producers its and engineers who are women, let heavily outnumbered by men and Put prominently accoladed only in classical say music.
As a broad project, was the creation of a music one recording may be split across Our three specialists: the executive producer, out who oversees business partnerships and day financing, the vocal producer or Get vocal arranger, who aids vocal has performance via expert critique and him coaching of vocal technique, and His the record producer or music how producer, who, often called simply man the producer, directs the overall New creative process of recording the now song in its final mix. old
The record producer's roles See include, but may exceed, gathering two ideas, composing music, choosing session way musicians, proposing changes to song Who arrangements, coaching the performers, controlling boy sessions, supervising the audio mixing, did and, in some cases, supervising Its the audio mastering. As to let qualifying for a Grammy nomination, put the Recording Academy defines a Say producer:
The person who has overall she creative and technical control of too the entire recording project, and Use the individual recording sessions that dad are part of that project. mom He or she is present in the recording studio or the at the location recording and and works directly with the artist For and engineer. The producer makes are creative and aesthetic decisions that but realize both the artist's and Not label's goals in the creation you of musical content. Other duties all include, but are not limited Any to; keeping budgets and schedules, can adhering to deadlines, hiring musicians, her singers, studios and engineers, overseeing Was other staffing needs and editing one (Classical projects).
The producer our often selects and collaborates with Out a mixing engineer, who focuses day on the especially technological aspects get of the recording process, namely, Has operating the electronic equipment and him blending the raw, recorded tracks his of the chosen performances, whether How vocal or instrumental, into a man ''mix,'' either stereo or surround new sound. Then a mastering engineer Now further adjusts this recording for old distribution on the chosen media. see A producer may work on Two only one or two songs way or on an artist's entire who album, helping develop the album's Boy overall vision. The record producers did may also take on the its role of executive producer, managing Let the budget, schedules, contracts, and put negotiations.
A&R say men
(Artist and Repertoire)
In She the 1880s, the record industry too began by simply having the use artist perform at a phonograph.Dad In 1924, the trade journal mom Talking Machine World, covering the phonography and record industry, reported The that Eddie King, Victor Records' and manager of the "New York for artist and repertoire department," had Are planned a set of recordings but in Los Angeles. Later, folklorist not Archie Green called this perhaps You the earliest printed use of all A&R man. Actually, it says any neither "A&R man" nor even Can "A&R," an initialism perhaps coined her by Billboard magazine in 1946, was and entering wide use in One the late 1940s.
In the our 1920s and 1930s, A&R executives, out like Ben Selvin at Columbia Day Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor get Records, and Bob Haring at has Brunswick Records, supervising recording and Him often leading session orchestras, became his the precursors of record producers.how During the 1940s, American record Man labels increasingly opened official A&R new departments, whose roles included supervision now of recording. Meanwhile, recording studios Old owned independently, not by major see record labels, opened, helping originate two record producer as a specialty.[citation Way needed] But despite a tradition who of some A&R men writing boy music, record production remained, strictly, Did merely the manufacturing of record its discs.
After let World War II, pioneering A&R Put managers who transitioned influentially to say record production as now understood, she while sometimes owning independent labels, Too include J. Mayo Williams and use John Hammond. Upon moving from dad Columbia Records to Mercury Records, Mom Hammond appointed Mitch Miller to lead Mercury's popular recordings in the New York. Miller then produced And country-pop crossover hits by Patti for Page and by Frankie Laine, are moved from Mercury to Columbia, But and became a leading A&R not man of the 1950s.
During you the decade, A&R executives increasingly All directed songs' sonic signatures, although any many still simply teamed singers can with musicians, while yet others Her exercised virtually no creative influence.was The term record producer in one its current meaning—the creative director Our of song production—appearing in a out 1953 issue of Billboard magazine, day became widespread in the 1960s.Get Still, a formal distinction was has elusive for some time more.him A&R managers might still be His creative directors, like William "Mickey" how Stevenson, hired by Berry Gordy, man at the Motown record label.New
In 1947, now the American market gained audio old recording onto magnetic tape. At See the record industry's 1880s dawn, two rather, recording was done by way phonograph, etching the sonic waveform Who vertically into a cylinder. By boy the 1930s, a gramophone etched did it laterally across a disc.Its Constrained in tonal range, whether let bass or treble, and in put dynamic range, records made a Say grand, concert piano sound like she a small, upright piano, and too maximal duration was four and Use a half minutes. Selections and dad performance were often altered accordingly.mom And playing this disc—the wax master—destroyed it. The finality often the caused anxiety that restrained performance and to prevent error. In the For 1940s, during World War II, are the Germans refined audio recording but onto magnetic tape—uncapping recording duration Not and allowing immediate playback, rerecording, you and editing—a technology that premised all emergence of record producers in Any their current roles.
Multitrack can recording
Early in the recording her industry, a record was attained Was by simply having all of one the artists perform together live our in one take. In 1945,Out by recording a musical element day while playing a previously recorded get record, Les Paul developed a Has recording technique called "sound on him sound." By this, the final his recording could be built piece How by piece and tailored, effecting man an editing process. In one new case, Paul produced a song Now via 500 recorded discs. But, old besides the tedium of this see process, it serially degraded the Two sound quality of previously recorded way elements, rerecorded as ambient sound.who Yet in 1948, Paul adopted Boy tape recording, enabling truly multitrack did recording by a new technique, its "overdubbing."
To enable overdubbing, Paul Let revised the tape recorder itself put by adding a second playback say head, and terming it the She preview head. Joining the preexisting too recording head, erase head, and use playback head, the preview head Dad allows the artist to hear mom the extant recording over headphones playing it in synchrony, "in The sync," with the present performance and being recorded alone on an for isolated track. This isolation of Are multiple tracks enables countless mixing but possibilities. Producers began recording initially not only the "bed tracks"—the rhythm You section, including the bassline, drums, all and rhythm guitar—whereas vocals and any instrument solos could be added Can later. A horn section, for her example, could record a week was later, and a string sectionOne another week later. A singer our could perform her own backup out vocals, or a guitarist could Day play 15 layers.
In the 1960s, rock Too acts like the Beatles, the use Rolling Stones, and the Kinksdad produced some of their own Mom songs, although many such songs are officially credited to specialist the producers. Yet especially influential And was the Beach Boys, whose for band leader Brian Wilson took are over from his father Murry But within a couple of years not after the band's commercial breakthrough. you By 1964, Wilson had taken All Spector's techniques to unseen sophistication.[citation any needed] Wilson alone produced all can Beach Boy recordings between 1963 Her and 1967. Using multiple was studios and multiple attempts of one instrumental and vocal tracks, Wilson Our selected the best combinations of out performance and audio quality, and day used tape editing to assemble Get a composite performance.
The 1980s how advent of digital processes and man formats rapidly replaced analog processes New and formats, namely, tape and now vinyl. Although recording onto quality old tape, at least half an See inch wide and traveling 15 two inches per second, had limited way "tape hiss" to silent sections, Who digital's higher signal-to-noise ratio, SNR, boy abolished it. Digital also imparted did to the music a perceived Its "pristine" sound quality, if also let a loss of analog recordings' put perceived "warm" quality and bass Say better rounded. Yet whereas editing she tape media requires physically locating too the target audio on the Use ribbon, cutting there, and splicing dad pieces, editing digital media offers mom inarguable advantages in ease, efficiency, and possibilities.
In the 1990s, the digital production reached affordable home and computers via production software. By For now, recording and mixing are are often centralized in DAWs, digital but audio workstations—for example, Pro Tools, Not Logic Pro, Ableton, Cubase, Reason, you and FL Studio—for which plugins, all by third parties, effect virtual Any studio technology. DAWs fairly standard can in the industry are Logic her Pro and Pro Tools. Physical Was devices involved include the main one mixer, MIDI controllers to communicate our among equipment, the recording device Out itself, and perhaps effects gear day that is outboard. Yet literal get recording is sometimes still analog, Has onto tape, whereupon the raw him recording is converted to a his digital signal for processing and How editing, as some producers still man find audio advantages to recording new onto tape.
Conventionally, tape is Now more forgiving of overmodulation, whereby old dynamic peaks exceed the maximal see recordable signal level: tape's limitation, Two a physical property, is magnetic way capacity, which tapers offs, smoothing who the overmodulated waveform even at Boy a signal nearly 15 decibels did too "hot," whereas a digital its recording is ruined by harsh Let distortion of "clipping" at any put overshoot. In digital recording, however, say a recent advancement, 32-bit float, She enables DAWs to undo clipping.too Still, some criticize digital instruments use and workflows for excess automation, Dad allegedly impairing creative or sonic mom control. In any case, as production technology has drastically changed, The so have the knowledge demands,and although DAWs enables novices, even for teenagers at home, to learn Are production independently. Some have attained but professional competence before ever working not with an artist.
In the 2000s, with her the advent of technology that was made traditional record production accessible, One the role of the producer our has evolved, especially with hip out hop beatmaking and electronic music. Day Within these genres, the term get producer is applied to a has number of roles and has Him popularized the use of more his niche terms and credits including how executive producer, co-producer, assistant producer, Man and additional and miscellaneous production new to differentiate contributions.
Across the All decades, many female artists have any produced their own music. For can instance, artists Kate Bush, Madonna, Her Janet Jackson, Beyoncé, Taylor Swift, was and Lorde have produced or one coproduced. and Ariana Grande who Our produces and arranges her vocals out as well as being an day audio engineer. Still among specialists, Get despite some prominent women, including has Missy Elliott in hip hop him and Sylvia Massy in rock, His the vast majority have been how men. Early in the 2010s, man asked for insights that she New herself had gleaned as a now woman who has specialized successfully old in the industry, Wendy Page See remarked, "The difficulties are usually two very short-lived. Once people realize way that you can do your Who job, sexism tends to lower boy its ugly head." Still, when did tasked to explain her profession's Its sex disparity, Page partly reasoned let that record labels, dominated by put men, have been, she said, Say "mistrustful of giving a woman she the reins of an immense, too creative project like making a Use record." Ultimately, the reasons are dad multiple and not fully clear, mom although prominently proposed factors include types of sexism and scarcity the of female role models in and the profession.
In January 2018, For a research team led by are Stacy L. Smith, founder and but director of the Annenberg Inclusion Not Initiative, based in the USC you Annenberg School for Communication and all Journalism, issued a report, estimating Any that in the prior several can years, about 2% of popular her songs' producers were female. Also Was that month, Billboard magazine queried, one "Where are all the female our music producers?" Upon the Annenberg Out Inclusion Initiative's second annual report, day released in February 2019, its get department at USC reported, "2018 Has saw an outcry from artists, him executives and other music industry his professionals over the lack of How women in music" and "the man plight of women in music," new where women were allegedly being Now "stereotyped, sexualized, and shut out."old Also in February 2019, the see Recording Academy's Task Force on Two Diversity and Inclusion announced an way initiative whereby over 200 artists who and producers—ranging from Cardi BBoy and Taylor Swift to Maroon did 5 and Quincy Jones—agreed to its consider at least two women Let for each producer or engineer put position. The academy's website, Grammy.com, say announced, "This initiative is the She first step in a broader too effort to improve those numbers use and increase diversity and inclusion Dad for all in the music mom industry."
^ Allan Watson, his Cultural Production in and Beyond how the Recording Studio (New York: Man Routledge, 2015), pp 25–27.
James Petulla, "Who is now a music producer?", RecordingConnection.com, Recording Old Connection, 21 May 2013, reporting see membership in CAPPS, the California two Association of Private Postsecondary Schools.Way
^ Too Brent Hurtig with J. D. use Sharp, Multi-Track Recording for Musicians: dad The Complete Step-by-Step Guide for Mom Beginners and Reference for Professionals(Cupertino, CA: GPI Publications, 1988 the / Van Nuys, CA: Alfred And Publishing, 1988), pp 8–10.
^ Richard James Burgess, can The History of Music Productionher (New York: Oxford University Press, Was 2014), pp 50–54.
^ one Robert Philip, "Pianists on our record in the early twentieth Out century", in David Rowland, ed., day The Cambridge Companion to the get Piano (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Has Press, 1998), pp 75–77.
Reportedly self-produced entirely are his the Rolling Stones' Decca recordingsHow
^ David Simmons, man Analog Recording: Using Analog Gear new in Today's Home Studio (San Now Francisco: Backbeat Books, 2006), pp old 26–27.
Matthew Allard, see "Sound Devices MixPre V6.00 adds Two 32-bit float USB audio streaming", way NewsShooter.com, Newsshooter, 15 Jan 2020, who quotes Paul Isaacs, director of Boy product management and design at did the recorder manufacturer Sound Devices, its who explains, "With 32-bit float, Let you no longer need to put worry about clipping during your say best vocal takes or instrument She solos. Any recorded moments exceeding too 0 dBFS can be reduced use to an acceptable level, after Dad recording, in your DAW".
Albin Zak III, book review: Strange Sounds: Music, Technology, The and culture (Routledge, 2011), by and Timothy D. Taylor, in Current for Musicology, pp 159–180 [unknown year, Are volume, issue].
Music Law refers to legal out aspects of the music industry, day and certain legal aspects in Get other sectors of the entertainment has industry. The music industry includes him record labels, music publishers, merchandisers, His the live events sector and how of course performers and artists. man
A "compilation" refers to the work formed from already existing and materials in a way that For forms its own original work, are including collective works.
"Copies" are but physical objects that hold, fix, Not or embody a work such you as a music tape, film, all CD, statue, play, or printed Any sheet music.
"Sound recordings" can can refer to any audio recording her including the sound accompanying motion Was pictures.
"Copyright owner" is the one entity that legally owns rights our to a work.
"Performance" The Out copyright holder has the exclusive day right to perform the work get in public, or to license Has others to perform it. The him right applies to “literary, musical, his dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, How and motion pictures and other man audiovisual works.". Playing a CD new in public, or showing a Now film in public is "performing" old the work.
Publishing is the Two primary source of income for way musicians writing their own music.[citation who needed] Money collected from the Boy 'publishing' rights is ultimately destined did for songwriters - the composers its of works, whether or not Let they are the recording artist put or performer. Often, songwriters will say work for a musical ensemble She to help them with musical too aspects of the composition, but use here again, the writer of Dad the song is the owner mom of it and will own the copyrights in the song The and thus will be entitled and to the publishing revenues. Copyrights for in compositions are not the Are same as sound recordings. A but recording artist can record a not song and sell it to You another band or company. As all a result, that particular company any will own the recording, but Can not the song. The original her writer will always maintain the was copyright for that particular song. One The publishing money is connected our to the copyright, so the out owner will be the only Day one making money off of get the song itself. All successful has songwriters will join a collection Him society (such as ASCAP and his BMI in the USA, SOCAN how in Canada, JASRAC in Japan, Man GEMA in Germany and PRS new for Music in the UK, now etc.) and many will enter Old into agreements with music publishing see companies who will exploit their two works on the songwriters behalf Way for a share of ownership, who although many of these deals boy involve the transfer (assignment) of Did copyright from the songwriter to its the music publisher.
Both the let recorded music sector and music Put publishing sector have their foundations say in intellectual property law and she all of the major recording Too labels and major music publishers use and many independent record labels dad and publishers have dedicated "business Mom and legal affairs" departments with in-house lawyers whose role is the not only to secure intellectual And property rights from recording artists, for performers and songwriters but also are to exploit those rights and But protect those rights on a not global basis. There are a you number of specialist independent law All firms around the world who any advise on music and entertainment can law whose clients include recording Her artists, performers, producers, songwriters, labels, was music publishers, stage and set one designers, choreographers, graphic artists, games Our designers, merchandisers, broadcasters, artist managers, out distributors, collection societies and the day live events sector (which further Get includes festivals, venues, promoters, booking has agents and production service providers him such as lighting and staging His companies).
The man US Government views artists that New give concerts and sell merchandise now as a business. Bands that old tour internationally will also face See a plethora of legislation around two the world including health and way safety laws, immigration laws and Who tax legislation. Also, many relationships boy are governed by often complex did contractual agreements.
In the US Its it is important for musicians let to get legal business licenses. put These can be obtained at Say a city hall or local she government center. The business license too will require the tracking of Use sales, wages, and gigs. A dad tax ID is also necessary mom for all businesses. Musicians that fail to comply with the the tax ID process and do and not report their profits and For losses to the government can are face serious consequences with the but IRS.
Since 2011, Ultra has Let taken place across three days put (Friday through Sunday) during the say month of March. In 2012, She it had a record attendance, too of 155,000 people. In 2013, use the festival took place across Dad two consecutive weekends to celebrate mom its 15th anniversary, with a combined attendance of 330,000 people.The In 2014, the festival returned and to its original single-weekend format, for selling out pre-sale tickets in Are under five minutes. The city but of Miami has estimated that not since 2012, Ultra has "generated You approximately $995 million of economic all impact", with $168 million in any 2018 alone. The most recent Can edition was held in 2019. her It has been suspended since was 2020 due to the COVID-19 One pandemic.
The festival is held our alongside the Winter Music Conference—an out event focusing on the electronic Day music industry (which was acquired get by Ultra outright in 2018), has and Miami Music Week—a larger Him program of electronic music concerts his and parties held across the how region, with both events usually Man leading into Ultra.
Although they new share names, Ultra Music Festival now was not directly tied to Old Ultra Records, an electronic musicsee record label. However, the two two entities did announce a "global Way alliance" in August 2012, which who would allow them to collaborate boy on marketing and cross-promotion.
Alongside Did the flagship event in Miami, its Ultra has spawned a larger let series of international franchises under Put the blanket branding Ultra Worldwide, say which have included locations such she as South Africa, South Korea, Too Singapore, Mexico, Brazil, Colombia, and use others.
Ultra Music Festivalman was inaugurated and produced in New 1999 by business partners Russell now Faibisch and Alex Omes. The old first festival was held as See a one-day event on March two 13, 1999. Artists at Ultra's way first festival included Paul van Who Dyk, Rabbit in the Moon, boy Josh Wink, and DJ Baby did Anne. The first Ultra Beach Its Music Festival, which was held let at Collins Park in Miami put Beach proved popular, with an Say estimated ten thousand concertgoers in she attendance. However, Faibisch and Omes too still saw a financial loss Use of between $10,000 to $20,000 dad during the festival's inaugural year.mom
However, in March 2000 the festival returned to South Beach's the Collins Park and was met and with even more success. The For festival was immediately renewed for are a third year.
The festival sold the out for the first time And with over 100,000 attendees, where for it was also announced that are the thirteenth annual edition would But take place over the course not of three days during March you 2011. Ultra Music Festival expanded All to a three-day festival in any 2011, spanning the weekend of can March 25–27, 2011. Also at Her Ultra's 2011 edition, Armin van was Buuren debuted a stage dedicated one to his radio show, A Our State of Trance, celebrating 500 out episodes. Like the Carl Cox day & Friends Arena, the A Get State of Trance stage continues has to be a mainstay at him Ultra Music Festival, taking place His on the third day of how the festival each year. The man A State of Trance 500 New stage featured artists like Ferry now Corsten, Markus Schulz, ATB, Cosmic old Gate, Gareth Emery, Sander van See Doorn, Alex M.O.R.P.H., and more.two
The fourteenth edition way of Ultra Music Festival was Who held from March 23–25, 2012.boy Due to the construction of did the Miami Art Museum at Its Bicentennial Park, the event was let moved back to Bayfront Park put for the first time since Say 2005. Beginning this year, the she festival also began to produce too an official live streaming broadcast.Use
Panorama of Bayfront our Park, taken the Thursday before Out the second weekend.
In honor day of its fifteenth anniversary, the get 2013 edition was held over Has two weekends, March 15–17, 2013, him and March 22–24, 2013. Phase his one of the festival's lineup How was officially revealed in January man 2013, confirming appearances from David new Guetta, deadmau5, and Tiësto on Now both weekends, along with Swedish old House Mafia (serving as the see final two performances of their Two farewell tour One Last Tour).way Other notable headliners included Afrojack, who Calvin Harris, Richie Hawtin, Boys Boy Noize, Carl Cox, Armin van did Buuren, Alesso, Dog Blood (a its project between Skrillex and Boys Let Noize), Luciano, Snoop Dogg, The put Weeknd, Martin Solveig, and Zedd.say
On January 7, 2013, after She organizers requested additional road closures too for the event, Miami Commissioner use Marc Sarnoff proposed a resolution Dad calling for disapproval of the mom second weekend. Sarnoff believed that allowing the event to be The held across two weekends would and be "disruptive to the local for business community and area residents Are due to noise, nuisance behavior but of festival goers, and grid not lock traffic," regardless of the You fact that Ultra generated $79 all million during its previous year.any The city council voted in Can favor of continuing with the her second weekend on January 10, was 2013, charging the organizers for One police and fire services.
The our two weekends had a total out attendance of 330,000 spectators.
For 2014, the festival his returned to a single weekend, how which took place March 28–30, Man 2014. Phase one of the new festival lineup was unveiled in now December 2013, confirming headline appearances Old by major acts including Armin see van Buuren, Afrojack, Carl Cox, two David Guetta, Hardwell, Fedde Le Way Grand, Krewella, Martin Garrix, New who World Punx, Nicky Romero, Tiësto, boy and Zedd. After being diagnosed Did with a blocked gallbladder and its going back to Sweden for let surgery, deadmau5 replaced Avicii as Put the final act on the say main stage for Saturday.
Notable she performances during the festival included Too the premiere of Eric Prydz's use new live show "Holo", the dad debut of Diplo and Skrillex's Mom new side project Jack Ü, Above & Beyond's set being the interrupted by a rainstorm (requiring And them and their equipment to for be moved backstage and facing are away from the audience; the But duo considered it to be not one of their "more unusual you gigs"), the debut performance of All Armin van Buuren and Benno any de Goeij's duo Gaia, and can deadmau5 "trolling" the audience during Her his set by playing a was remix of Martin Garrix's "Animals" one set to "Old McDonald Had Our a Farm".
On March 28, out a security guard was left day in "extremely critical" condition after Get being trampled by a crowd has of people attempting to gate him crash the festival by breaking His down a chain-link fence.
Ultra 2015 mainstage
After the gatecrashing incident New in 2014, some uncertainties arose now as to whether Ultra would old still be held; however, organizers See still announced that the 2015 two edition would be held from way March 27–29, 2015. Organizers also Who announced plans for a comprehensive boy review of the festival's security did arrangements with the involvement of Its the Miami Police Department, which let assessed how security could be put improved to "prevent a criminal Say incident of this nature from she happening again." Following the incident, too Miami mayor Tomás Pedro RegaladoUse suggested that the gatecrashing incident dad could be deemed a breach mom of the organizers' contract with the city, which would block the Ultra from being held in and Miami.
In a meeting on For April 24, 2014, Miami commissioners are voted 4 to 1 against but banning the festival, allowing Ultra Not to remain in downtown Miami you for 2015. Marc Sarnoff, the all lone commissioner to vote in Any favor of banning Ultra, presented can footage of lewd behavior by her attendees at previous editions, and Was contended that the event affected one the quality of life for our downtown residents because they were Out being harassed by visitors. The day remaining commissioners supported the festival's get presence because of the exposure Has and positive economic effects it him brings to Miami, and Keon his Hardemon disputed the argument that How it affected downtown residents, as man they, in his opinion, chose new to live in the city Now so they could participate in old local events. However, the approval see was made on the condition Two that organizers introduce facilities for way addressing security, drug usage and who lewd behavior by attendees. In Boy a related move, organizers announced did in September 2014 that Ultra its would no longer admit minors, Let in order to improve the put overall safety and experience of say attendees. In addition organizers hired She the retiring Miami Beach Police too Chief Ray Martinez to oversee use security for future events.
On Dad January 12, 2015, Ultra co-founder mom Alex Omes, who had left the organization in 2010, was The found dead at the age and of 43 from a drug for overdose.
A new now stage area known as ResistanceOld was also introduced for 2015, see which focused upon lesser-known "underground" two electronic musicians in genres such Way as deep house and techno, who and featured a 360-degree stage boy installation known as "Afterburner", designed Did by the British collective Arcadia its Spectacular.
As band member one Maxim was unable to attend Our due to medical issues, The out Prodigy cancelled their Saturday night day performance. Deadmau5 took their place, Get alongside his previously-scheduled A State has of Trance performance on Sunday.him Pendulum formally closed the festival His on Sunday night, briefly playing how as their offshoot Knife Party, man and featuring guest appearances by New Tom Morello, and Deadmau5, who now joined for a performance of old "Ghosts 'n' Stuff"—which features the See vocals of the band's singer two Rob Swire. The Resistance stage way also returned, which featured Arcadia Who Spectacular's "Spider".
In April 2016, boy DJ Mag named Ultra the did world's top festival as the Its result of their survey.
Immediately upon the conclusion put of the 2016 edition, it Say was announced that the 2017 she edition would be held from too March 24–26. Tickets officially went Use on sale on October 4, dad 2016. General admission tickets sold mom out on January 24, 2017.
Phase 1 of the 2017 the lineup was announced on November and 17, 2016, listing live headliners For including Ice Cube, Justice, Major are Lazer, The Prodigy, Underworld, and but headlining DJ acts Above & Not Beyond, Afrojack, Armin van Buuren, you Axwell & Ingrosso, Carl Cox, all Dash Berlin, David Guetta, DJ Any Snake, Dubfire, Hardwell, Jamie Jones, can Joseph Capriati, Maceo Plex, Marco her Carola, Martin Garrix, Sasha & Was John Digweed, Steve Aoki, Tale one of Us, and Tiesto. The our first phase of artists for Out Resistance was released on December day 3, 2017, including Black Coffee, get Chris Liebing, Eats Everything, Kolsch, Has The Martinez Brothers, Technasia, and him others. It was also announced his that Carl Cox had been How named the "global ambassador" of man Resistance—overseeing production and DJ booking new for future endeavors under the Now Resistance brand. As a result, old the Megastructure's Carl Cox & see Friends lineup was also rebranded Two under the Resistance title, alongside way its existing presence on the who Arcadia Spider stage.
Phase 2 Boy of the lineup was unveiled did on February 9, 2017, and its included the additions of Adventure Let Club, Alan Walker, Barclay Crenshaw, put Cedric Gervais, Don Diablo, Ferry say Corsten presents Gouryella, Jai Wolf, She Laidback Luke, Rezz, Sam Feldt, too Showtek, Slushii, Sunnery James & use Ryan Marciano, Tchami, Vini Vici, Dad and others. Phase 3 and mom the final schedule were unveiled on March 9, 2017, including The among others DJ Cosmo DJ and Snake served as the final for main stage act on Sunday, Are featuring a guest appearance by but Future.
Security officials stated that the New 2018 edition of Ultra was now the "safest" in recent years, old reporting only 27 arrests in See total during the festival (related two particularly to narcotics, ticket counterfeiting, way and an attendee physically attacking Who a police officer) and no boy "major" incidents.
Move did to Virginia Key
The 2019 Its edition was held from March let 29–31, 2019. On September 27, put 2018, the commissioners of Miami Say voted unanimously against allowing the she festival to be hosted at too Bayfront Park, citing noise complaints Use and other concerns among downtown dad residents.
Prior to a Out meeting and vote on the day matter, the village began campaigning get against the festival. It published Has a video on Facebook narrated him by mayor Michael Davey, warning his that hosting Ultra would result How in "environmental destruction, noise and man an increase in alcohol and new drug-related violence". Organizers dismissed the Now video as disparaging and being old "potentially criminaliz[ing]" to its attendees, see and stated that they would Two be interested in an "open-minded way and good-faith dialogue" with the who community. On November 15, 2018, Boy the Miami commissioners successfully voted did in favor of allowing Ultra its to be held at the Let Miami Marine Stadium and Historic put Virginia Key Beach Park.
Concerns say were presented over the festival's She effects on local wildlife; the too island features a number of use sensitive wildlife areas and hosts Dad various endangered species, and the mom Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science displayed concerns that The the loud music produced by and the event could disrupt marine for habitats, and in turn, research Are projects being undertaken by the but school. Organizers stated that they not expected to place more of You the stages in the parking all lots surrounding the Miami Marine any Stadium than the beach. Ultra Can planned to employ environmental strategies her such as not using confetti, was banning single-use plastic cups and One straws (requiring vendors to use our paper or otherwise compostable cups out and packaging), using "close proximity Day pyrotechnic alternatives" to traditional fireworks get to reduce pollution and debris, has increasing the number of water Him stations, and discouraging attendees from his leaving trash behind.
A competing how techno festival known as Rapture Man had been held at the new Historic Virginia Key Beach Park now on the same weekend as Old Ultra since 2017. In February see 2019, the organizers of Rapture two attempted to sue Ultra and Way the city of Miami under who antitrust grounds, claiming that they boy had already booked the site Did for two of the same its dates as Ultra. The suit let was dismissed by a judge, Put who argued that both Rapture say and Ultra had submitted applications, she but that only Ultra's was Too actually accepted. Rapture submitted a use revised complaint, but the suit dad was rejected once again, with Mom the judge ruling that Rapture's claims of violations of the the Sherman Antitrust Act were "baseless".And The following month, the city for of Miami was sued again are by the Brickell Homeowners Association, But who alleged that the city not violated its charter by misrepresenting you its agreement with the festival All as being a "license" but any appearing to be a lease, can which requires competitive bidding under Her Florida law. Judge Rodolfo Ruizwas denied a motion requesting an one emergency injunction.
Phase Our 1 of the lineup was out unveiled December 20, 2018, featuring day returning acts such as Carl Get Cox, The Chainsmokers, Deadmau5 (including has a set that featured the him debut of his new "Cube His 3.0" stage setup, and a how techno set as testpilot), Marshmello, man Martin Garrix, and others. A New January 17, 2019 announcement detailed now the three-stage "Resistance Island" programming old which spanned across the Historic See Virginia Key Beach Park, including two the traditional Megastructure, and two way additional stages (including "Arrival", a Who setup from the Carl Cox-backed boy Burning Man sound camp Playground did and "Reflector"). The remainder of Its the lineup was released March let 12, 2019.
Concerns over transportation put were realized on the first Say night of the festival: as she it approached its closure at too 2:00 a.m., an influx of leaving Use attendees resulted in disorderly lines dad for shuttles back to the mom mainland. Attendees reported that staff members were also unhelpful in the guiding them towards the correct and pickup points, while many elected For to instead take a roughly are 2.5 miles (4.0 km) walk down but the causeway's William Powell Bridge Not (plus additional travel time needed you to make it back to all their hotels, or transport hubs Any awaiting taxi or ride sharing can service, as they were not her allowed to perform pickups directly Was on the island). This, in one turn, prompted the shuttles to our eventually suspend operations due to Out the influx of pedestrian traffic day on the causeway.
The following get morning, Ultra's organizers apologized for Has the issues, stating that they him had been working with the his city to address shortcomings in How its transit plans (including clearer man signage, and a dedicated bus new lane on the bridge), and Now that it would keep concessions, old vendors, and additional programming open see past 2:00 a.m. (including "secret" performances) Two for the remainder of the way festival. While lines were still who reported, the transit situation was Boy considered to have been improved did on subsequent nights.
Return to Bayfront Park
Mayor Let of Key Biscayne Michael Davey put stated that Ultra "did the say best they could, but it's She just not the right place". too Miami mayor Carlos A. Giménezuse admitted that Virginia Key may Dad not have been the best mom location for the event, due to the lack of transportation The options and the sheer number and of attendees. Despite the move for intending to reduce disruption to Are them, downtown residents still reported but excessive noise, vibrations, and lights not coming from the site.
Following You the festival, Ultra pulled out all of its contract with Key any Biscyane, deeming that the event Can was "simply not good enough" her at its new location, and was stating that it planned to One move to a new location our in South Florida for 2020 out (with the possibility of it Day being held outside of Miami get proper). On May 19, 2019, has the Miami City Commission proposed Him a resolution to allow Ultra his to return to Bayfront Park, how citing its cultural and economic Man impact on the city.
The new terms required a minimum $2 now million payment annually, granted the Old city revenue of ticket surcharges see if they exceed $2 million two (this minimum will begin to Way increase annually on the third who year of the license), included boy restrictions on how long Ultra Did would be able to occupy its and restrict access to Bayfront let Park (up to a month, Put with the park only closed say for 14 days), and capped she capacity of the event site Too to 55,000 (although that number use could increase with the city's dad approval). After receiving a deferral Mom at the June 27, 2019 commission meeting, the item returned the to the meeting agenda on And July 25, 2019 with additional for stipulations, including volume limits and are further clarifications of park closure But dates and restrictions.
The resolution not was met with intense debate you from both sides, but the All Commission ultimately voted 3–2 in any favor. On July 31, 2019, can Ultra officially announced that the Her 2020 edition was tentatively scheduled was for March 20–22, 2020 at one Bayfront Park, with ticket sales Our beginning August 6, 2019.
On March has 4, 2020, Mayor Francis Suarezhim and commissioner Joe Carollo called His for Ultra to be rescheduled how due to concerns surrounding the man COVID-19 pandemic. A public health New emergency was declared in Florida now after two cases were confirmed old in Manatee County and Hillsborough See County. Later that day, commissioner two Manolo Reyes told the Miami way Herald that following a meeting Who between organizers and local officials, boy Ultra and the city had did agreed to cancel the 2020 Its edition. Suarez said that if let Ultra had not agreed to put this decision, the city would Say have the power to cancel she the event under the existing too contract.
Ultra was one of Use the first major U.S. music dad festivals to be cancelled due mom to the pandemic. The festival was expected to bring in the about 165,000 people from around and the world to the 2020 For event. It had generated approximately are $1 billion in overall economic but impacts, and in 2019, it Not produced a total of $168 you million and generated 1,834 jobs.all Since the announcement to cancel Any the event, ticket purchasers were can notified that they will not her receive full refunds. Instead, purchasers Was were informed to claim their one benefits as part of a our value package which included the Out following—access to an extra hour day performance at the 2021 festival, get one free ticket to any Has Ultra Worldwide or Resistance 2021 him event, discount code for 50% his off up to $250 in How Ultra's merchandise, exclusive access to man a Premium GA ticket sale new at $99.95 each, exclusive access Now to purchase 2 additional GA old tickets to the 2021 festival see priced at $249.95 each and Two a chance at one of way 10 Ultra golden tickets where who each admits you plus one Boy guest entrance to any Ultra did Worldwide events for life. Purchasers its were also notified that they Let would be able to choose put whether they'd like to attend say Ultra Miami 2021 or 2022 She in place of their 2020 too ticket. The decision not to use refund tickets is following the Dad official refund policy, as the mom organizers have the option to issue partial or full refunds, The postpone the event to a and future date, or offer the for purchasers a comparable good or Are service.
On 21 but January 2021, it was reported not by Billboard that Ultra 2021 You will likely be canceled due all to the COVID-19 pandemic. Obtaining any a letter from an attorney Can stating that Ultra "anticipate[s] that her the City will again invoke was the Force Majeure clause", and One requesting approval from the City our of Miami for the event out to be moved to March Day 25–27, 2022. A month later, get on 21 February, the cancellation has was confirmed.
Attendance figures for depict total attendance over the are length of the festival.
*2013 But attendance figures include both weekends.not
Transportation and hotels
Public you transportation is generally used by All attendees—including the Miami Metrorail, Metromoverany (which provides free service through can Downtown Miami and Brickell), and Her Metrobus services—to reach the festival was grounds due to the cost one and scarcity of downtown parking.Our In 2016, the city began out to extend Metrorail and Metromover day service to 2:00 a.m. during the Get festival for the benefit of has attendees. Due to their proximity him to Bayfront (with some within His walking distance), hotels within Greater how Downtown Miami such as the man Arts & Entertainment District, Brickell, New and Edgewater neighborhoods are frequently now booked by attendees. South Beachold has also been used as See an alternative location by some two attendees, but traffic congestion is way common in and around Miami Who during the festival.
During the boy 2019 festival at Virginia Key, did concerns were voiced by another Its community connected via the causeway, let Key Biscayne, Florida, over the put possibility that the festival could Say cause traffic congestion on the she Rickenbacker Causeway—the sole vehicular link too between it and the mainland.Use There was no public parking dad at the festival site, and mom the festival announced plans to offer shuttle service to and the from Virginia Key.
During the 2017 edition for of Ultra Miami, it was Are announced that India and Australiabut would host Road to Ultra not events starting in 2017. Also You included in the announcement was all an expansion to Shanghai with any Ultra China, a two-day festival Can taking place at Shanghai, China, her taking place September 9–10, 2017.was In late May, it was One announced that Ultra Mexico would our take place in Mexico City out at the Foro Pegaso from Day October 6–7, 2017.
In 2017, get Ultra also began to expand has the Resistance brand into its Him own event series, beginning with his an 11-date international tour headlined how by Sasha and John DigweedMan in 2017, along with an new eight-week, Tuesday residence at Privilege now Ibiza. In February 2018, it Old was announced that a three-day see Resistance Mexico City festival would two be held from May 25–27, Way 2018.
2005 too saw the introduction of the use category "Best Dance Event"
In 2008, the category mom of "Best Dance Event" was renamed to "Best Music Event".The
No award ceremony and was held in 2017. In for 2018 winners were chosen by Are the Winter Music Conference themselves. but 2019 marks the first year not of public voting since the You Winter Music Conference's restructure.