Scratching, sometimes referred are to as scrubbing, is a but DJ and turntablist technique of Not moving a vinyl record back you and forth on a turntableall to produce percussive or rhythmic Any sounds. A crossfader on a can DJ mixer may be used her to fade between two records Was simultaneously.
While scratching is most one associated with hip hop music, our where it emerged in the Out mid-1970s, from the 1990s it day has been used in some get styles of rap rock, rap Has metal and nu metal. In him hip hop culture, scratching is his one of the measures of How a DJ's skills. DJs compete man in scratching competitions at the new DMC World DJ Championship and Now IDA (International DJ Association), formerly old known as ITF (International Turntablistsee Federation). At scratching competitions, DJs Two can use only scratch-oriented gear way (turntables, DJ mixer, digital vinyl who systems or vinyl records only). Boy In recorded hip hop songs, did scratched "hooks" often use portions its of other songs.
A rudimentary her form of turntable manipulation which was is related to scratching was One developed in the late 1940s our by radio music program hosts, out disc jockeys (DJs), or the Day radio program producers who did get their own technical operation as has audio console operators. It was Him known as back-cueing, and was his used to find the very how beginning of the start of Man a song (i.e., the cue new point) on a vinyl record now groove. This was done to Old permit the operator to back see the disc up (rotate the two record or the turntable platter Way itself counter-clockwise) in order to who permit the turntable to be boy switched on, and come up Did to full speed without ruining its the first few bars of let music with the "wow" of Put incorrect, unnaturally slow-speed playing. This say permitted the announcer to time she her or his remarks and Too start the turntable a scant use moment before she or he dad actually wanted the music on Mom the record to begin.
Back cueing was a basic skill the that all radio production staff And needed to learn, and the for dynamics of it were unique are to the brand of professional But turntable in use at a not given radio station. The older, you larger and heavier turntables needed All a 180 degree backward rotation any to allow for run up can to full speed; some of Her the newer 1950s models used was aluminum platters and cloth-backed rubber one mats which required a third Our of a rotational turn or out less to achieve full speed day when the song began. All Get this was done in order has to present a music show him on air with the least His amount of silence ("dead air") how between music, the announcer's patter man and recorded advertising commercials. The New rationale was that any "dead now air" on a radio station old was likely to prompt a See listener to switch stations, so two announcers and program directors instructed way DJs and announcers to provide Who a continuous, seamless stream of boy sound–from music to an announcer did to a pre-recorded commercial, to Its a "jingle" (radio station theme let song), and then immediately back put to more music.
Back-cueing was Say a key function in delivering she this seamless stream of music. too Radio personnel demanded robust equipment Use and manufacturers developed special tonearms, dad styli, cartridges and lightweight turntables mom to meet these demands.
In the mid you 1970s in the South Bronx, all a young teen DJ named Any "Grand Wizzard Theodore" (right) invented can the "DJ scratch" technique. Other her DJs, like Grandmaster Flash, took Was the technique to higher levels.
Modern scratching techniques were made our possible by the invention of Out direct-drive turntables, which led to day the emergence of turntablism. Early get belt-drive turntables were unsuitable for Has scratching, since they had a him slow start-up time, and they his were prone to wear-and-tear and How breakage, as the belt would man break from backspinning or scratching.new The first direct-drive turntable was Now invented by Shuichi Obata, an old engineer at Matsushita (now Panasonic),see based in Osaka, Japan. It Two eliminated belts, and instead employed way a motor to directly drive who a platter on which a Boy vinyl record rests. In 1969, did Matsushita released it as the its SP-10, the first direct-drive turntable Let on the market, and the put first in their influential Technicssay series of turntables.
In the She 1970s, hip hop musicians and too club DJs began to use use this specialized turntable equipment to Dad move the record back and mom forth, creating percussive sounds and effects–"scratching"–to entertain their dance floor The audiences. Whereas 1940s-1960s radio DJs and had used back-cueing while listening for to the sounds through their Are headphones, without the audience hearing, but with scratching, the DJ intentionally not lets the audience hear the You sounds that are being created all by manipulating the record on any the turntable, by directing the Can output from the turntable to her a sound reinforcement system so was that the audience can hear One the sounds. Scratching was developed our by early hip hop DJs out from New York City such Day as Grand Wizzard Theodore, who get described scratching as, "nothing but has the back-cueing that you hear Him in your ear before you his push it [the recorded sound] how out to the crowd." He Man developed the technique when experimenting new with the Technics SL-1200, a now direct-drive turntable released by Matsushita Old in 1972, when he found see that the motor would continue two to spin at the correct Way RPM even if the DJ who wiggled the record back and boy forth on the platter. Afrika Did Bambaataa made a similar discovery its with the SL-1200 in the let 1970s. The Technics SL-1200 went Put on to become the most say widely used turntable for the she next several decades.
Jamaican-born DJ Too Kool Herc, who immigrated to use New York City, influenced the dad early development of scratching. Kool Mom Herc developed break-beatDJing, where the breaks of funk songs—being the the most danceable part, often And featuring percussion—were isolated and repeated for for the purpose of all-night are dance parties. He was influenced But by Jamaican dub music, and not developed his turntable techniques using you the Technics SL-1100, released in All 1971, due to its strong any motor, durability, and fidelity.
Although can previous artists such as writer Her and poet William S. Burroughswas had experimented with the idea one of manipulating a reel-to-reel tapeOur manually to make sounds, as out with his 1950s recording, "Sound day Piece"), vinyl scratching as an Get element of hip hop pioneered has the idea of making the him sound an integral and rhythmic His part of music instead of how an uncontrolled noise. Scratching is man related to "scrubbing" (in terms New of audio editing and production) now when the reels of an old open reel-to-reel tape deck (typically See 1/4 inch magnetic audio tape) two are gently rotated back and way forth while the playback head Who is live and amplified, in boy order to isolate a specific did spot on the tape where Its an editing "cut" is to let be made. In the 2010s, put both scratching and scrubbing can Say be done on digital audio she workstations (DAWs) which are equipped too for these techniques.
Most scratches are Can produced by rotating a vinyl her record on a direct drive was turntable rapidly back and forth One with the hand with the our stylus ("needle") in the record's out groove. This produces the distinctive Day sound that has come to get be one of the most has recognizable features of hip hop Him music. Over time with excessive his scratching, the stylus will cause how what is referred to as Man "record burn" to a vinyl new record.
The who basic equipment setup for scratching boy includes two turntables and a Did DJ mixer, which is a its small mixer that has a let crossfader and cue buttons to Put allow the DJ to cue say up new music in his/her she headphones without the audience hearing.[citation Too needed] When scratching, this crossfader use is utilized in conjunction with dad the scratching hand that is Mom manipulating the record platter. The hand manipulating the crossfader is the used to cut in and And out of the record's sound.[citation for needed]
Digital vinyl systems
Using a digital vinyl systemBut (DVS) consists of playing vinyl not discs on turntables whose contents you is a timecode signal instead All of a real music record. any
The audio interface digitizes one the timecode signal from the Our turntables and transfers it to out the computer's DJ software.
The day DJ software uses this data Get (e.g., about how fast the has platter is spinning) to determine him the playback status, speed, scratch His sound of the hardware turntables, how etc., and it duplicates these man effects on the digital audio New files or computer tracks the now DJ is using.
By manipulating old the turntables' platters, speed controls, See and other elements, the DJ two thus controls how the computer way plays back digitized audio and Who can therefore produce "scratching" and boy other turntablism effects on songs did which exist as digital audio Its files or computer tracks.
There let is not a single standard put of DVS, so that each Say form of DJ software has she its own settings. Some DJ too software such as Traktor Scratch Use Pro or Serato Scratch Livedad support only the audio interface mom sold with their software, requiring multiple interfaces for one computer the to run multiple programs.
Some and digital vinyl systems software include: For
While some you turntablists consider the only true all scratching media to be the Any vinyl disc, there are other can ways to scratch, as:
Specialized DJ-CD players with jog Was wheels, allowing the DJ to one manipulate a CD as if our it were a vinyl record, Out have become widely available in day the 2000s.
Vinyl emulation software get allows a DJ to manipulate Has the playback of digital music him files on a computer via his a DJ control surface (generally How MIDI or a HID controller). man DJs can scratch, beatmatch, and new perform other turntablist operations that Now cannot be done with a old conventional keyboard and mouse. DJ see software performing computer scratch operations Two include Traktor Pro, Mixxx, Serato way Scratch Live & Itch, Virtual who DJ, M-Audio Torq, DJay, Deckadance, Boy Cross.
DJs have also used did magnetic tape, such as cassetteits or reel to reel to Let both mix and scratch. Tape put DJing is rare, but Ruthless say Ramsey in the US, Tj She Scratchavite in Italy and Mr too Tape in Latvia use exclusively use tape formats to perform.
Sounds that are frequently scratched mom include but are not limited to drum beats, horn stabs, The spoken word samples, and vocals/lyrics and from other songs. Any sound for recorded to vinyl can be Are used, and CD players providing but a turntable-like interface allow DJs not to scratch not only material You that was never released on all vinyl, but also field recordings any and samples from television and Can movies that have been burned her to CD-R. Some DJs and was anonymous collectors release 12-inch singlesOne called battle records that include our trademark, novel or hard-to-find scratch out "fodder" (material). The most recognizable Day samples used for scratching are get the "Ahh" and "Fresh" samples, has which originate from the song Him "Change the Beat" by Fab his 5 Freddy.
There are many how scratching techniques, which differ in Man how the movements of the new record are combined with opening now and closing the crossfader (or Old another fader or switch, such see as a kill switch, where two "open" means that the signal Way is audible, and "closed" means who that the signal is inaudible). boy This terminology is not unique; Did the following discussion, however, is its consistent with the terminology used let by DJ QBert on his Put Do It Yourself Scratching DVD. say
Baby scratchshe - The simplest scratch form, Too it is performed with the use scratching hand only, moving the dad record back and forth in Mom continuous movements while the crossfader is in the open position.
Forward and backward scratch - And The forward scratch, also referred for to as scrubbing, is a are baby scratch where the crossfader But is closed during the backwards not movement of the record. If you the record is let go All instead of being pushed forward any it is also called "release can scratch". Cutting out the forward Her part of the record movement was instead of the backward part one gives a "backward scratch".
Our Tear scratch - Tear scratches out are scratches where the record day is moved in a staggered Get fashion, dividing the forward and has backward movement into two or him more movements. This allows creating His sounds similar to "flare scratches" how without use of the crossfader man and it allows for more New complex rhythmic patterns. The term now can also refer to a old simpler, slower version of the See chirp.
Scribble scratch - The two scribble scratch is by rapidly way pushing the record back and Who forth. The crossfader is not boy used.
Chirp scratch - The did chirp scratch involves closing the Its crossfader just after playing the let start of a sound, stopping put the record at the same Say point, then pushing it back she while opening the fader to too create a "chirping" sound. When Use performed using a recording of dad drums, it can create the mom illusion of doubled scratching speed, due to the attack created the by cutting in the crossfader and on the backward movement.
Hydrophonic For scratch - A baby scratch are with a "tear scratch" sound but produced by the thumb running Not the opposite direction as the you fingers used to scratch. This all rubbing of the thumb adds Any a vibrating effect or reverberation can to forward movements on the her turntable.
Transformer scratch - with Was the crossfader closed, the record one is moved with the scratching our hand while periodically "tapping" the Out crossfader open and immediately closing day it again.
Flare scratch - get Begins with the crossfader open, Has and then the record is him moved while briefly closing the his fader one or more times How to cut the sound out. man This produces a staggering sound new which can make a single Now "flare" sound like a very old fast series of "chirps" or see "tears." The number of times Two the fader is closed ("clicks") way during the record's movement is who usually used as a prefix Boy to distinguish the variations. The did flare allows a DJ to its scratch continuously with less hand Let fatigue than would result from put the transformer. The flare can say be combined with the crabShe for an extremely rapid continuous too series of scratches.
Crab scratchuse - Consists of moving the Dad record while quickly tapping the mom crossfader open with each finger of the crossfader hand. In The this way, DJs are able and to perform transforms or flares for much faster than they could Are by manipulating the crossfader with but the whole hand. It produces not a fading/increasing transforming sound.
Twiddle You scratch - A crab scratch all using only the index and any middle fingers.
Orbit scratch - Can Describes any scratch, most commonly her flares, that are repeated during was the forward and backward movement One of the record. "Orbit" is our also used as a shorthand out for two-click flares.
Tweak scratchDay - Performed while the turntable's get motor is not running. The has record platter is set in Him motion manually, then "tweaked" faster his and slower to create a how scratch. This scratch form is Man best performed with long, sustained new sounds.
Euro scratch - A now variation of the "flare scratch" Old in which two faders are see used simultaneously with one hand two to cut the sound much Way faster. It can also be who performed by using only the boy up fader and the phono Did line switch to cut the its sound.
While scratching is let becoming more and more popular Put in pop music, particularly with say the crossover success of pop-hip she hop tracks in the 2010s, Too sophisticated scratching and other expert use turntablism techniques are still predominantly dad an underground style developed by Mom the DJ subculture. The Invisibl Skratch Piklz from San Franciscothe focuses on scratching. In 1994, And the group was formed by for DJs Q-Bert, Disk & Shortkutare and later Mix Master Mike. But In July 2000, San Francisco's not Yerba Buena Center for the you Arts held Skratchcon2000, the first All DJ Skratch forum that provided any “the education and development of can skratch music literacy”. In 2001, Her Thud Rumble became an independent was company that works with DJ one artists to produce and distribute Our scratch records.
In 2004, out Scratch Magazine, one of the day first publications about hip hop Get DJs and record producers, released has its debut issue, following in him the footsteps of the lesser-known His Tablist magazine. Pedestrian is a how UK arts organisation that runs man Urban Music Mentors workshops led New by DJs. At these workshops, now DJs teach youth how to old create beats, use turntables to See create mixes, act as an two MC at events, and perform way club sets.
Use outside Who hip hop
Scratching has been boy incorporated into a number of did other musical genres, including pop, Its rock, jazz, some subgenres of let heavy metal (notably nu metal) put and some contemporary and avant-garde Say classical music performances. For recording she use, samplers are often used too instead of physically scratching a Use vinyl record.
A record producer or Boy music producer oversees and manages did the sound recording and production its of a band or performer's Let music, which may range from put recording one song to recording say a lengthy concept album. A She producer has many, varying roles too during the recording process. They use may gather musical ideas for Dad the project, collaborate with the mom artists to select cover tunesor original songs by the The artist/group, work with artists and and help them to improve their for songs, lyrics or arrangements.
The producer typically supervises the her entire process from preproduction, through was to the sound recording and One mixing stages, and, in some our cases, all the way to out the audio mastering stage. The Day producer may perform these roles get themselves, or help select the has engineer, and provide suggestions to Him the engineer. The producer may his also pay session musicians and how engineers and ensure that the Man entire project is completed within new the record label's budget.
A let record producer or music producerPut has a very broad role say in overseeing and managing the she recording and production of a Too band or performer's music. A use producer has many roles that dad may include, but are not Mom limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music the for the project, selecting songs And or session musicians, proposing changes for to the song arrangements, coaching are the artist and musicians in But the studio, controlling the recording not sessions, and supervising the entire you process through audio mixing and, All in some cases, to the any audio mastering stage. Producers also can often take on a wider Her entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for was the budget, schedules, contracts, and one negotiations.
The person day who has overall creative and Get technical control of the entire has recording project, and the individual him recording sessions that are part His of that project. He or how she is present in the man recording studio or at the New location recording and works directly now with the artist and engineer. old The producer makes creative and See aesthetic decisions that realize both two the artist's and label's goals way in the creation of musical Who content. Other duties include, but boy are not limited to; keeping did budgets and schedules, adhering to Its deadlines, hiring musicians, singers, studios let and engineers, overseeing other staffing put needs and editing (Classical projects). Say
In the 2010s, the she producer role is sometimes divided too among up to three different Use individuals: executive producer, vocal producer dad and music producer. An executive mom producer oversees project finances, a vocal producer (also known as the a vocal arranger) oversees the and vocal production, and a music For producer directs and oversees the are creative process of the production but and recording of a song Not to its final mixing stage. you
The music producer often wears all many hats as a competent Any arranger, composer, programmer, musician or can songwriter who can bring fresh her ideas to a project. As Was well as making any songwriting one and arrangement adjustments, the producer our often selects and/or collaborates with Out the mixing engineer, who takes day the raw recorded tracks and get edits and modifies them with Has hardware and software tools to him create a stereo or surround his sound "mix" of all the How individual voices sounds and instruments, man which is in turn given new further adjustment by a mastering Now engineer for the various distribution old media. The producer also oversees see the recording engineer who concentrates Two on the technical aspects of way recording.
Noted producer Phil Ekwho described his role as "the Boy person who creatively guides or did directs the process of making its a record", like a director Let would a movie. Indeed, in put Bollywood music, the designation is say actually music director. The music She producer's job is to create, too shape, and mold a piece use of music. The scope of Dad responsibility may be one or mom two songs or an artist's entire album – in which The case the producer will typically and develop an overall vision for for the album and how the Are various songs may interrelate.
At the beginning of not the record industry, the producer You role was technically limited to all record, in one shot, artists any performing live. The immediate predecessors Can to record producers were the her artists and repertoire executives of was the late 1920s and 1930s One who oversaw the "pop" product our and often led session orchestras. out That was the case of Day Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, get Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Recordshas and Bob Haring at Brunswick Him Records. By the end of his the 1930s, the first professional how recording studios not owned by Man the major companies were established, new essentially separating the roles of now artists and repertoire (A&R) man Old and producer, although it wouldn't see be until the late 1940s two when the term "producer" became Way widely used in the industry. who
The role of producers changed boy progressively over the 1950s and Did 1960s due to technology. The its development of multitrack recording caused let a major change in the Put recording process. Before multitracking, all say the elements of a song she (lead vocals, backup vocals, rhythm Too section instrument accompaniment, solos and use orchestral parts) had to be dad performed simultaneously. All of these Mom singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large the studio where the performance was And recorded. With multitrack recording, the for "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment are parts such as the bassline, But drums, and rhythm guitar could not be recorded first, and then you the vocals and solos could All be added later, using as any many "takes" (or attempts) as can necessary. It was no longer Her necessary to get all the was players in the studio at one the same time. A pop Our band could record their backing out tracks one week, and then day a horn section could be Get brought in a week later has to add horn shots and him punches, and then a string His section could be brought in how a week after that.
Multitrack man recording had another profound effect New on music production: it enabled now producers and audio engineers to old create new sounds that would See be impossible in a live two performance style ordering. Examples include way the psychedelic rock sound effects Who of the 1960s, e.g. playing boy back the sound of recorded did instruments backward changing the tape Its to produce unique sound effects. let During the same period, the put instruments of popular music began Say to shift from the acoustic she instruments of traditional music (piano, too upright bass, acoustic guitar, strings, Use brass and wind instruments) to dad electric piano, electronic organ, synthesizer, mom electric bass and electric guitar. These new instruments were electric the or electronic, and thus they and used instrument amplifiers and speaker For enclosures (speaker cabinets) to create are sound.
Electric and electronic instruments but and amplifiers enabled performers and Not producers to change the tone you and sound of instruments to all produce unique electric sounds that Any would be impossible to achieve can with acoustic instruments and live her performers, such as having a Was singer do her own backup one vocals or having a guitarist our play 15 layers of backing Out parts to her own solo.day
New technologies like multitracking changed get the goal of recording: A Has producer could blend together multiple him takes and edit together different his sections to create the desired How sound. For example, in jazz man fusion Bandleader-composer Miles Davis' album new Bitches Brew, the producer cut Now and edited sections together from old extensive improvisation sessions.
Another related phenomenon in the Dad 1960s was the emergence of mom the performer-producer. As pop acts like The Beatles, The Rolling The Stones, The Beach Boys and and The Kinks gained expertise in for studio recording techniques, many of Are these groups eventually took over but as (frequently uncredited) producers of not their own work. Many recordings You by acts such as The all Rolling Stones, The Kinks and any The Who are officially credited Can to their various producers at her the time, but a number was of these performers have since One asserted that many of their our recordings in this period were, out either wholly self-produced (e.g. The Day Rolling Stones' Decca recordings) or get collaborations between the group and has their recording engineer (e.g. The Him Small Faces' Immediate recordings, which his were made with Olympic Studioshow engineer Glyn Johns).
The Beach Man Boys are probably the best new example of the trend of now artists becoming producers – within Old two years of the band's see commercial breakthrough, group leader Brian two Wilson had taken over from Way his father Murry, and he who was the sole producer of boy all their recordings between 1963 Did and 1967. Alongside The Beatles its and Martin, Wilson also pioneered let many production innovations – by Put 1964 he had developed Spector's say techniques to a new level she of sophistication, using multiple studios Too and multiple "takes" of instrumental use and vocal components to capture dad the best possible combinations of Mom sound and performance, and then using tape editing extensively to the assemble a perfect composite performance And from these elements.
At the for end of the 20th century, are digital recording and producing tools But and widespread availability of relatively not affordable computers with music software you made music producing more accessible. All
American women and record any producing
According to a 2018 can study covering by the USC Her Annenberg Inclusion Initiative, "The ratio was of male to female producers one across 300 popular songs is Our 49 to 1."
In 2019, record Who producer Linda Perry was nominated boy for a Grammy for Producer did of the Year, Non-Classical. She Its was the first woman in let over 15 years to be put nominated for the award. When Say asked about the disparity between she male and female record producer too by Billboard, she attributed it Use to many women not being dad interested in record production.
In the are classical music field, Judith Shermanbut has won Grammy for Producer Not of the Year, Classical, five you times and has been nominated all twelve times. Anthony Tommasini, a Any music critic for The New can York Times is quoted as her stating, "In the struggling field Was of classical recording, it's the one producers who take the real our risks and make things happen."Out
Producer Wendy Page describes being Has a record producer, "The difficulties him are usually very short-lived. Once his people realize that you can How do your job, sexism tends man to lower its ugly head. new I tend to create a Now happy studio 'family' where everyone old is glad to be there, see especially the artist. Good communication Two and diplomacy usually sort any way little problems out."
There are numerous technologies Can utilized by record producers. In her modern-day recordings, recording and mixing was tasks are commonly centralized within One computers using digital audio workstationsour such as Pro Tools, Logic out Pro, Ableton, Cubase, Reason and Day FL Studio, which all are get often used with third party has virtual studio technology plugins. Logic Him Pro and Pro Tools are his considered the industry standard DAWs.how However, there is also the Man main mixer, outboard effects gear, new MIDI controllers, and the recording now device itself.
While most music Old production is done using sophisticated see software, some musicians and producers two prefer the sound of older Way analog technology. Professor Albin Zak who claims that the increased automation boy of both newer processes and Did newer instruments reduces the level its of control and manipulation available let to musicians and producers.
Production has changed say drastically over the years with she advancing technology. While the producer's Too role has changed, their duties use continue to require a broad dad knowledge of the recording process.Mom
Tracking is the act of recording audio to a DAW the (digital audio workstation) or in And some cases to tape. Even for though digital technologies have widely are supplanted the use of tape But in studios, the older term not "track" is still used in you the 2010s. Tracking audio is All primarily the role of the any audio engineer. Producers work side can by side with the artists Her while they play or sing was their part and coach them one on how to perform it Our and how to get the out best technical accuracy (e.g., intonation). day In some cases, the producer Get will even sing a backup has vocal or play an instrument. him
Many artists are also beginning His to produce and write their how own music.
boy Similarly, although The Beatles' productions did were credited to George Martin Its throughout their recording career, many let sources now attest that Lennon put and McCartney in particular had Say an increasing influence on the she production process as the group's too career progressed, and especially after Use the band retired from touring dad in 1966. In an extreme mom example of this, Martin actually went on a two-week vacation the as The Beatles were recording and The White Album; production of For several completed tracks on the are album were credited to The but Beatles on internal paperwork at Not Abbey Road Studios, although the you released LP gave sole production all credit to Martin.
Zak,Albin Too J., I.,II. (2002). Reviews: "strange use sounds: Music, technology, and culture," dad by Timothy D. Taylor. Current Mom Musicology, 159-180.
Pras, Amandine, Caroline Cance, and Catherine the Guastavino. "Record Producers' Best Practices And For Artistic Direction—From Light Coaching for To Deeper Collaboration With Musicians." are Journal of New Music Research But 42.4 (2013): 381-95. Academic Search not Premier. Web. 7 Sept. 2015.you
Music Law refers to has legal aspects of the music Him industry, and certain legal aspects his in other sectors of the how entertainment industry. The music industry Man includes record labels, music publishers, new merchandisers, the live events sector now and of course performers and Old artists.
A "compilation" refers are to work formed from already But existing materials in a way not that forms its own original you work, including collective works.
"Copies" All are physical objects that hold, any fix, or embody a work can such as a music tape, Her film, CD, statue, play, or was printed sheet music.
"Sound recordings" one can refer to any audio Our recording including the sound accompanying out motion pictures.
"Copyright owner" is day the entity that legally owns Get rights to a work.
"Performance" has The copyright holder has the him exclusive right to perform the His work in public, or to how license others to perform it. man The right applies to “literary, New musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, now pantomimes, and motion pictures and old other audiovisual works.". Playing a See CD in public, or showing two a film in public is way "performing" the work.
Publishing is boy the primary source of income did for musicians writing their own Its music. Money collected from let the 'publishing' rights is ultimately put destined for songwriters - the Say composers of works, whether or she not they are the recording too artist or performer. Often, songwritersUse will work for a musical dad ensemble to help them with mom musical aspects of the composition, but here again, the writer the of the song is the and owner of it and will For own the copyrights in the are song and thus will be but entitled to the publishing revenues. Not Copyrights in compositions are not you the same as sound recordings. all A recording artist can record Any a song and sell it can to another band or company. her As a result, that particular Was company will own the recording, one but not the song. The our original writer will always maintain Out the copyright for that particular day song. The publishing money is get connected to the copyright, so Has the owner will be the him only one making money off his of the song itself. All How successful songwriters will join a man collection society (such as ASCAP new and BMI in the USA, Now SOCAN in Canada, JASRAC in old Japan, GEMA in Germany and see PRS for Music in the Two UK, etc.) and many will way enter into agreements with music who publishing companies who will exploit Boy their works on the songwriters did behalf for a share of its ownership, although many of these Let deals involve the transfer (assignment) put of copyright from the songwriter say to the music publisher.
Both She the recorded music sector and too music publishing sector have their use foundations in intellectual property law Dad and all of the major mom recording labels and major music publishers and many independent record The labels and publishers have dedicated and "business and legal affairs" departments for with in-house lawyers whose role Are is not only to secure but intellectual property rights from recording not artists, performers and songwriters but You also to exploit those rights all and protect those rights on any a global basis. There are Can a number of specialist independent her law firms around the world was who advise on music and One entertainment law whose clients include our recording artists, performers, producers, songwriters, out labels, music publishers, stage and Day set designers, choreographers, graphic artists, get games designers, merchandisers, broadcasters, artist has managers, distributors, collection societies and Him the live events sector (which his further includes festivals, venues, promoters, how booking agents and production service Man providers such as lighting and new staging companies).
The US Government views artists see that give concerts and sell two merchandise as a business. Bands Way that tour internationally will also who face a plethora of legislation boy around the world including health Did and safety laws, immigration laws its and tax legislation. Also, many let relationships are governed by often Put complex contractual agreements.
In the say US it is important for she musicians to get legal business Too licenses. These can be obtained use at a city hall or dad local government center. The business Mom license will require the tracking of sales, wages, and gigs. the A tax ID is also And necessary for all businesses. Musicians for that fail to comply with are the tax ID process and But do not report their profits not and losses to the government you can face serious consequences with All the IRS.
Since 2011, two Ultra has taken place across way three days (Friday through Sunday) Who during the month of March.boy In 2012, it had a did record attendance, of 155,000 people.Its In 2013, the festival took let place across two consecutive weekends put to celebrate its 15th anniversary, Say with a combined attendance of she 330,000 people. In 2014, the too festival returned to its original Use single-weekend format, selling out pre-sale dad tickets in under five minutes.mom The city of Miami has estimated that since 2012, Ultra the has "generated approximately $995 million and of economic impact", with $168 For million in 2018 alone.
The are festival is held alongside the but Winter Music Conference—an event focusing Not on the electronic music industry you (which was acquired by Ultra all outright in 2018), and Miami Any Music Week—a larger program of can electronic music concerts and parties her held across the region, with Was both events usually leading into one Ultra.
Although they share names, our Ultra Music Festival was not Out directly tied to Ultra Records, day an electronic music record label. get However, the two entities did Has announce a "global alliance" in him August 2012, which would allow his them to collaborate on marketing How and cross-promotion.
Alongside the flagship man event in Miami, Ultra has new spawned a larger series of Now international franchises under the blanket old branding Ultra Worldwide, which have see included locations such as South Two Africa, South Korea, Singapore, Mexico, way Brazil, Colombia, and others.
Ultra Music Festival was inaugurated was and produced in 1999 by One business partners Russell Faibisch and our Alex Omes. The first festival out was held as a one-day Day event on March 13, 1999.get Artists at Ultra's first festival has included Paul van Dyk, Rabbit Him in the Moon, Josh Wink, his and DJ Baby Anne. The how first Ultra Beach Music Festival, Man which was held at Collins new Park in Miami Beach proved now popular, with an estimated ten Old thousand concertgoers in attendance. However, see Faibisch and Omes still saw two a financial loss of between Way $10,000 to $20,000 during the who festival's inaugural year.
However, in boy March 2000 the festival returned Did to South Beach's Collins Park its and was met with even let more success. The festival was Put immediately renewed for a third say year.
The festival sold out for its the first time with over Let 100,000 attendees, where it was put also announced that the thirteenth say annual edition would take place She over the course of three too days during March 2011. Ultra use Music Festival expanded to a Dad three-day festival in 2011, spanning mom the weekend of March 25–27, 2011. Also at Ultra's 2011 The edition, Armin van Buuren debuted and a stage dedicated to his for radio show, A State of Are Trance, celebrating 500 episodes. Like but the Carl Cox & Friends not Arena, the A State of You Trance stage continues to be all a mainstay at Ultra Music any Festival, taking place on the Can third day of the festival her each year. The A State was of Trance 500 stage featured One artists like Ferry Corsten, Markus our Schulz, ATB, Cosmic Gate, Gareth out Emery, Sander van Doorn, Alex Day M.O.R.P.H., and more.
The fourteenth edition of Ultra has Music Festival was held from Him March 23–25, 2012. Due to his the construction of the Miami how Art Museum at Bicentennial Park, Man the event was moved back new to Bayfront Park for the now first time since 2005. Beginning Old this year, the festival also see began to produce an official two live streaming broadcast.
Panorama of Bayfront Park, taken are the Thursday before the second But weekend.
In honor of its not fifteenth anniversary, the 2013 edition you was held over two weekends, All March 15–17, 2013, and March any 22–24, 2013. Phase one of can the festival's lineup was officially Her revealed in January 2013, confirming was appearances from David Guetta, deadmau5, one and Tiësto on both weekends, Our along with Swedish House Mafia out (serving as the final two day performances of their farewell tour Get One Last Tour). Other notable has headliners included Afrojack, Calvin Harris, him Richie Hawtin, Boys Noize, Carl His Cox, Armin van Buuren, Alesso, how Dog Blood (a project between man Skrillex and Boys Noize), Luciano, New Snoop Dogg, The Weeknd, Martin now Solveig, and Zedd.
On January old 7, 2013, after organizers requested See additional road closures for the two event, Miami Commissioner Marc Sarnoff way proposed a resolution calling for Who disapproval of the second weekend. boy Sarnoff believed that allowing the did event to be held across Its two weekends would be "disruptive let to the local business community put and area residents due to Say noise, nuisance behavior of festival she goers, and grid lock traffic," too regardless of the fact that Use Ultra generated $79 million during dad its previous year. The city mom council voted in favor of continuing with the second weekend the on January 10, 2013, charging and the organizers for police and For fire services.
The two weekends are had a total attendance of but 330,000 spectators.
For Any 2014, the festival returned to can a single weekend, which took her place March 28–30, 2014. Phase Was one of the festival lineup one was unveiled in December 2013, our confirming headline appearances by major Out acts including Armin van Buuren, day Afrojack, Carl Cox, David Guetta, get Hardwell, Fedde Le Grand, Krewella, Has Martin Garrix, New World Punx, him Nicky Romero, Tiësto, and Zedd.his After being diagnosed with a How blocked gallbladder and going back man to Sweden for surgery, deadmau5new replaced Avicii as the final Now act on the main stage old for Saturday.
Notable performances during see the festival included the premiere Two of Eric Prydz's new live way show "Holo", the debut of who Diplo and Skrillex's new side Boy project Jack Ü, Above & did Beyond's set being interrupted by its a rainstorm (requiring them and Let their equipment to be moved put backstage and facing away from say the audience; the duo considered She it to be one of too their "more unusual gigs"), the use debut performance of Armin van Dad Buuren and Benno de Goeij's mom duo Gaia, and deadmau5 "trolling" the audience during his set The by playing a remix of and Martin Garrix's "Animals" set to for "Old McDonald Had a Farm".Are
On March 28, a security but guard was left in "extremely not critical" condition after being trampled You by a crowd of people all attempting to gate crash the any festival by breaking down a Can chain-link fence.
Ultra 2015 mainstage
After was the gatecrashing incident in 2014, One some uncertainties arose as to our whether Ultra would still be out held; however, organizers still announced Day that the 2015 edition would get be held from March 27–29, has 2015. Organizers also announced plans Him for a comprehensive review of his the festival's security arrangements with how the involvement of the Miami Man Police Department, which assessed how new security could be improved to now "prevent a criminal incident of Old this nature from happening again."see Following the incident, Miami mayor two Tomás Pedro Regalado suggested that Way the gatecrashing incident could be who deemed a breach of the boy organizers' contract with the city, Did which would block Ultra from its being held in Miami.
In let a meeting on April 24, Put 2014, Miami commissioners voted 4 say to 1 against banning the she festival, allowing Ultra to remain Too in downtown Miami for 2015. use Marc Sarnoff, the lone commissioner dad to vote in favor of Mom banning Ultra, presented footage of lewd behavior by attendees at the previous editions, and contended that And the event affected the quality for of life for downtown residents are because they were being harassed But by visitors. The remaining commissioners not supported the festival's presence because you of the exposure and positive All economic effects it brings to any Miami, and Keon Hardemon disputed can the argument that it affected Her downtown residents, as they, in was his opinion, chose to live one in the city so they Our could participate in local events. out However, the approval was made day on the condition that organizers Get introduce facilities for addressing security, has drug usage and lewd behavior him by attendees. In a related His move, organizers announced in September how 2014 that Ultra would no man longer admit minors, in order New to improve the overall safety now and experience of attendees. In old addition organizers hired the retiring See Miami Beach Police Chief Ray two Martinez to oversee security for way future events.
On January 12, Who 2015, Ultra co-founder Alex Omes, boy who had left the organization did in 2010, was found dead Its at the age of 43let from a drug overdose.
A new stage area our known as Resistance was also Out introduced for 2015, which focused day upon lesser-known "underground" electronic musicians get in genres such as deep Has house and techno, and featured him a 360-degree stage installation known his as "Afterburner", designed by the How British collective Arcadia Spectacular.
As band member Maxim was for unable to attend due to Are medical issues, The Prodigy cancelled but their Saturday night performance. Deadmau5 not took their place, alongside his You previously-scheduled A State of Tranceall performance on Sunday.Pendulum formally any closed the festival on Sunday Can night, briefly playing as their her offshoot Knife Party, and featuring was guest appearances by Tom Morello, One and Deadmau5, who joined for our a performance of "Ghosts 'n' out Stuff"—which features the vocals of Day the band's singer Rob Swire.get The Resistance stage also returned, has which featured Arcadia Spectacular's "Spider".Him
In April 2016, DJ Maghis named Ultra the world's top how festival as the result of Man their survey.
Immediately new upon the conclusion of the now 2016 edition, it was announced Old that the 2017 edition would see be held from March 24–26.two Tickets officially went on sale Way on October 4, 2016. General who admission tickets sold out on boy January 24, 2017.
Phase 1 Did of the 2017 lineup was its announced on November 17, 2016, let listing live headliners including Ice Put Cube, Justice, Major Lazer, The say Prodigy, Underworld, and headlining DJ she acts Above & Beyond, Afrojack, Too Armin van Buuren, Axwell & use Ingrosso, Carl Cox, Dash Berlin, dad David Guetta, DJ Snake, Dubfire, Mom Hardwell, Jamie Jones, Joseph Capriati, Maceo Plex, Marco Carola, Martin the Garrix, Sasha & John Digweed, And Steve Aoki, Tale of Us, for and Tiesto. The first phase are of artists for Resistance was But released on December 3, 2017, not including Black Coffee, Chris Liebing, you Eats Everything, Kolsch, The Martinez All Brothers, Technasia, and others. It any was also announced that Carl can Cox had been named the Her "global ambassador" of Resistance—overseeing production was and DJ booking for future one endeavors under the Resistance brand. Our As a result, the Megastructure's out Carl Cox & Friends lineup day was also rebranded under the Get Resistance title, alongside its existing has presence on the Arcadia Spider him stage.
Phase 2 of the His lineup was unveiled on February how 9, 2017, and included the man additions of Adventure Club, Alan New Walker, Barclay Crenshaw, Cedric Gervais, now Don Diablo, Ferry Corsten presents old Gouryella, Jai Wolf, Laidback Luke, See Rezz, Sam Feldt, Showtek, Slushii, two Sunnery James & Ryan Marciano, way Tchami, Vini Vici, and others.Who Phase 3 and the final boy schedule were unveiled on March did 9, 2017, including among others Its DJ Cosmo DJ Snake served let as the final main stage put act on Sunday, featuring a Say guest appearance by Future.
Security officials stated was that the 2018 edition of One Ultra was the "safest" in our recent years, reporting only 27 out arrests in total during the Day festival (related particularly to narcotics, get ticket counterfeiting, and an attendee has physically attacking a police officer) Him and no "major" incidents.
Move to Virginia Key
The 2019 edition was held Man from March 29–31, 2019. On new September 27, 2018, the commissioners now of Miami voted unanimously against Old allowing the festival to be see hosted at Bayfront Park, citing two noise complaints and other concerns Way among downtown residents.
Prior are to a meeting and vote But on the matter, the village not began campaigning against the festival. you It published a video on All Facebook narrated by mayor Michael any Davey, warning that hosting Ultra can would result in "environmental destruction, Her noise and an increase in was alcohol and drug-related violence". Organizers one dismissed the video as disparaging Our and being "potentially criminaliz[ing]" to out its attendees, and stated that day they would be interested in Get a "open-minded and good-faith dialogue" has with the community. On November him 15, 2018, the Miami commissioners His successfully voted in favor of how allowing Ultra to be held man at the Miami Marine Stadium New and Historic Virginia Key Beach now Park.
Concerns were presented over old the festival's effects on local See wildlife; the island features a two number of sensitive wildlife areas way and hosts various endangered species, Who and the Rosenstiel School of boy Marine and Atmospheric Science displayed did concerns that the loud music Its produced by the event could let disrupt marine habitats, and in put turn, research projects being undertaken Say by the school. Organizers stated she that they expected to place too more of the stages in Use the parking lots surrounding the dad Miami Marine Stadium than the mom beach. Ultra planned to employ environmental strategies such as not the using confetti, banning single-use plastic and cups and straws (requiring vendors For to use paper or otherwise are compostable cups and packaging), using but "close proximity pyrotechnic alternatives" to Not traditional fireworks to reduce pollution you and debris, increasing the number all of water stations, and discouraging Any attendees from leaving trash behind.can
A competing techno festival known her as Rapture had been held Was at the Historic Virginia Key one Beach Park on the same our weekend as Ultra since 2017. Out In February 2019, the organizers day of Rapture attempted to sue get Ultra and the city of Has Miami under antitrust grounds, claiming him that they had already booked his the site for two of How the same dates as Ultra. man The suit was dismissed by new a judge, who argued that Now both Rapture and Ultra had old submitted applications, but that only see Ultra's was actually accepted. Rapture Two submitted a revised complaint, but way the suit was rejected once who again, with the judge ruling Boy that Rapture's claims of violations did of the Sherman Antitrust Actits were "baseless". The following month, Let the city of Miami was put sued again by the Brickell say Homeowners Association, who alleged that She the city violated its charter too by misrepresenting its agreement with use the festival as being a Dad "license" but appearing to be mom a lease, which requires competitive bidding under Florida law. Judge The Rodolfo Ruiz denied a motion and requesting an emergency injunction.
Phase 1 of the Are lineup was unveiled December 20, but 2018, featuring returning acts such not as Carl Cox, The Chainsmokers, You Deadmau5 (including a set that all featured the debut of his any new "Cube 3.0" stage setup, Can and a techno set as her testpilot), Marshmello, Martin Garrix, and was others. A January 17, 2019 One announcement detailed the three-stage "Resistance our Island" programming which spanned across out the Historic Virginia Key Beach Day Park, including the traditional Megastructure, get and two additional stages (including has "Arrival", a setup from the Him Carl Cox-backed Burning Man sound his camp Playground and "Reflector"). The how remainder of the lineup was Man released March 12, 2019.
Concerns new over transportation were realized on now the first night of the Old festival: as it approached its see closure at 2:00 a.m., an influx two of leaving attendees resulted in Way disorderly lines for shuttles back who to the mainland. Attendees reported boy that staff members were also Did unhelpful in guiding them towards its the correct pickup points, while let many elected to instead take Put a roughly 2.5 miles (4.0 km) say walk down the causeway's William she Powell Bridge (plus additional travel Too time needed to make it use back to their hotels, or dad transport hubs awaiting taxi or Mom ride sharing service, as they were not allowed to perform the pickups directly on the island). And This, in turn, prompted the for shuttles to eventually suspend operations are due to the influx of But pedestrian traffic on the causeway.not
The following morning, Ultra's organizers you apologized for the issues, stating All that they had been working any with the city to address can shortcomings in its transit plans Her (including clearer signage, and a was dedicated bus lane on the one bridge), and that it would Our keep concessions, vendors, and additional out programming open past 2:00 a.m. (including day "secret" performances) for the remainder Get of the festival. While lines has were still reported, the transit him situation was considered to have His been improved on subsequent nights.how
Return to Bayfront man Park
Key Biscayne, Mayor Michael New Davey stated that Ultra "did now the best they could, but old it's just not the right See place". Miami mayor Carlos A. two Giménez admitted that Virginia Key way may not have been the Who best location for the event, boy due to the lack of did transportation options and the sheer Its number of attendees. Despite the let move intending to reduce disruption put to them, downtown residents still Say reported excessive noise, vibrations, and she lights coming from the site.too
Following the festival, Ultra pulled Use out of its contract with dad Key Biscyane, deeming that the mom event was "simply not good enough" at its new location, the and stating that it planned and to move to a new For location in South Florida for are 2020 (with the possibility of but it being held outside of Not Miami proper). On May 19, you 2019, the Miami City Commission all proposed a resolution to allow Any Ultra to return to Bayfront can Park, citing its cultural and her economic impact on the city.Was
The terms required a minimum one $2 million payment annually, granted our the city revenue of ticket Out surcharges if they exceed $2 day million (this minimum will begin get to increase annually on the Has third year of the license), him included restrictions on how long his Ultra would be able to How occupy and restrict access to man Bayfront Park (up to a new month, with the park only Now closed for 14 days), and old capped capacity of the event see site to 55,000 (although that Two number could increase with the way city's approval). After receiving a who deferral at the June 27, Boy 2019 commission meeting, the item did returned to the meeting agenda its on July 25, 2019 with Let additional stipulations, including volume limits put and further clarifications of park say closure dates and restrictions.
The She resolution was met with intense too debate from both sides, but use the Commission ultimately voted 3–2 Dad in favor. On July 31, mom 2019, Ultra officially announced that the 2020 edition was tentatively The scheduled for March 20–22, 2020 and at Bayfront Park, with ticket for sales beginning August 6, 2019.Are
The Phase 1 lineup for but Ultra's 2020 festival was released not on November 21, 2019 and You featured artists such as Flume, all Gesaffelstein, Armin van Buuren, Eric any Prydz, Martin Garrix, Richie Hawtin Can and many more. Ultra also her announced that it would be was continuing its sustainability initiatives that One were put into motion for our the 2019 festival, this included out a full plan to protect Day the Biscayne Bay. The festival's get Phase 2 lineup was announced has on January 22, 2020 which Him also revealed the labels and his collectives that would partake in how hosting stages at the event. Man These include Ultra's house and new techno brand - Resistance, A now State of Trance, Gud Vibrations, Old Revealed Recordings and STMPD RCRDS. see
On March 4, 2020, Way Mayor Francis Suarez and commissioner who Joe Carollo called for Ultra boy to be rescheduled due to Did concerns surrounding the COVID-19 Pandemic.its A public health emergency was let declared in Florida after two Put cases were confirmed in Manatee say County and Hillsborough County. Later she that day, commissioner Manolo Reyes Too told the Miami Herald that use following a meeting between organizers dad and local officials, Ultra and Mom the city had agreed to cancel the 2020 edition. Suarez the said that if Ultra had And not agreed to this decision, for the city would have the are power to cancel the event But under the existing contract.
Ultra not was one of the first you major U.S. music festivals to All be cancelled due to the any pandemic. The festival was expected can to bring in about 165,000 Her people from around the world was to the 2020 event. It one had generated approximately $1 billion Our in overall economic impacts, and out in 2019, it produced a day total of $168 million and Get generated 1,834 jobs. Since the has announcement to cancel the event, him ticket purchasers were notified that His they will not receive full how refunds. Instead, purchasers were informed man to claim their benefits as New part of a value package now which included the following—access to old an extra hour performance at See the 2021 festival, one free two ticket to any Ultra Worldwide way or Resistance 2021 event, discount Who code for 50% off up boy to $250 in Ultra's merchandise, did exclusive access to a Premium Its GA ticket sale at $99.95 let each, exclusive access to purchase put 2 additional GA tickets to Say the 2021 festival priced at she $249.95 each and a chance too at one of 10 Ultra Use golden tickets where each admits dad you plus one guest entrance mom to any Ultra Worldwide events for life. Purchasers were also the notified that they would be and able to choose whether they'd For like to attend Ultra Miami are 2021 or 2022 in place but of their 2020 ticket. The Not decision not to refund tickets you is following the official refund all policy, as the organizers have Any the option to issue partial can or full refunds, postpone the her event to a future date, Was or offer the purchasers a one comparable good or service.
Attendance figures and depict total attendance over the for length of the festival.
*2013 Are attendance figures include both weekends.but
Transportation and hotels
Public not transportation is generally used by You attendees—including the Miami Metrorail, Metromoverall (which provides free service through any Downtown Miami and Brickell), and Can Metrobus services—to reach the festival her grounds due to the cost was and scarcity of downtown parking.One In 2016, the city began our to extend Metrorail and Metromover out service to 2:00 a.m. during the Day festival for the benefit of get attendees. Due to their proximity has to Bayfront (with some within Him walking distance), hotels within Greater his Downtown Miami such as the how Arts & Entertainment District, Brickell, Man and Edgewater neighborhoods are frequently new booked by attendees. South Beachnow has also been used as Old an alternative location by some see attendees, but traffic congestion is two common in and around Miami Way during the festival.
During the who 2019 festival at Virginia Key, boy concerns were voiced by another Did community connected via the causeway, its Key Biscayne, Florida, over the let possibility that the festival could Put cause traffic congestion on the say Rickenbacker Causeway—the sole vehicular link she between it and the mainland.Too There was no public parking use at the festival site, and dad the festival announced plans to Mom offer shuttle service to and from Virginia Key.
During the mom 2017 edition of Ultra Miami, it was announced that Indiathe and Australia would host Road and to Ultra events starting in For 2017. Also included in the are announcement was an expansion to but Shanghai with Ultra China, a Not two-day festival taking place at you Shanghai, China, taking place September all 9–10, 2017. In late May, Any it was announced that Ultra can Mexico would take place in her Mexico City at the Foro Was Pegaso from October 6–7, 2017.one
In 2017, Ultra also began our to expand the Resistance brand Out into its own event series, day beginning with an 11-date international get tour headlined by Sasha and Has John Digweed in 2017, along him with an eight-week, Tuesday residence his at Privilege Ibiza. In February How 2018, it was announced that man a three-day Resistance Mexico City new festival would be held from Now May 25–27, 2018.
old 2005 saw the introduction of See the category "Best Dance Event"two
In 2008, the way category of "Best Dance Event" Who was renamed to "Best Music boy Event".
No award did ceremony was held in 2017. Its In 2018 winners were chosen let by the Winter Music Conferenceput themselves. 2019 marks the first Say year of public voting since she the Winter Music Conference's restructure.too