Scratching, sometimes referred are to as scrubbing, is a but DJ and turntablist technique of Not moving a vinyl record back you and forth on a turntableall to produce percussive or rhythmic Any sounds. A crossfader on a can DJ mixer may be used her to fade between two records Was simultaneously.
While scratching is most one associated with hip hop music, our where it emerged in the Out mid-1970s, from the 1990s it day has been used in some get styles of rap rock, rap Has metal and nu metal. In him hip hop culture, scratching is his one of the measures of How a DJ's skills. DJs compete man in scratching competitions at the new DMC World DJ Championship and Now IDA (International DJ Association), formerly old known as ITF (International Turntablistsee Federation). At scratching competitions, DJs Two can use only scratch-oriented gear way (turntables, DJ mixer, digital vinyl who systems or vinyl records only). Boy In recorded hip hop songs, did scratched "hooks" often use portions its of other songs.
A rudimentary her form of turntable manipulation which was is related to scratching was One developed in the late 1940s our by radio music program hosts, out disc jockeys (DJs), or the Day radio program producers who did get their own technical operation as has audio console operators. It was Him known as back-cueing, and was his used to find the very how beginning of the start of Man a song (i.e., the cue new point) on a vinyl record now groove. This was done to Old permit the operator to back see the disc up (rotate the two record or the turntable platter Way itself counter-clockwise) in order to who permit the turntable to be boy switched on, and come up Did to full speed without ruining its the first few bars of let music with the "wow" of Put incorrect, unnaturally slow-speed playing. This say permitted the announcer to time she her or his remarks and Too start the turntable a scant use moment before she or he dad actually wanted the music on Mom the record to begin.
Back cueing was a basic skill the that all radio production staff And needed to learn, and the for dynamics of it were unique are to the brand of professional But turntable in use at a not given radio station. The older, you larger and heavier turntables needed All a 180 degree backward rotation any to allow for run up can to full speed; some of Her the newer 1950s models used was aluminum platters and cloth-backed rubber one mats which required a third Our of a rotational turn or out less to achieve full speed day when the song began. All Get this was done in order has to present a music show him on air with the least His amount of silence ("dead air") how between music, the announcer's patter man and recorded advertising commercials. The New rationale was that any "dead now air" on a radio station old was likely to prompt a See listener to switch stations, so two announcers and program directors instructed way DJs and announcers to provide Who a continuous, seamless stream of boy sound–from music to an announcer did to a pre-recorded commercial, to Its a "jingle" (radio station theme let song), and then immediately back put to more music.
Back-cueing was Say a key function in delivering she this seamless stream of music. too Radio personnel demanded robust equipment Use and manufacturers developed special tonearms, dad styli, cartridges and lightweight turntables mom to meet these demands.
In the mid you 1970s in the South Bronx, all a young teen DJ named Any "Grand Wizzard Theodore" (right) invented can the "DJ scratch" technique. Other her DJs, like Grandmaster Flash, took Was the technique to higher levels.
Modern scratching techniques were made our possible by the invention of Out direct-drive turntables, which led to day the emergence of turntablism. Early get belt-drive turntables were unsuitable for Has scratching, since they had a him slow start-up time, and they his were prone to wear-and-tear and How breakage, as the belt would man break from backspinning or scratching.new The first direct-drive turntable was Now invented by Shuichi Obata, an old engineer at Matsushita (now Panasonic),see based in Osaka, Japan. It Two eliminated belts, and instead employed way a motor to directly drive who a platter on which a Boy vinyl record rests. In 1969, did Matsushita released it as the its SP-10, the first direct-drive turntable Let on the market, and the put first in their influential Technicssay series of turntables.
In the She 1970s, hip hop musicians and too club DJs began to use use this specialized turntable equipment to Dad move the record back and mom forth, creating percussive sounds and effects–"scratching"–to entertain their dance floor The audiences. Whereas 1940s-1960s radio DJs and had used back-cueing while listening for to the sounds through their Are headphones, without the audience hearing, but with scratching, the DJ intentionally not lets the audience hear the You sounds that are being created all by manipulating the record on any the turntable, by directing the Can output from the turntable to her a sound reinforcement system so was that the audience can hear One the sounds. Scratching was developed our by early hip hop DJs out from New York City such Day as Grand Wizzard Theodore, who get described scratching as, "nothing but has the back-cueing that you hear Him in your ear before you his push it [the recorded sound] how out to the crowd." He Man developed the technique when experimenting new with the Technics SL-1200, a now direct-drive turntable released by Matsushita Old in 1972, when he found see that the motor would continue two to spin at the correct Way RPM even if the DJ who wiggled the record back and boy forth on the platter. Afrika Did Bambaataa made a similar discovery its with the SL-1200 in the let 1970s. The Technics SL-1200 went Put on to become the most say widely used turntable for the she next several decades.
Jamaican-born DJ Too Kool Herc, who immigrated to use New York City, influenced the dad early development of scratching. Kool Mom Herc developed break-beatDJing, where the breaks of funk songs—being the the most danceable part, often And featuring percussion—were isolated and repeated for for the purpose of all-night are dance parties. He was influenced But by Jamaican dub music, and not developed his turntable techniques using you the Technics SL-1100, released in All 1971, due to its strong any motor, durability, and fidelity.
Although can previous artists such as writer Her and poet William S. Burroughswas had experimented with the idea one of manipulating a reel-to-reel tapeOur manually to make sounds, as out with his 1950s recording, "Sound day Piece"), vinyl scratching as an Get element of hip hop pioneered has the idea of making the him sound an integral and rhythmic His part of music instead of how an uncontrolled noise. Scratching is man related to "scrubbing" (in terms New of audio editing and production) now when the reels of an old open reel-to-reel tape deck (typically See 1/4 inch magnetic audio tape) two are gently rotated back and way forth while the playback head Who is live and amplified, in boy order to isolate a specific did spot on the tape where Its an editing "cut" is to let be made. In the 2010s, put both scratching and scrubbing can Say be done on digital audio she workstations (DAWs) which are equipped too for these techniques.
Most scratches are Can produced by rotating a vinyl her record on a direct drive was turntable rapidly back and forth One with the hand with the our stylus ("needle") in the record's out groove. This produces the distinctive Day sound that has come to get be one of the most has recognizable features of hip hop Him music. Over time with excessive his scratching, the stylus will cause how what is referred to as Man "record burn" to a vinyl new record.
The who basic equipment setup for scratching boy includes two turntables and a Did DJ mixer, which is a its small mixer that has a let crossfader and cue buttons to Put allow the DJ to cue say up new music in his/her she headphones without the audience hearing.[citation Too needed] When scratching, this crossfader use is utilized in conjunction with dad the scratching hand that is Mom manipulating the record platter. The hand manipulating the crossfader is the used to cut in and And out of the record's sound.[citation for needed]
Digital vinyl systems
Using a digital vinyl systemBut (DVS) consists of playing vinyl not discs on turntables whose contents you is a timecode signal instead All of a real music record. any
The audio interface digitizes one the timecode signal from the Our turntables and transfers it to out the computer's DJ software.
The day DJ software uses this data Get (e.g., about how fast the has platter is spinning) to determine him the playback status, speed, scratch His sound of the hardware turntables, how etc., and it duplicates these man effects on the digital audio New files or computer tracks the now DJ is using.
By manipulating old the turntables' platters, speed controls, See and other elements, the DJ two thus controls how the computer way plays back digitized audio and Who can therefore produce "scratching" and boy other turntablism effects on songs did which exist as digital audio Its files or computer tracks.
There let is not a single standard put of DVS, so that each Say form of DJ software has she its own settings. Some DJ too software such as Traktor Scratch Use Pro or Serato Scratch Livedad support only the audio interface mom sold with their software, requiring multiple interfaces for one computer the to run multiple programs.
Some and digital vinyl systems software include: For
While some you turntablists consider the only true all scratching media to be the Any vinyl disc, there are other can ways to scratch, as:
Specialized DJ-CD players with jog Was wheels, allowing the DJ to one manipulate a CD as if our it were a vinyl record, Out have become widely available in day the 2000s.
Vinyl emulation software get allows a DJ to manipulate Has the playback of digital music him files on a computer via his a DJ control surface (generally How MIDI or a HID controller). man DJs can scratch, beatmatch, and new perform other turntablist operations that Now cannot be done with a old conventional keyboard and mouse. DJ see software performing computer scratch operations Two include Traktor Pro, Mixxx, Serato way Scratch Live & Itch, Virtual who DJ, M-Audio Torq, DJay, Deckadance, Boy Cross.
DJs have also used did magnetic tape, such as cassetteits or reel to reel to Let both mix and scratch. Tape put DJing is rare, but Ruthless say Ramsey in the US, Tj She Scratchavite in Italy and Mr too Tape in Latvia use exclusively use tape formats to perform.
Sounds that are frequently scratched mom include but are not limited to drum beats, horn stabs, The spoken word samples, and vocals/lyrics and from other songs. Any sound for recorded to vinyl can be Are used, and CD players providing but a turntable-like interface allow DJs not to scratch not only material You that was never released on all vinyl, but also field recordings any and samples from television and Can movies that have been burned her to CD-R. Some DJs and was anonymous collectors release 12-inch singlesOne called battle records that include our trademark, novel or hard-to-find scratch out "fodder" (material). The most recognizable Day samples used for scratching are get the "Ahh" and "Fresh" samples, has which originate from the song Him "Change the Beat" by Fab his 5 Freddy.
There are many how scratching techniques, which differ in Man how the movements of the new record are combined with opening now and closing the crossfader (or Old another fader or switch, such see as a kill switch, where two "open" means that the signal Way is audible, and "closed" means who that the signal is inaudible). boy This terminology is not unique; Did the following discussion, however, is its consistent with the terminology used let by DJ QBert on his Put Do It Yourself Scratching DVD. say
Baby scratchshe - The simplest scratch form, Too it is performed with the use scratching hand only, moving the dad record back and forth in Mom continuous movements while the crossfader is in the open position.
Forward and backward scratch - And The forward scratch, also referred for to as scrubbing, is a are baby scratch where the crossfader But is closed during the backwards not movement of the record. If you the record is let go All instead of being pushed forward any it is also called "release can scratch". Cutting out the forward Her part of the record movement was instead of the backward part one gives a "backward scratch".
Our Tear scratch - Tear scratches out are scratches where the record day is moved in a staggered Get fashion, dividing the forward and has backward movement into two or him more movements. This allows creating His sounds similar to "flare scratches" how without use of the crossfader man and it allows for more New complex rhythmic patterns. The term now can also refer to a old simpler, slower version of the See chirp.
Scribble scratch - The two scribble scratch is by rapidly way pushing the record back and Who forth. The crossfader is not boy used.
Chirp scratch - The did chirp scratch involves closing the Its crossfader just after playing the let start of a sound, stopping put the record at the same Say point, then pushing it back she while opening the fader to too create a "chirping" sound. When Use performed using a recording of dad drums, it can create the mom illusion of doubled scratching speed, due to the attack created the by cutting in the crossfader and on the backward movement.
Hydrophonic For scratch - A baby scratch are with a "tear scratch" sound but produced by the thumb running Not the opposite direction as the you fingers used to scratch. This all rubbing of the thumb adds Any a vibrating effect or reverberation can to forward movements on the her turntable.
Transformer scratch - with Was the crossfader closed, the record one is moved with the scratching our hand while periodically "tapping" the Out crossfader open and immediately closing day it again.
Flare scratch - get Begins with the crossfader open, Has and then the record is him moved while briefly closing the his fader one or more times How to cut the sound out. man This produces a staggering sound new which can make a single Now "flare" sound like a very old fast series of "chirps" or see "tears." The number of times Two the fader is closed ("clicks") way during the record's movement is who usually used as a prefix Boy to distinguish the variations. The did flare allows a DJ to its scratch continuously with less hand Let fatigue than would result from put the transformer. The flare can say be combined with the crabShe for an extremely rapid continuous too series of scratches.
Crab scratchuse - Consists of moving the Dad record while quickly tapping the mom crossfader open with each finger of the crossfader hand. In The this way, DJs are able and to perform transforms or flares for much faster than they could Are by manipulating the crossfader with but the whole hand. It produces not a fading/increasing transforming sound.
Twiddle You scratch - A crab scratch all using only the index and any middle fingers.
Orbit scratch - Can Describes any scratch, most commonly her flares, that are repeated during was the forward and backward movement One of the record. "Orbit" is our also used as a shorthand out for two-click flares.
Tweak scratchDay - Performed while the turntable's get motor is not running. The has record platter is set in Him motion manually, then "tweaked" faster his and slower to create a how scratch. This scratch form is Man best performed with long, sustained new sounds.
Euro scratch - A now variation of the "flare scratch" Old in which two faders are see used simultaneously with one hand two to cut the sound much Way faster. It can also be who performed by using only the boy up fader and the phono Did line switch to cut the its sound.
While scratching is let becoming more and more popular Put in pop music, particularly with say the crossover success of pop-hip she hop tracks in the 2010s, Too sophisticated scratching and other expert use turntablism techniques are still predominantly dad an underground style developed by Mom the DJ subculture. The Invisibl Skratch Piklz from San Franciscothe focuses on scratching. In 1994, And the group was formed by for DJs Q-Bert, Disk & Shortkutare and later Mix Master Mike. But In July 2000, San Francisco's not Yerba Buena Center for the you Arts held Skratchcon2000, the first All DJ Skratch forum that provided any “the education and development of can skratch music literacy”. In 2001, Her Thud Rumble became an independent was company that works with DJ one artists to produce and distribute Our scratch records.
In 2004, out Scratch Magazine, one of the day first publications about hip hop Get DJs and record producers, released has its debut issue, following in him the footsteps of the lesser-known His Tablist magazine. Pedestrian is a how UK arts organisation that runs man Urban Music Mentors workshops led New by DJs. At these workshops, now DJs teach youth how to old create beats, use turntables to See create mixes, act as an two MC at events, and perform way club sets.
Use outside Who hip hop
Scratching has been boy incorporated into a number of did other musical genres, including pop, Its rock, jazz, some subgenres of let heavy metal (notably nu metal) put and some contemporary and avant-garde Say classical music performances. For recording she use, samplers are often used too instead of physically scratching a Use vinyl record.
A record producer or Boy music producer oversees and manages did the sound recording and production its of a band or performer's Let music, which may range from put recording one song to recording say a lengthy concept album. A She producer has many, varying roles too during the recording process. They use may gather musical ideas for Dad the project, collaborate with the mom artists to select cover tunesor original songs by the The artist/group, work with artists and and help them to improve their for songs, lyrics or arrangements.
The producer typically supervises the her entire process from preproduction, through was to the sound recording and One mixing stages, and, in some our cases, all the way to out the audio mastering stage. The Day producer may perform these roles get themselves, or help select the has engineer, and provide suggestions to Him the engineer. The producer may his also pay session musicians and how engineers and ensure that the Man entire project is completed within new the record label's budget.
A let record producer or music producerPut has a very broad role say in overseeing and managing the she recording and production of a Too band or performer's music. A use producer has many roles that dad may include, but are not Mom limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music the for the project, selecting songs And or session musicians, proposing changes for to the song arrangements, coaching are the artist and musicians in But the studio, controlling the recording not sessions, and supervising the entire you process through audio mixing and, All in some cases, to the any audio mastering stage. Producers also can often take on a wider Her entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for was the budget, schedules, contracts, and one negotiations.
The person day who has overall creative and Get technical control of the entire has recording project, and the individual him recording sessions that are part His of that project. He or how she is present in the man recording studio or at the New location recording and works directly now with the artist and engineer. old The producer makes creative and See aesthetic decisions that realize both two the artist's and label's goals way in the creation of musical Who content. Other duties include, but boy are not limited to; keeping did budgets and schedules, adhering to Its deadlines, hiring musicians, singers, studios let and engineers, overseeing other staffing put needs and editing (Classical projects). Say
In the 2010s, the she producer role is sometimes divided too among up to three different Use individuals: executive producer, vocal producer dad and music producer. An executive mom producer oversees project finances, a vocal producer (also known as the a vocal arranger) oversees the and vocal production, and a music For producer directs and oversees the are creative process of the production but and recording of a song Not to its final mixing stage. you
The music producer often wears all many hats as a competent Any arranger, composer, programmer, musician or can songwriter who can bring fresh her ideas to a project. As Was well as making any songwriting one and arrangement adjustments, the producer our often selects and/or collaborates with Out the mixing engineer, who takes day the raw recorded tracks and get edits and modifies them with Has hardware and software tools to him create a stereo or surround his sound "mix" of all the How individual voices sounds and instruments, man which is in turn given new further adjustment by a mastering Now engineer for the various distribution old media. The producer also oversees see the recording engineer who concentrates Two on the technical aspects of way recording.
Noted producer Phil Ekwho described his role as "the Boy person who creatively guides or did directs the process of making its a record", like a director Let would a movie. Indeed, in put Bollywood music, the designation is say actually music director. The music She producer's job is to create, too shape, and mold a piece use of music. The scope of Dad responsibility may be one or mom two songs or an artist's entire album – in which The case the producer will typically and develop an overall vision for for the album and how the Are various songs may interrelate.
At the beginning of not the record industry, the producer You role was technically limited to all record, in one shot, artists any performing live. The immediate predecessors Can to record producers were the her artists and repertoire executives of was the late 1920s and 1930s One who oversaw the "pop" product our and often led session orchestras. out That was the case of Day Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, get Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Recordshas and Bob Haring at Brunswick Him Records. By the end of his the 1930s, the first professional how recording studios not owned by Man the major companies were established, new essentially separating the roles of now artists and repertoire (A&R) man Old and producer, although it wouldn't see be until the late 1940s two when the term "producer" became Way widely used in the industry. who
The role of producers changed boy progressively over the 1950s and Did 1960s due to technology. The its development of multitrack recording caused let a major change in the Put recording process. Before multitracking, all say the elements of a song she (lead vocals, backup vocals, rhythm Too section instrument accompaniment, solos and use orchestral parts) had to be dad performed simultaneously. All of these Mom singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large the studio where the performance was And recorded. With multitrack recording, the for "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment are parts such as the bassline, But drums, and rhythm guitar could not be recorded first, and then you the vocals and solos could All be added later, using as any many "takes" (or attempts) as can necessary. It was no longer Her necessary to get all the was players in the studio at one the same time. A pop Our band could record their backing out tracks one week, and then day a horn section could be Get brought in a week later has to add horn shots and him punches, and then a string His section could be brought in how a week after that.
Multitrack man recording had another profound effect New on music production: it enabled now producers and audio engineers to old create new sounds that would See be impossible in a live two performance style ordering. Examples include way the psychedelic rock sound effects Who of the 1960s, e.g. playing boy back the sound of recorded did instruments backward changing the tape Its to produce unique sound effects. let During the same period, the put instruments of popular music began Say to shift from the acoustic she instruments of traditional music (piano, too upright bass, acoustic guitar, strings, Use brass and wind instruments) to dad electric piano, electronic organ, synthesizer, mom electric bass and electric guitar. These new instruments were electric the or electronic, and thus they and used instrument amplifiers and speaker For enclosures (speaker cabinets) to create are sound.
Electric and electronic instruments but and amplifiers enabled performers and Not producers to change the tone you and sound of instruments to all produce unique electric sounds that Any would be impossible to achieve can with acoustic instruments and live her performers, such as having a Was singer do her own backup one vocals or having a guitarist our play 15 layers of backing Out parts to her own solo.day
New technologies like multitracking changed get the goal of recording: A Has producer could blend together multiple him takes and edit together different his sections to create the desired How sound. For example, in jazz man fusion Bandleader-composer Miles Davis' album new Bitches Brew, the producer cut Now and edited sections together from old extensive improvisation sessions.
Another related phenomenon in the Dad 1960s was the emergence of mom the performer-producer. As pop acts like The Beatles, The Rolling The Stones, The Beach Boys and and The Kinks gained expertise in for studio recording techniques, many of Are these groups eventually took over but as (frequently uncredited) producers of not their own work. Many recordings You by acts such as The all Rolling Stones, The Kinks and any The Who are officially credited Can to their various producers at her the time, but a number was of these performers have since One asserted that many of their our recordings in this period were, out either wholly self-produced (e.g. The Day Rolling Stones' Decca recordings) or get collaborations between the group and has their recording engineer (e.g. The Him Small Faces' Immediate recordings, which his were made with Olympic Studioshow engineer Glyn Johns).
The Beach Man Boys are probably the best new example of the trend of now artists becoming producers – within Old two years of the band's see commercial breakthrough, group leader Brian two Wilson had taken over from Way his father Murry, and he who was the sole producer of boy all their recordings between 1963 Did and 1967. Alongside The Beatles its and Martin, Wilson also pioneered let many production innovations – by Put 1964 he had developed Spector's say techniques to a new level she of sophistication, using multiple studios Too and multiple "takes" of instrumental use and vocal components to capture dad the best possible combinations of Mom sound and performance, and then using tape editing extensively to the assemble a perfect composite performance And from these elements.
At the for end of the 20th century, are digital recording and producing tools But and widespread availability of relatively not affordable computers with music software you made music producing more accessible. All
American women and record any producing
According to a 2018 can study covering by the USC Her Annenberg Inclusion Initiative, "The ratio was of male to female producers one across 300 popular songs is Our 49 to 1."
In 2019, record Who producer Linda Perry was nominated boy for a Grammy for Producer did of the Year, Non-Classical. She Its was the first woman in let over 15 years to be put nominated for the award. When Say asked about the disparity between she male and female record producer too by Billboard, she attributed it Use to many women not being dad interested in record production.
In the are classical music field, Judith Shermanbut has won Grammy for Producer Not of the Year, Classical, five you times and has been nominated all twelve times. Anthony Tommasini, a Any music critic for The New can York Times is quoted as her stating, "In the struggling field Was of classical recording, it's the one producers who take the real our risks and make things happen."Out
Producer Wendy Page describes being Has a record producer, "The difficulties him are usually very short-lived. Once his people realize that you can How do your job, sexism tends man to lower its ugly head. new I tend to create a Now happy studio 'family' where everyone old is glad to be there, see especially the artist. Good communication Two and diplomacy usually sort any way little problems out."
There are numerous technologies Can utilized by record producers. In her modern-day recordings, recording and mixing was tasks are commonly centralized within One computers using digital audio workstationsour such as Pro Tools, Logic out Pro, Ableton, Cubase, Reason and Day FL Studio, which all are get often used with third party has virtual studio technology plugins. Logic Him Pro and Pro Tools are his considered the industry standard DAWs.how However, there is also the Man main mixer, outboard effects gear, new MIDI controllers, and the recording now device itself.
While most music Old production is done using sophisticated see software, some musicians and producers two prefer the sound of older Way analog technology. Professor Albin Zak who claims that the increased automation boy of both newer processes and Did newer instruments reduces the level its of control and manipulation available let to musicians and producers.
Production has changed say drastically over the years with she advancing technology. While the producer's Too role has changed, their duties use continue to require a broad dad knowledge of the recording process.Mom
Tracking is the act of recording audio to a DAW the (digital audio workstation) or in And some cases to tape. Even for though digital technologies have widely are supplanted the use of tape But in studios, the older term not "track" is still used in you the 2010s. Tracking audio is All primarily the role of the any audio engineer. Producers work side can by side with the artists Her while they play or sing was their part and coach them one on how to perform it Our and how to get the out best technical accuracy (e.g., intonation). day In some cases, the producer Get will even sing a backup has vocal or play an instrument. him
Many artists are also beginning His to produce and write their how own music.
boy Similarly, although The Beatles' productions did were credited to George Martin Its throughout their recording career, many let sources now attest that Lennon put and McCartney in particular had Say an increasing influence on the she production process as the group's too career progressed, and especially after Use the band retired from touring dad in 1966. In an extreme mom example of this, Martin actually went on a two-week vacation the as The Beatles were recording and The White Album; production of For several completed tracks on the are album were credited to The but Beatles on internal paperwork at Not Abbey Road Studios, although the you released LP gave sole production all credit to Martin.
Zak,Albin Too J., I.,II. (2002). Reviews: "strange use sounds: Music, technology, and culture," dad by Timothy D. Taylor. Current Mom Musicology, 159-180.
Pras, Amandine, Caroline Cance, and Catherine the Guastavino. "Record Producers' Best Practices And For Artistic Direction—From Light Coaching for To Deeper Collaboration With Musicians." are Journal of New Music Research But 42.4 (2013): 381-95. Academic Search not Premier. Web. 7 Sept. 2015.you
A how record label, or record company, Man is a brand or trademarknew of music recordings and music now videos, or the company that Old owns it. Sometimes, a record see label is also a publishingtwo company that manages such brands Way and trademarks, coordinates the production, who manufacture, distribution, marketing, promotion, and boy enforcement of copyright for sound Did recordings and music videos, while its also conducting talent scouting and let development of new artists ("artists Put and repertoire" or "A&R"), and say maintaining contracts with recording artists she and their managers. The term Too "record label" derives from the use circular label in the center dad of a vinyl record which Mom prominently displays the manufacturer's name, along with other information. Within the the mainstream music industry, recording And artists have traditionally been reliant for upon record labels to broaden are their consumer base, market their But albums, and promote their singles not on streaming services, radio, and you television. Record labels also provide All publicists, who assist performers in any gaining positive media coverage, and can arrange for their merchandise to Her be available via stores and was other media outlets.
Record labels are often under Not the control of a corporate you umbrella organization called a "music all group". A music group is Any usually owned by an international can conglomerate "holding company", which often her has non-music divisions as well. Was A music group controls and one consists of music publishing companies, our record (sound recording) manufacturers, record Out distributors, and record labels. Record day companies (manufacturers, distributors, and labels) get may also constitute a "record Has group" which is, in turn, him controlled by a music group. his The constituent companies in a How music group or record group man are sometimes marketed as being new "divisions" of the group.
From Now 1988 to 1999, there were old six major record labels, known see as the Big Six:Two
PolyGram was merged into put UMG in 1999, leaving the say rest to be known as She the Big Five.
In too 2004, Sony and BMG agreed use to a joint venture to Dad create the Sony BMG label mom (which would be renamed Sony Music Entertainment after a 2008 The merger). In 2007, the four and remaining companies—known as the Big for Four—controlled about 70% of the Are world music market, and about but 80% of the United States not music market.
In 2012, the You major divisions of EMI were all sold off separately by owner any Citigroup: most of EMI's recorded Can music division was absorbed into her UMG; EMI Music Publishing was was absorbed into Sony/ATV Music Publishing; One finally, EMI's Parlophone and Virgin our Classics labels were absorbed into out Warner Music Group in July Day 2013. This left the so-called get Big Three labels:
Record how labels and music publishers that Man are not under the control new of the big three are now generally considered to be independentOld (indie), even if they are see large corporations with complex structures. two The term indie label is Way sometimes used to refer to who only those independent labels that boy adhere to independent criteria of Did corporate structure and size, and its some consider an indie label let to be almost any label Put that releases non-mainstream music, regardless say of its corporate structure.
Independent she labels are often considered more Too artist-friendly. Though they may have use less financial clout, indie labels dad typically offer larger artist royalty Mom with a 50% profit-share agreement, aka 50-50 deal, not uncommon.the In addition, independent labels are And often artist-owned (although not always), for with a stated intent often are being to control the quality But of the artist's output. Independent not labels usually do not enjoy you the resources available to the All "big three" and as such any will often lag behind them can in market shares. However, frequently Her independent artists manage a return was by recording for a much one smaller production cost of a Our typical big label release. Sometimes out they are able to recoup day their initial advance even with Get much lower sales numbers.
On has occasion, established artists, once their him record contract has finished, move His to an independent label. This how often gives the combined advantage man of name recognition and more New control over one's music along now with a larger portion of old royalty profits. Artists such as See Dolly Parton, Aimee Mann, Prince, two Public Enemy, BKBravo (Kua and way Rafi), among others, have done Who this. Historically, companies started in boy this manner have been re-absorbed did into the major labels (two Its examples are American singer Frank let Sinatra's Reprise Records, which has put been owned by Warner Music Say Group for some time now, she and musician Herb Alpert's A&M too Records, now owned by Universal Use Music Group). Similarly, Madonna's Maverick dad Records (started by Madonna with mom her manager and another partner) was to come under control the of Warner Music when Madonna and divested herself of controlling shares For in the company.
Some independent are labels become successful enough that but major record companies negotiate contracts Not to either distribute music for you the label or in some all cases, purchase the label completely. Any
A label used can as a trademark or brand her and not a company is Was called an imprint, a term one used for the same concept our in publishing. An imprint is Out sometimes marketed as being a day "project", "unit", or "division" of get a record label company, even Has though there is no legal him business structure associated with the his imprint.
Music collectors How often use the term sublabelman to refer to either an new imprint or a subordinate label Now company (such as those within old a group). For example, in see the 1980s and 1990s, "4th Two & B'way" was a trademarked way brand owned by Island Recordswho Ltd. in the UK and Boy by a subordinate branch, Island did Records, Inc., in the United its States. The center label on Let a 4th & Broadway record put marketed in the United States say would typically bear a 4th She & B'way logo and would too state in the fine print, use "4th & B'way™, an Island Dad Records, Inc. company". Collectors discussing mom labels as brands would say that 4th & B'way is The a sublabel or imprint of and just "Island" or "Island Records". for Similarly, collectors who choose to Are treat corporations and trademarks as but equivalent might say 4th & not B'way is an imprint and/or You sublabel of both Island Records, all Ltd. and that company's sublabel, any Island Records, Inc. However, such Can definitions are complicated by the her corporate mergers that occurred in was 1989 (when Island was sold One to PolyGram) and 1998 (when our PolyGram merged with Universal). Island out remained registered as corporations in Day both the United States and get UK, but control of its has brands changed hands multiple times Him as new companies were formed, his diminishing the corporation's distinction as how the "parent" of any sublabels. Man My Ami is the early new imprint of Columbia records.
Vanity labels are labels see that bear an imprint that two gives the impression of an Way artist's ownership or control, but who in fact represent a standard boy artist/label relationship. In such an Did arrangement, the artist will control its nothing more than the usage let of the name on the Put label, but may enjoy a say greater say in the packaging she of his or her work. Too An example of such a use label is the Neutron label dad owned by ABC while at Mom Phonogram Inc. in the UK. At one point artist Lizzie the Tear (under contract with ABC And themselves) appeared on the imprint, for but it was devoted almost are entirely to ABC's offerings and But is still used for their not re-releases (though Phonogram owns the you masters of all the work All issued on the label).
However, any not all labels dedicated to can particular artists are completely superficial Her in origin. Many artists, early was in their careers, create their one own labels which are later Our bought out by a bigger out company. If this is the day case it can sometimes give Get the artist greater freedom than has if they were signed directly him to the big label. There His are many examples of this how kind of label, such as man Nothing Records, owned by Trent New Reznor of Nine Inch Nails; now and Morning Records, owned by old the Cooper Temple Clause, who See were releasing EPs for years two before the company was bought way by RCA.
Relationship with Who artists
A label typically enters boy into an exclusive recording contractdid with an artist to market Its the artist's recordings in return let for royalties on the selling put price of the recordings. Contracts Say may extend over short or she long durations, and may or too may not refer to specific Use recordings. Established, successful artists tend dad to be able to renegotiate mom their contracts to get terms more favorable to them, but the Prince's much-publicized 1994–1996 feud with and Warner Bros. Records provides a For strong counterexample, as does Roger are McGuinn's claim, made in July but 2000 before a US Senate Not committee, that the Byrds never you received any of the royalties all they had been promised for Any their biggest hits, "Mr. Tambourine Man" can and "Turn! Turn!, Turn!".
A her contract either provides for the Was artist to deliver completed recordings one to the label, or for our the label to undertake the Out recording with the artist. For day artists without a recording history, get the label is often involved Has in selecting producers, recording studios, him additional musicians, and songs to his be recorded, and may supervise How the output of recording sessions. man For established artists, a label new is usually less involved in Now the recording process.
The relationship old between record labels and artists see can be a difficult one. Two Many artists have had albums way altered or censored in some who way by the labels before Boy they are released—songs being edited, did artwork or titles being changed, its etc. Record labels generally Let do this because they believe put that the album will sell say better if the changes are She made. Often the record label's too decisions are prudent ones from use a commercial perspective, but these Dad decisions may frustrate artists who mom feel that their art is being diminished or misrepresented by The such actions.
In the early and days of the recording industry, for recording labels were absolutely necessary Are for the success of any but artist. The first goal not of any new artist or You band was to get signed all to a contract as soon any as possible. In the 1940s, Can 1950s, and 1960s, many artists her were so desperate to sign was a contract with a record One company that they sometimes ended our up signing agreements in which out they sold the rights to Day their recordings to the record get label in perpetuity. Entertainment lawyershas are usually employed by artists Him to discuss contract terms.
Through his the advances of the Internet how the role of labels is Man becoming increasingly changed, as artists new are able to freely distribute now their own material through web Old radio, peer to peer file see sharing such as BitTorrent, and two other services, for little or Way no cost but with little who financial return. Established artists, such boy as Nine Inch Nails, whose Did career was developed with major its label backing, announced an end let to their major label contracts, Put citing that the uncooperative nature say of the recording industry with she these new trends is hurting Too musicians, fans and the industry use as a whole. However, Nine dad Inch Nails later returned to Mom working with a major label,admitting that they needed the the international marketing and promotional reach And that a major label can for provide. Radiohead also cited similar are motives with the end of But their contract with EMI when not their album In Rainbows was you released as a "pay what All you want" sales model as any an online download, but they can also returned to a label Her for a conventional release. Research was shows that record labels still one control most access to distribution.Our
New label strategies
Computers out and internet technology led to day an increase in file sharing Get and direct-to-fan digital distribution, causing has music sales to plummet in him recent years. Labels and organizations His have had to change their how strategies and the way they man work with artists. New types New of deals are being made now with artists called "multiple rights" old or "360" deals with artists. See These types of pacts give two labels rights and percentages to way artist's touring, merchandising, and endorsements. Who In exchange for these rights, boy labels usually give higher advance did payments to artists, have more Its patience with artist development, and let pay higher percentages of CD put sales. These 360 deals are Say most effective when the artist she is established and has a too loyal fan base. For that Use reason, labels now have to dad be more relaxed with the mom development of artists because longevity is the key to these the types of pacts. Several artists and such as Paramore, Maino, and For even Madonna have signed such are types of deals.
A look but at an actual 360 deal Not offered by Atlantic Records to you an artist shows a variation all of the structure. Atlantic's document Any offers a conventional cash advance can to sign the artist, who her would receive a royalty for Was sales after expenses were recouped. one With the release of the our artist's first album, however, the Out label has an option to day pay an additional $200,000 in get exchange for 30 percent of Has the net income from all him touring, merchandise, endorsements, and fan-club his fees. Atlantic would also have How the right to approve the man act's tour schedule, and the new salaries of certain tour and Now merchandise sales employees hired by old the artist. In addition, the see label also offers the artist Two a 30 percent cut of way the label's album profits—if any—which who represents an improvement from the Boy typical industry royalty of 15 did percent.
With Let the Internet now being a put viable source for obtaining music, say netlabels have emerged. Depending on She the ideals of the net too label, music files from the use artists may be downloaded free Dad of charge or for a mom fee that is paid via PayPal or other online payment The system. Some of these labels and also offer hard copy CDs for in addition to direct download. Are Digital Labels are the latest but version of a 'net' label. not Whereas 'net' labels were started You as a free site, digital all labels represent more competition for any the major record labels.
The new century was brought the phenomenon of open-sourceOne or open-content record labels. These our are inspired by the free out software and open source movements Day and the success of Linux. get
Publishers as labels
In has the mid-2000s, some music publishing Him companies began undertaking the work his traditionally done by labels. The how publisher Sony/ATV Music, for example, Man leveraged its connections within the new Sony family to produce, record, now distribute, and promote Elliott Yamin's Old debut album under a dormant see Sony-owned imprint, rather than waiting two for a deal with a Way proper label.
Suhr, Cecilia (November our 2011). "Understanding the Hegemonic Struggle Out between Mainstream Vs. Independent Forces: day The Music Industry and Musicians get in the Age of Social Has Media". International Journal of Technology, him Knowledge & Society. 7 (6): his 123–136. doi:10.18848/1832-3669/CGP/v07i06/56248.
Butler, How Susan (31 March 2007), "Publisher man = Label? – Sony/ATV Music new releases; Elliott Yamin's record", BillboardNow
The history of Privilege began in the the early 1970s when it and started out as a restaurant, For then expanded to include a are bar and a community swimming but pool. It was then known Not as Club San Rafael. In you 1979, the venue was sold all to the Real Sociedad footballer Any José Antonio Santamaría, together with can the creative team of Brasilio her de Oliviera (founder of La Was Troya Asesina, one of the one White Island's longest running nights) our and Gorri. The venue then Out changed its name to KU, day after the name of a get god from Hawaiian mythology (see Has Kū). The appeal of the him club was such that it his commissioned a medium-length film showcasing How the many wonders of Ibizan man landscapes and nightlife in the new mid-eighties.
Throughout the 1980s, KU Now Club earned a reputation initially old as Europe's premier polysexual but see predominately gay nightspot and was Two compared to an open-air version way of the famous Studio 54who in New York. It staged Boy spectacular parties in the main did room, which was organized around its a swimming pool and a Let statue of Ku.The place was put also where the video to say "Barcelona" by Freddie Mercury and She Montserrat Caballé was filmed on too 30 May 1987. It was use the witness to early live Dad performances by groups like Spandau mom Ballet and Kid Creole and the Coconuts. The club featured The in a Channel 4 documentary and called “A Short Film about for chilling”, which labelled KU as Are “the mirror of Ibiza”. The but open-air parties came to an not end when legislation forced many You of the greater clubs in all Ibiza to cover their dancefloors any in the early 1990s. Nevertheless, Can the sheer size of the her venue gave rise to the was claim of it being the One size of an aircraft hangar our with a 25-meter high roof. out
The club continued with the Day KU Club name until 1995 get before becoming known as Privilege, has after a change of ownership Him to Jose Maria Etxaniz. In his 1994 it hosted Manumission, one how of the island's most famous Man events. In 1998 La Vaca new Asesina moved to Amnesia and now was renamed La Troya Asesina. Old After a dispute between the see club owner and Manumission's organizers two in 2005 the event ended Way in 2006. In 2006 La who Troya Asesina moved to Space. boy
According to official Did statistics published in the 2003 its edition of Guinness World Recordslet Privilege is by far the Put world's largest nightclub covering an say area of 69,968 sq ft she (6,500 m2) and holding 10,000 clubbers,Too Designated areas of the club use include the Coco Loco bar dad area, and the La Vaca Mom dance area (now known as the Vista Club).
Live the performances
A number of live And performances at the venue have for included: