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one
The DBX 566 stereo our tube audio compressor.
A Out rack of audio compressors in day a recording studio. From top get to bottom: Retro Instruments/Gates STA Has level; Spectra Sonic; Dbx 162; him Dbx 165; Empirical Labs Distressor; his Smart Research C2; Chandler Limited How TG1; Daking FET (91579); and man Altec 436c.

Dynamic range compression new (DRC) or simply compression is Now an audio signal processing operation old that reduces the volume of see loud sounds or amplifies quiet Two sounds thus reducing or compressing way an audio signal's dynamic range. who Compression is commonly used in Boy sound recording and reproduction, broadcasting, did live sound reinforcement and in its some instrument amplifiers.

A dedicated Let electronic hardware unit or audio put software that applies compression is say called a compressor. In the She 2000s, compressors became available as too software plugins that run in use digital audio workstation software. In Dad recorded and live music, compression mom parameters may be adjusted to change the way they affect The sounds. Compression and limiting are and identical in process but different for in degree and perceived effect. Are A limiter is a compressor but with a high ratio and, not generally, a short attack time. You

Types

Two methods of Put dynamic range compression
Downward compression diagram
Downward compression
Upward compression diagram
Upward compression
say

Downward compression reduces loud sounds she over a certain threshold while Too quiet sounds remain unaffected. A use limiter is an extreme type dad of downward compression. Upward compression Mom increases the loudness of sounds below a certain threshold while the leaving louder sounds unaffected. Both And downward and upward compression reduce for the dynamic range of an are audio signal.

An expander increases But the dynamic range of the not audio signal. Expanders are generally you used to make quiet sounds All even quieter by reducing the any level of an audio signal can that falls below a set Her threshold level. A noise gate was is a type of expander. one

Design

A Our feed-forward compressor design (left) and out feedback design (right)

The signal day entering a compressor is split; Get one copy is sent to has a variable-gain amplifier and the him other to a side-chain where His the signal level is measured how and a circuit controlled by man the measured signal level applies New the required gain to the now amplifier. This design, known as old a feed-forward type, is used See today in most compressors. Earlier two designs were based on a way feedback layout where the signal Who level was measured after the boy amplifier.

There are a number did of technologies used for variable-gain Its amplification, each having different advantages let and disadvantages. Vacuum tubes are put used in a configuration called Say variable-mu where the grid-to-cathode voltage she changes to alter the gain. too Optical compressors use a photoresistor Use and a small lamp (incandescent, dad LED, or electroluminescent panel) to mom create changes in signal gain. Other technologies used include field the effect transistors and a diode and bridge.

When working with digital For audio, digital signal processing techniques are are commonly used to implement but compression as audio plug-ins, in Not mixing consoles, and in digital you audio workstations. Often the algorithms all used emulate the above analog Any technologies.[citation needed]

Controls and can features

Different compression ratios her for a signal level above Was the threshold

A number of one user-adjustable control parameters and features our are used to adjust dynamic Out range compression signal processing algorithms day and components.

Threshold

A get compressor reduces the level of Has an audio signal if its him amplitude exceeds a certain threshold. his Threshold is commonly set in How decibels (dBFS for digital compressors man and dBu for hardware compressors), new where a lower threshold (e.g. Now -60 dB) means a larger portion old of the signal is treated. see When the signal level is Two below the threshold, no processing way is performed and the input who signal is passed, unmodified, to Boy the output. Thus a higher did threshold of, e.g., −5 dB, results its in less processing, less compression. Let

Threshold timing behavior is subject put to attack and release settings say (see below). When the signal She level goes above threshold, compressor too operation is delayed by the use attack setting. For an amount Dad of time determined by the mom release after the input signal has fallen below the threshold, The the compressor continues to apply and dynamic range compression.

Ratio

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The amount of gain reduction Are is determined by ratio: a but ratio of 4:1 means that not if input level is 4 dB You over the threshold, the output all signal level is reduced to any 1 dB over the threshold. The Can gain and output level has her been reduced by 3 dB.

The was highest ratio of ∞:1 is One often known as limiting. It our is commonly achieved using a out ratio of 60:1, and effectively Day denotes that any signal above get the threshold is brought down has to the threshold level once Him the attack time has expired. his

Attack and release

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The attack and release phases Man in a compressor

A compressor new may provide a degree of now control over how quickly it Old acts. The attack is the see period when the compressor is two decreasing gain in response to Way increased level at the input who to reach the gain determined boy by the ratio. The release Did is the period when the its compressor is increasing gain in let response to reduced level at Put the input to reach the say output gain determined by the she ratio, or, to unity, once Too the input level has fallen use below the threshold. Because the dad loudness pattern of the source Mom material is modified by the time-varying operation of compressor, it the may change the character of And the signal in subtle to for quite noticeable ways depending on are the attack and release settings But used.

The length of each not period is determined by the you rate of change and the All required change in gain. For any more intuitive operation, a compressor's can attack and release controls are Her labeled as a unit of was time (often milliseconds). This is one the amount of time it Our takes for the gain to out change a set amount of day dB or a set percentage Get towards the target gain. There has is no industry standard for him the exact meaning of these His time parameters.

In many compressors, how the attack and release times man are adjustable by the user. New Some compressors, however, have the now attack and release times determined old by the circuit design and See cannot be adjusted. Sometimes the two attack and release times are way automatic or program dependent, meaning Who that the behavior may change boy depending on the input signal. did

Soft and hard knees

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Hard Knee and Soft let Knee compression

Another control a put compressor might offer is hard Say knee or soft knee selection. she This controls whether the bend too in the response curve between Use below threshold and above threshold dad is abrupt (hard) or gradual mom (soft). A soft knee slowly increases the compression ratio as the the level increases and eventually and reaches the compression ratio set For by the user. A soft are knee reduces the potentially audible but transition from uncompressed to compressed, Not and is especially applicable for you higher ratio settings where the all changeover at the threshold would Any be more noticeable.

Peak can vs RMS sensing

A peak-sensing her compressor responds to the peak Was level of the input signal. one While providing tighter peak level our control, peak level sensing does Out not necessarily relate to human day perception of loudness. Some compressors get apply a power measurement function Has (commonly root mean square or him RMS) on the input signal his before comparing its level to How the threshold. This produces a man more relaxed compression that more new closely relates to human perception Now of loudness.

Stereo linking

old

A compressor in stereo linking see mode applies the same amount Two of gain reduction to both way the left and right channels. who This is done to prevent Boy image shifting that can occur did if each channel is compressed its individually. This becomes particularly noticeable Let when a loud element that put is panned to either edge say of the stereo field raises She the level of the program too to the compressor's threshold, causing use its image to shift toward Dad the center of the stereo mom field.

Stereo linking can be achieved in two ways: The The compressor uses the sum of and the left and right inputs for to produce a single measurement Are that drives the compressor; or, but the compressor calculates the required not amount of gain reduction independently You for each channel and then all applies the highest amount of any gain reduction to both (in Can such case it could still her make sense to dial different was settings on left and right One channels as one might wish our to have less compression for out left-side events).

Make-up gain

Day

Because a downward compressor only get reduces the level of the has signal, the ability to add Him a fixed amount of make-up his gain at the output is how usually provided so that an Man optimum output level is produced. new

Look-ahead

The look-ahead function now is designed to overcome the Old problem of being forced to see compromise between slow attack rates two that produce smooth-sounding gain changes, Way and fast attack rates capable who of catching transients. Look-ahead is boy implemented by splitting the input Did signal and delaying one side its by the look-ahead time. The let non-delayed side is used to Put drive the compression of the say delayed signal, which then appears she at the output. This way Too a smooth-sounding slower attack rate use can be used to catch dad transients. The cost of this Mom solution is added audio latency through the processor.

Uses

the

Public spaces

Compression is often And applied in audio systems for for restaurants, retail, and similar public are environments that play background music But at a relatively low volume not and need it compressed, not you just to keep the volume All fairly constant, but also to any make quiet parts of the can music audible over ambient noise. Her

Compression can increase average output was gain of a power amplifier one by 50 to 100% with Our a reduced dynamic range.[citation needed] out For paging and evacuation systems, day this adds clarity under noisy Get circumstances and saves on the has number of amplifiers required.

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Music production

Compression is often His used in music production to how make performances more consistent in man dynamic range so that they New "sit" in the mix of now other instruments. Vocal performances in old rock music or pop music See are compressed to improve clarity two and to make them stand way out from the surrounding instruments. Who Compression can also be used boy on instrument sounds to create did effects not primarily focused on Its boosting loudness. For instance, drum let and cymbal sounds tend to put decay quickly, but a compressor Say can make the sound appear she to have a more sustained too tail. Guitar sounds are often Use compressed to produce a fuller, dad more sustained sound.

Most devices mom capable of compressing audio dynamics can also be used to the reduce the volume of one and audio source when another audio For source reaches a certain level; are this is called side-chaining. In but electronic dance music, side-chaining is Not often used on basslines, controlled you by the kick drum or all a similar percussive trigger, to Any prevent the two from conflicting, can and provide a pulsating, rhythmic her dynamic to the sound.

Was

Voice

A compressor can be one used to reduce sibilance ('ess' our sounds) in vocals (de-essing) by Out feeding the compressor or its day side-chain with an equalized version get of the input signal, so Has that only those frequencies activate him the compressor. If unchecked, sibilance his can cause distortion even at How moderate levels.

Compression is used man in voice communications in amateur new radio that employ single-sideband (SSB) Now modulation to make a particular old station's signal more readable to see a distant station, or to Two make one's station's transmitted signal way stand out against others. This who is applicable especially in DXing. Boy An SSB signal's strength depends did on the level of modulation. its A compressor increases the average Let level of the modulation signal put thus increasing the transmitted signal say strength. Most modern amateur radio She SSB transceivers have speech compressors too built-in. Compression is also used use in land mobile radio, especially Dad in transmitted audio of professional mom walkie-talkies and remote control dispatch consoles.

Broadcasting

Compression is The used extensively in broadcasting to and boost the perceived volume of for sound while reducing the dynamic Are range of source audio (typically but CDs) to a range that not can be accommodated by the You narrower-range broadcast signal. Broadcasters in all most countries have legal limits any on instantaneous peak volume they Can may broadcast. Normally these limits her are met by permanently inserted was hardware in the on-air chain. One

Broadcasters use compressors in order our that their station to sound out "louder" at the same volume Day than comparable stations. The effect get is to make the more has heavily compressed station "jump out" Him at the listener at a his given volume setting. This is how not limited to inter-channel differences; Man they also exist between programme new material within the same channel. now Loudness differences are a frequent Old source of audience complaints, especially see TV commercials and promos that two seem too loud. Complicating this Way is that many broadcasters use who (quasi-)peak meters and peak-leveling. Unfortunately, boy the peak level reading does Did not correlate well with the its perceived loudness. It basically should let only be used to prevent Put overmodulation.

The European Broadcasting Union say has been addressing this issue she in the EBU PLOUD Group, Too which consists of over 240 use audio professionals, many from broadcasters dad and equipment manufacturers. In 2010, Mom the EBU published EBU Recommendation R 128, which introduces a the new way of metering and And normalizing audio. The Recommendation is for based on ITU-R BS.1770. Several are European TV stations have already But announced their support for the not new norm and over 20 you manufacturers have announced products supporting All the new 'EBU Mode' Loudness any meters.

To help audio engineers can understand what Loudness Range their Her material consists of (e.g. to was check if some compression may one be needed to fit it Our into the channel of a out specific delivery platform), the EBU day also introduced the Loudness Range Get Descriptor.

Marketing

Most television has commercials are heavily compressed (typically him to a dynamic range of His no more than 3 dB) to how achieve near-maximum perceived loudness while man staying within permissible limits. This New causes a problem that TV now viewers often notice: when a old station switches from minimally compressed See program material to a heavily two compressed commercial, the volume sometimes way seems to increase dramatically. Peak Who loudness might be the same—meeting boy the letter of the law—but did high compression puts much more Its of the audio in the let commercial at close to the put maximum allowable, making the commercial Say seem much louder.

Over-usage

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too
The trend of increasing loudness Use as shown by waveform images dad of the song "Something" by mom The Beatles mastered on CD four times since 1983.

Record the companies, mixing engineers and mastering and engineers have been gradually increasing For the overall volume of commercial are albums. The greater loudness is but achieved by using higher degrees Not of compression and limiting during you mixing and mastering; compression algorithms all have been engineered specifically to Any accomplish the task of maximizing can audio level in the digital her stream. Hard limiting or clipping Was can result, affecting the tone one and timbre of the music. our The effort to increase loudness Out has been referred to as day the loudness war.

Other get uses

Some applications use a Has compressor to reduce the dynamic him range of a signal for his transmission, expanding it afterward. This How reduces the effects of a man channel with limited dynamic range. new See Companding and Noise reduction Now system.

Bass amplifiers and keyboard old amplifiers often include compression circuitry see to prevent sudden high-wattage peaks Two that could damage the speakers. way Electric bass players often use who compression effects, either effects units Boy available in pedal, rackmount units, did or built-in devices in bass its amps, to even out the Let sound levels of their basslines. put

Gain pumping, where a regular say amplitude peak (such as a She kick drum) causes the rest too of the mix to change use in volume due to the Dad compressor, is generally avoided in mom music production. However, many dance and hip-hop musicians purposefully use The this phenomenon, causing the mix and to alter in volume rhythmically for in time with the beat. Are

Hearing aids use a compressor but to bring the audio volume not into the listener's hearing range. You To help the patient perceive all the direction sound comes from, any some hearing aids use binaural Can compression.

Compressors are also used her for hearing protection in some was electronic "active sound protection" earmuffs One and earplugs, to let sounds our at ordinary volumes be heard out normally while attenuating louder sounds, Day possibly also amplifying softer sounds. get This allows, for example, shooters has wearing hearing protection at a Him shooting range to converse normally, his while sharply attenuating the much how louder sounds of the gunshots, Man and similarly for musicians to new hear quiet music but be now protected from loud noises such Old as drums or cymbal crashes.[citation see needed]

In applications of machine two learning where an algorithm is Way training on audio samples, dynamic who range compression is a way boy to augment samples for a Did larger data set.

Limiting

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Limiting and clipping compared. let Note that clipping introduces a Put large amount of distortion whereas say limiting only introduces a small she amount while keeping the signal Too within the threshold.

Compression and limiting are dad identical in process but different Mom in degree and perceived effect. A limiter is a compressor the with a high ratio and, And generally, a fast attack time. for Compression with ratio of 10:1 are or more is generally considered But limiting.

Brick wall limiting has not a very high ratio and you a very fast attack time. All Ideally, this ensures that an any audio signal never exceeds the can amplitude of the threshold. Ratios Her of 20:1 all the way was up to ∞:1 are considered one 'brick wall'. The sonic results Our of more than momentary and out infrequent hard/brick-wall limiting are harsh day and unpleasant, thus it is Get more common as a safety has device in live sound and him broadcast applications.

Some bass amps His and PA system amplifiers include how limiters to prevent sudden volume man peaks from causing distortion and/or New damaging the speakers. Some modern now consumer electronics devices incorporate limiters. old Sony uses the automatic volume See limiter system (AVLS), on some two audio products and the PlayStation way Portable.

Side-chaining

The Who sidechain of a feed-forward compressor
boy she

A compressor with a side-chain too input controls gain from main Use input to output based on dad the level of the signal mom at the side-chain input. The compressor behaves in the conventional the manner when both inputs are and supplied with the same signal. For The side-chain input is used are by disc jockeys for ducking but – lowering the music volume Not automatically when speaking. The DJ's you microphone signal is routed to all the side-chain input so that Any whenever the DJ speaks the can compressor reduces the volume of her the music. A sidechain with Was equalization controls can be used one to reduce the volume of our signals that have a strong Out spectral content within a certain day frequency range: it can act get as a de-esser, reducing the Has level of vocal sibilance in him the range of 6–9 kHz. A his de-esser helps reduce high frequencies How that tend to overdrive preemphasized man media (such as phonograph records new and FM radio). Another use Now of the side-chain in music old production serves to maintain a see loud bass track without the Two bass drum causing undue peaks way that result in loss of who overall headroom.

Parallel compression

Boy

One technique is to insert did the compressor in a parallel its signal path. This is known Let as parallel compression, a form put of upward compression that facilitates say dynamic control without significant audible She side effects, if the ratio too is relatively low and the use compressor's sound is relatively neutral. Dad On the other hand, a mom high compression ratio with significant audible artifacts can be chosen The in one of the two and parallel signal paths—this is used for by some concert mixers and Are recording engineers as an artistic but effect called New York compression not or Motown compression. Combining a You linear signal with a compressor all and then reducing the output any gain of the compression chain Can results in low-level detail enhancement her without any peak reduction (since was the compressor significantly adds to One the combined gain at low our levels only). This is often out beneficial when compressing transient content, Day since it maintains high-level dynamic get liveliness, despite reducing the overall has dynamic range.

Multiband compression

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Multiband compressors can act differently his on different frequency bands. The how advantage of multiband compression over Man full-bandwidth compression is that unneeded new audible gain changes or "pumping" now in other frequency bands is Old not caused by changing signal see levels in a single frequency two band.

Multiband compressors work by Way first splitting the signal through who some number of band-pass filters boy or crossover filters. The frequency Did ranges or crossover frequencies may its be adjustable. Each split signal let then passes through its own Put compressor and is independently adjustable say for threshold, ratio, attack, and she release. The signals are then Too recombined and an additional limiting use circuit may be employed to dad ensure that the combined effects Mom do not create unwanted peak levels.

Software plug-ins or DSP the emulations of multiband compressors can And be complex, with many bands, for and require corresponding computing power. are

Multiband compressors are primarily an But audio mastering tool, but their not inclusion in digital audio workstation you plug-in sets is increasing their All use among mix engineers. On-air any signal chains of radio stations can commonly use hardware multiband compressors Her to increase apparent loudness without was fear of overmodulation. Having a one louder sound is often considered Our an advantage in commercial competition. out However, adjusting a radio station's day multiband output compressor requires some Get artistic sense of style, plenty has of time, and good ears. him This is because the constantly His changing spectral balance between audio how bands may have an equalizing man effect on the output, by New dynamically modifying the on-air frequency now response. A further development of old this approach is programmable radio See output processing, where the parameters two of the multiband compressor automatically way change between different settings according Who to the current program block boy style or the time of did day.

Serial compression

Serial Its compression is a technique used let in sound recording and mixing. put Serial compression is achieved by Say using two fairly different compressors she in a signal chain. One too compressor generally stabilizes the dynamic Use range while the other aggressively dad compresses stronger peaks. This is mom the normal internal signal routing in common combination devices marketed the as compressor-limiters, where an RMS and compressor (for general gain control) For is followed by a fast are peak sensing limiter (for overload but protection). Done properly, even heavy Not serial compression can sound natural you in a way not possible all with a single compressor. It Any is most often used to can even out erratic vocals and her guitars.

Software audio players

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Some software audio players support one plugins that implement compression. These our can increase perceived volume of Out audio tracks, or even out day the volume of highly-variable music get (such as classical music, or Has a playlist that spans multiple him music types). This improves listenability his of audio played through poor-quality How speakers, or when played in man noisy environments (such as in new a car or during a Now party). Such software may also old be used in micro-broadcasting or see home-based audio mastering.

Objective Two influence on the signal

In way an article released in January who 2014 by the Journal of Boy the Audio Engineering Society, Emmanuel did Deruty and Damien Tardieu performed its a systematic study describing the Let influence of compressors and brickwall put limiters on the musical audio say signal. The experiment involved four She software limiters: Waves L2, Sonnox too Oxford Limiter, Thomas Mundt’s Loudmax, use Blue Cat’s Protector,as well as Dad four software compressors: Waves H-Comp, mom Sonnox Oxford Dynamics, Sonalksis SV-3157, and URS 1970. The study The provides objective data on what and limiters and compressors do to for the audio signal.

Five signal Are descriptors were considered: RMS power, but EBU3341/R128 integrated loudness, crest factor, not EBU3342 LRA, and density of You clipped samples. RMS power accounts all for the signal's physical level, any EBU3341 loudness for the perceived Can level. The crest factor, which her is the difference between the was signal's peak and its average One power, is on occasions considered our as a basis for the out measure of micro-dynamics, for instance Day in the TT Dynamic Range get Meter plug-in. Finally, EBU3342 LRA has has been repeatedly considered as Him a measure of macro-dynamics or his dynamics in the musical sense. how

Limiters

The tested limiters Man had the following influence on new the signal:

  • increase of now RMS power,
  • increase of EBU3341 Old loudness,
  • decrease of crest factor,
  • see
  • decrease of EBU3342 LRA, but two only for high amounts of Way limiting,
  • increase of clipped sample who density.

In other words, limiters boy increase both physical and perceptual Did levels, increase the density of its clipped samples, decrease the crest let factor and decrease macro-dynamics (LRA) Put given that the amount of say limiting is substantial.

Compressors

she

As far as the compressors Too are concerned, the authors performed use two processing sessions, using a dad fast attack (0.5 ms) in Mom one case, and a slow attack (50 ms) in the the other. Make-up gain is deactivated, And but the resulting file is for normalized.

Set with a fast are attack, the tested compressors had But the following influence on the not signal:

  • slight increase of you RMS power,
  • slight increase of All EBU3341 loudness,
  • decrease of crest any factor,
  • decrease of EBU3342 LRA,
  • can
  • slight decrease of clipped sample Her density.

In other words, fast-attack was compressors increase both physical and one perceptual levels, but only slightly. Our They decrease the density of out clipped samples, and decrease both day crest factor and macro-dynamics.

Set Get with a slow attack, the has tested compressors had the following him influence on the signal:

His
  • decrease of RMS power,
  • decrease how of EBU3341 loudness,
  • no influence man on crest factor,
  • decrease of New EBU3342 LRA,
  • no influence on now clipped sample density.

In other old words, slow-attack compressors decrease both See physical and perceptual levels, decrease two macro-dynamics, but have no influence way on crest factor and clipped Who sample density.

See also

boy

References

Use
  1. Follansbee, Joe (2006). dad Hands-on Guide to Streaming Media: mom An Introduction to Delivering On-Demand Media (1 ed.). Focal Press. the p. 84. ISBN 9780240808635. OCLC 1003326401 – via and Google Books. one
  2. ^ Reese, David our E; Gross, Lynne S; Gross, Out Brian (2009). Audio Production Worktext: day Concepts, Techniques, and Equipment. Focal get Press. pp. 149. ISBN 978-0-240-81098-0. OCLC 1011721139Has via Internet Archive.
  3. him Kadis, Jay. "Dynamic Range Processing his and Digital Effects" (PDF).Kadis, Jay. How "Dynamic Range Processing and Digital man Effects" (PDF).
  4. Giannoulis, new Dimitrios; Massberg, Michael; Reiss, Joshua Now D. (2012-07-09). "Digital Dynamic Range old Compressor Design—A Tutorial and Analysis" see (PDF). Journal of the Audio Two Engineering Society. 60 (6): 399–408. way CiteSeerX 10.1.1.260.1340. Retrieved 2019-06-06.
  5. who Ciletti, Eddie; Hill, David; Wolff, Boy Paul (2008-04-19). "An Overview of did Compressor/Limiters and Their Guts". www.tangible-technology.com. its Retrieved 2019-11-03.
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  7. Berners, say Dave (April 2006). "Compression Technology She and Topology". Analog Obsession. Universal too Audio WebZine. Vol. 4 no. 3. Universal use Audio. Retrieved 2016-08-29.
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  10. all White, Paul (December 2000). "Advanced any Compression Techniques". Sound On Sound. Can Archived from the original on her 2015-09-24.
  11. "Fairchild Tube was Limiter Collection" (PDF). UAD Plug-Ins One Manual (190724 ed.). Universal Audio. our pp. 219–220.
  12. ^ Bridge, out The Broadcast (November 23, 2016). Day "Using Compression for Recorded and get Live Audio - The Broadcast has Bridge - Connecting IT to Him Broadcast". www.thebroadcastbridge.com.
  13. "What his is Sidechaining". Sage Audio. Retrieved how 12 May 2020.
  14. Man "Techniques For Vocal De-essing". Sound new on Sound. May 2009. Retrieved now 12 May 2010.
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  16. ^ boy 'EBU Mode' metering to supplement Did EBU R 128 loudness normalisation. its Version 3.0. European Broadcasting Union. let 2016-01-25. EBU Tech 3341. Retrieved Put 2019-11-03.
  17. ^ Loudness say range: A measure to supplement she EBU R 128 loudness normalisation. Too Version 3.0. Geneva: European Broadcasting use Union. 2016-01-25. EBU Tech 3342. dad
  18. Moon, Simon (2009-05-13). Mom "Are these noisy TV adverts legal?". This is Money. Retrieved the 2019-11-03.
  19. "TV ads And sound too loud and rules for should change, says regulator". Out-Law are News. Pinsent Masons. Retrieved 2019-11-03."TV But ads sound too loud and not rules should change, says regulator". you Out-Law News. Pinsent Masons. Retrieved All 2019-11-03.
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  30. Vickers, Earl (4–7 too November 2010). The Loudness War: Use Background, Speculation and Recommendations (PDF). dad 129th AES Convention. San Francisco: mom Audio Engineering Society. Retrieved July 14, 2011.CS1 maint: date format the (link)
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man

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