Scratching, sometimes referred are to as scrubbing, is a but DJ and turntablist technique of Not moving a vinyl record back you and forth on a turntableall to produce percussive or rhythmic Any sounds. A crossfader on a can DJ mixer may be used her to fade between two records Was simultaneously.
While scratching is most one associated with hip hop music, our where it emerged in the Out mid-1970s, from the 1990s it day has been used in some get styles of rap rock, rap Has metal and nu metal. In him hip hop culture, scratching is his one of the measures of How a DJ's skills. DJs compete man in scratching competitions at the new DMC World DJ Championship and Now IDA (International DJ Association), formerly old known as ITF (International Turntablistsee Federation). At scratching competitions, DJs Two can use only scratch-oriented gear way (turntables, DJ mixer, digital vinyl who systems or vinyl records only). Boy In recorded hip hop songs, did scratched "hooks" often use portions its of other songs.
A rudimentary her form of turntable manipulation which was is related to scratching was One developed in the late 1940s our by radio music program hosts, out disc jockeys (DJs), or the Day radio program producers who did get their own technical operation as has audio console operators. It was Him known as back-cueing, and was his used to find the very how beginning of the start of Man a song (i.e., the cue new point) on a vinyl record now groove. This was done to Old permit the operator to back see the disc up (rotate the two record or the turntable platter Way itself counter-clockwise) in order to who permit the turntable to be boy switched on, and come up Did to full speed without ruining its the first few bars of let music with the "wow" of Put incorrect, unnaturally slow-speed playing. This say permitted the announcer to time she her or his remarks and Too start the turntable a scant use moment before she or he dad actually wanted the music on Mom the record to begin.
Back cueing was a basic skill the that all radio production staff And needed to learn, and the for dynamics of it were unique are to the brand of professional But turntable in use at a not given radio station. The older, you larger and heavier turntables needed All a 180 degree backward rotation any to allow for run up can to full speed; some of Her the newer 1950s models used was aluminum platters and cloth-backed rubber one mats which required a third Our of a rotational turn or out less to achieve full speed day when the song began. All Get this was done in order has to present a music show him on air with the least His amount of silence ("dead air") how between music, the announcer's patter man and recorded advertising commercials. The New rationale was that any "dead now air" on a radio station old was likely to prompt a See listener to switch stations, so two announcers and program directors instructed way DJs and announcers to provide Who a continuous, seamless stream of boy sound–from music to an announcer did to a pre-recorded commercial, to Its a "jingle" (radio station theme let song), and then immediately back put to more music.
Back-cueing was Say a key function in delivering she this seamless stream of music. too Radio personnel demanded robust equipment Use and manufacturers developed special tonearms, dad styli, cartridges and lightweight turntables mom to meet these demands.
In the mid you 1970s in the South Bronx, all a young teen DJ named Any "Grand Wizzard Theodore" (right) invented can the "DJ scratch" technique. Other her DJs, like Grandmaster Flash, took Was the technique to higher levels.
Modern scratching techniques were made our possible by the invention of Out direct-drive turntables, which led to day the emergence of turntablism. Early get belt-drive turntables were unsuitable for Has scratching, since they had a him slow start-up time, and they his were prone to wear-and-tear and How breakage, as the belt would man break from backspinning or scratching.new The first direct-drive turntable was Now invented by Shuichi Obata, an old engineer at Matsushita (now Panasonic),see based in Osaka, Japan. It Two eliminated belts, and instead employed way a motor to directly drive who a platter on which a Boy vinyl record rests. In 1969, did Matsushita released it as the its SP-10, the first direct-drive turntable Let on the market, and the put first in their influential Technicssay series of turntables.
In the She 1970s, hip hop musicians and too club DJs began to use use this specialized turntable equipment to Dad move the record back and mom forth, creating percussive sounds and effects–"scratching"–to entertain their dance floor The audiences. Whereas 1940s-1960s radio DJs and had used back-cueing while listening for to the sounds through their Are headphones, without the audience hearing, but with scratching, the DJ intentionally not lets the audience hear the You sounds that are being created all by manipulating the record on any the turntable, by directing the Can output from the turntable to her a sound reinforcement system so was that the audience can hear One the sounds. Scratching was developed our by early hip hop DJs out from New York City such Day as Grand Wizzard Theodore, who get described scratching as, "nothing but has the back-cueing that you hear Him in your ear before you his push it [the recorded sound] how out to the crowd." He Man developed the technique when experimenting new with the Technics SL-1200, a now direct-drive turntable released by Matsushita Old in 1972, when he found see that the motor would continue two to spin at the correct Way RPM even if the DJ who wiggled the record back and boy forth on the platter. Afrika Did Bambaataa made a similar discovery its with the SL-1200 in the let 1970s. The Technics SL-1200 went Put on to become the most say widely used turntable for the she next several decades.
Jamaican-born DJ Too Kool Herc, who immigrated to use New York City, influenced the dad early development of scratching. Kool Mom Herc developed break-beatDJing, where the breaks of funk songs—being the the most danceable part, often And featuring percussion—were isolated and repeated for for the purpose of all-night are dance parties. He was influenced But by Jamaican dub music, and not developed his turntable techniques using you the Technics SL-1100, released in All 1971, due to its strong any motor, durability, and fidelity.
Although can previous artists such as writer Her and poet William S. Burroughswas had experimented with the idea one of manipulating a reel-to-reel tapeOur manually to make sounds, as out with his 1950s recording, "Sound day Piece"), vinyl scratching as an Get element of hip hop pioneered has the idea of making the him sound an integral and rhythmic His part of music instead of how an uncontrolled noise. Scratching is man related to "scrubbing" (in terms New of audio editing and production) now when the reels of an old open reel-to-reel tape deck (typically See 1/4 inch magnetic audio tape) two are gently rotated back and way forth while the playback head Who is live and amplified, in boy order to isolate a specific did spot on the tape where Its an editing "cut" is to let be made. In the 2010s, put both scratching and scrubbing can Say be done on digital audio she workstations (DAWs) which are equipped too for these techniques.
Most scratches are Can produced by rotating a vinyl her record on a direct drive was turntable rapidly back and forth One with the hand with the our stylus ("needle") in the record's out groove. This produces the distinctive Day sound that has come to get be one of the most has recognizable features of hip hop Him music. Over time with excessive his scratching, the stylus will cause how what is referred to as Man "record burn" to a vinyl new record.
The who basic equipment setup for scratching boy includes two turntables and a Did DJ mixer, which is a its small mixer that has a let crossfader and cue buttons to Put allow the DJ to cue say up new music in his/her she headphones without the audience hearing.[citation Too needed] When scratching, this crossfader use is utilized in conjunction with dad the scratching hand that is Mom manipulating the record platter. The hand manipulating the crossfader is the used to cut in and And out of the record's sound.[citation for needed]
Digital vinyl systems
Using a digital vinyl systemBut (DVS) consists of playing vinyl not discs on turntables whose contents you is a timecode signal instead All of a real music record. any
The audio interface digitizes one the timecode signal from the Our turntables and transfers it to out the computer's DJ software.
The day DJ software uses this data Get (e.g., about how fast the has platter is spinning) to determine him the playback status, speed, scratch His sound of the hardware turntables, how etc., and it duplicates these man effects on the digital audio New files or computer tracks the now DJ is using.
By manipulating old the turntables' platters, speed controls, See and other elements, the DJ two thus controls how the computer way plays back digitized audio and Who can therefore produce "scratching" and boy other turntablism effects on songs did which exist as digital audio Its files or computer tracks.
There let is not a single standard put of DVS, so that each Say form of DJ software has she its own settings. Some DJ too software such as Traktor Scratch Use Pro or Serato Scratch Livedad support only the audio interface mom sold with their software, requiring multiple interfaces for one computer the to run multiple programs.
Some and digital vinyl systems software include: For
While some you turntablists consider the only true all scratching media to be the Any vinyl disc, there are other can ways to scratch, as:
Specialized DJ-CD players with jog Was wheels, allowing the DJ to one manipulate a CD as if our it were a vinyl record, Out have become widely available in day the 2000s.
Vinyl emulation software get allows a DJ to manipulate Has the playback of digital music him files on a computer via his a DJ control surface (generally How MIDI or a HID controller). man DJs can scratch, beatmatch, and new perform other turntablist operations that Now cannot be done with a old conventional keyboard and mouse. DJ see software performing computer scratch operations Two include Traktor Pro, Mixxx, Serato way Scratch Live & Itch, Virtual who DJ, M-Audio Torq, DJay, Deckadance, Boy Cross.
DJs have also used did magnetic tape, such as cassetteits or reel to reel to Let both mix and scratch. Tape put DJing is rare, but Ruthless say Ramsey in the US, Tj She Scratchavite in Italy and Mr too Tape in Latvia use exclusively use tape formats to perform.
Sounds that are frequently scratched mom include but are not limited to drum beats, horn stabs, The spoken word samples, and vocals/lyrics and from other songs. Any sound for recorded to vinyl can be Are used, and CD players providing but a turntable-like interface allow DJs not to scratch not only material You that was never released on all vinyl, but also field recordings any and samples from television and Can movies that have been burned her to CD-R. Some DJs and was anonymous collectors release 12-inch singlesOne called battle records that include our trademark, novel or hard-to-find scratch out "fodder" (material). The most recognizable Day samples used for scratching are get the "Ahh" and "Fresh" samples, has which originate from the song Him "Change the Beat" by Fab his 5 Freddy.
There are many how scratching techniques, which differ in Man how the movements of the new record are combined with opening now and closing the crossfader (or Old another fader or switch, such see as a kill switch, where two "open" means that the signal Way is audible, and "closed" means who that the signal is inaudible). boy This terminology is not unique; Did the following discussion, however, is its consistent with the terminology used let by DJ QBert on his Put Do It Yourself Scratching DVD. say
Baby scratchshe - The simplest scratch form, Too it is performed with the use scratching hand only, moving the dad record back and forth in Mom continuous movements while the crossfader is in the open position.
Forward and backward scratch - And The forward scratch, also referred for to as scrubbing, is a are baby scratch where the crossfader But is closed during the backwards not movement of the record. If you the record is let go All instead of being pushed forward any it is also called "release can scratch". Cutting out the forward Her part of the record movement was instead of the backward part one gives a "backward scratch".
Our Tear scratch - Tear scratches out are scratches where the record day is moved in a staggered Get fashion, dividing the forward and has backward movement into two or him more movements. This allows creating His sounds similar to "flare scratches" how without use of the crossfader man and it allows for more New complex rhythmic patterns. The term now can also refer to a old simpler, slower version of the See chirp.
Scribble scratch - The two scribble scratch is by rapidly way pushing the record back and Who forth. The crossfader is not boy used.
Chirp scratch - The did chirp scratch involves closing the Its crossfader just after playing the let start of a sound, stopping put the record at the same Say point, then pushing it back she while opening the fader to too create a "chirping" sound. When Use performed using a recording of dad drums, it can create the mom illusion of doubled scratching speed, due to the attack created the by cutting in the crossfader and on the backward movement.
Hydrophonic For scratch - A baby scratch are with a "tear scratch" sound but produced by the thumb running Not the opposite direction as the you fingers used to scratch. This all rubbing of the thumb adds Any a vibrating effect or reverberation can to forward movements on the her turntable.
Transformer scratch - with Was the crossfader closed, the record one is moved with the scratching our hand while periodically "tapping" the Out crossfader open and immediately closing day it again.
Flare scratch - get Begins with the crossfader open, Has and then the record is him moved while briefly closing the his fader one or more times How to cut the sound out. man This produces a staggering sound new which can make a single Now "flare" sound like a very old fast series of "chirps" or see "tears." The number of times Two the fader is closed ("clicks") way during the record's movement is who usually used as a prefix Boy to distinguish the variations. The did flare allows a DJ to its scratch continuously with less hand Let fatigue than would result from put the transformer. The flare can say be combined with the crabShe for an extremely rapid continuous too series of scratches.
Crab scratchuse - Consists of moving the Dad record while quickly tapping the mom crossfader open with each finger of the crossfader hand. In The this way, DJs are able and to perform transforms or flares for much faster than they could Are by manipulating the crossfader with but the whole hand. It produces not a fading/increasing transforming sound.
Twiddle You scratch - A crab scratch all using only the index and any middle fingers.
Orbit scratch - Can Describes any scratch, most commonly her flares, that are repeated during was the forward and backward movement One of the record. "Orbit" is our also used as a shorthand out for two-click flares.
Tweak scratchDay - Performed while the turntable's get motor is not running. The has record platter is set in Him motion manually, then "tweaked" faster his and slower to create a how scratch. This scratch form is Man best performed with long, sustained new sounds.
Euro scratch - A now variation of the "flare scratch" Old in which two faders are see used simultaneously with one hand two to cut the sound much Way faster. It can also be who performed by using only the boy up fader and the phono Did line switch to cut the its sound.
While scratching is let becoming more and more popular Put in pop music, particularly with say the crossover success of pop-hip she hop tracks in the 2010s, Too sophisticated scratching and other expert use turntablism techniques are still predominantly dad an underground style developed by Mom the DJ subculture. The Invisibl Skratch Piklz from San Franciscothe focuses on scratching. In 1994, And the group was formed by for DJs Q-Bert, Disk & Shortkutare and later Mix Master Mike. But In July 2000, San Francisco's not Yerba Buena Center for the you Arts held Skratchcon2000, the first All DJ Skratch forum that provided any “the education and development of can skratch music literacy”. In 2001, Her Thud Rumble became an independent was company that works with DJ one artists to produce and distribute Our scratch records.
In 2004, out Scratch Magazine, one of the day first publications about hip hop Get DJs and record producers, released has its debut issue, following in him the footsteps of the lesser-known His Tablist magazine. Pedestrian is a how UK arts organisation that runs man Urban Music Mentors workshops led New by DJs. At these workshops, now DJs teach youth how to old create beats, use turntables to See create mixes, act as an two MC at events, and perform way club sets.
Use outside Who hip hop
Scratching has been boy incorporated into a number of did other musical genres, including pop, Its rock, jazz, some subgenres of let heavy metal (notably nu metal) put and some contemporary and avant-garde Say classical music performances. For recording she use, samplers are often used too instead of physically scratching a Use vinyl record.
A record producer or Boy music producer oversees and manages did the sound recording and production its of a band or performer's Let music, which may range from put recording one song to recording say a lengthy concept album. A She producer has many, varying roles too during the recording process. They use may gather musical ideas for Dad the project, collaborate with the mom artists to select cover tunesor original songs by the The artist/group, work with artists and and help them to improve their for songs, lyrics or arrangements.
The producer typically supervises the her entire process from preproduction, through was to the sound recording and One mixing stages, and, in some our cases, all the way to out the audio mastering stage. The Day producer may perform these roles get themselves, or help select the has engineer, and provide suggestions to Him the engineer. The producer may his also pay session musicians and how engineers and ensure that the Man entire project is completed within new the record label's budget.
A let record producer or music producerPut has a very broad role say in overseeing and managing the she recording and production of a Too band or performer's music. A use producer has many roles that dad may include, but are not Mom limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music the for the project, selecting songs And or session musicians, proposing changes for to the song arrangements, coaching are the artist and musicians in But the studio, controlling the recording not sessions, and supervising the entire you process through audio mixing and, All in some cases, to the any audio mastering stage. Producers also can often take on a wider Her entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for was the budget, schedules, contracts, and one negotiations.
The person day who has overall creative and Get technical control of the entire has recording project, and the individual him recording sessions that are part His of that project. He or how she is present in the man recording studio or at the New location recording and works directly now with the artist and engineer. old The producer makes creative and See aesthetic decisions that realize both two the artist's and label's goals way in the creation of musical Who content. Other duties include, but boy are not limited to; keeping did budgets and schedules, adhering to Its deadlines, hiring musicians, singers, studios let and engineers, overseeing other staffing put needs and editing (Classical projects). Say
In the 2010s, the she producer role is sometimes divided too among up to three different Use individuals: executive producer, vocal producer dad and music producer. An executive mom producer oversees project finances, a vocal producer (also known as the a vocal arranger) oversees the and vocal production, and a music For producer directs and oversees the are creative process of the production but and recording of a song Not to its final mixing stage. you
The music producer often wears all many hats as a competent Any arranger, composer, programmer, musician or can songwriter who can bring fresh her ideas to a project. As Was well as making any songwriting one and arrangement adjustments, the producer our often selects and/or collaborates with Out the mixing engineer, who takes day the raw recorded tracks and get edits and modifies them with Has hardware and software tools to him create a stereo or surround his sound "mix" of all the How individual voices sounds and instruments, man which is in turn given new further adjustment by a mastering Now engineer for the various distribution old media. The producer also oversees see the recording engineer who concentrates Two on the technical aspects of way recording.
Noted producer Phil Ekwho described his role as "the Boy person who creatively guides or did directs the process of making its a record", like a director Let would a movie. Indeed, in put Bollywood music, the designation is say actually music director. The music She producer's job is to create, too shape, and mold a piece use of music. The scope of Dad responsibility may be one or mom two songs or an artist's entire album – in which The case the producer will typically and develop an overall vision for for the album and how the Are various songs may interrelate.
At the beginning of not the record industry, the producer You role was technically limited to all record, in one shot, artists any performing live. The immediate predecessors Can to record producers were the her artists and repertoire executives of was the late 1920s and 1930s One who oversaw the "pop" product our and often led session orchestras. out That was the case of Day Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, get Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Recordshas and Bob Haring at Brunswick Him Records. By the end of his the 1930s, the first professional how recording studios not owned by Man the major companies were established, new essentially separating the roles of now artists and repertoire (A&R) man Old and producer, although it wouldn't see be until the late 1940s two when the term "producer" became Way widely used in the industry. who
The role of producers changed boy progressively over the 1950s and Did 1960s due to technology. The its development of multitrack recording caused let a major change in the Put recording process. Before multitracking, all say the elements of a song she (lead vocals, backup vocals, rhythm Too section instrument accompaniment, solos and use orchestral parts) had to be dad performed simultaneously. All of these Mom singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large the studio where the performance was And recorded. With multitrack recording, the for "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment are parts such as the bassline, But drums, and rhythm guitar could not be recorded first, and then you the vocals and solos could All be added later, using as any many "takes" (or attempts) as can necessary. It was no longer Her necessary to get all the was players in the studio at one the same time. A pop Our band could record their backing out tracks one week, and then day a horn section could be Get brought in a week later has to add horn shots and him punches, and then a string His section could be brought in how a week after that.
Multitrack man recording had another profound effect New on music production: it enabled now producers and audio engineers to old create new sounds that would See be impossible in a live two performance style ordering. Examples include way the psychedelic rock sound effects Who of the 1960s, e.g. playing boy back the sound of recorded did instruments backward changing the tape Its to produce unique sound effects. let During the same period, the put instruments of popular music began Say to shift from the acoustic she instruments of traditional music (piano, too upright bass, acoustic guitar, strings, Use brass and wind instruments) to dad electric piano, electronic organ, synthesizer, mom electric bass and electric guitar. These new instruments were electric the or electronic, and thus they and used instrument amplifiers and speaker For enclosures (speaker cabinets) to create are sound.
Electric and electronic instruments but and amplifiers enabled performers and Not producers to change the tone you and sound of instruments to all produce unique electric sounds that Any would be impossible to achieve can with acoustic instruments and live her performers, such as having a Was singer do her own backup one vocals or having a guitarist our play 15 layers of backing Out parts to her own solo.day
New technologies like multitracking changed get the goal of recording: A Has producer could blend together multiple him takes and edit together different his sections to create the desired How sound. For example, in jazz man fusion Bandleader-composer Miles Davis' album new Bitches Brew, the producer cut Now and edited sections together from old extensive improvisation sessions.
Another related phenomenon in the Dad 1960s was the emergence of mom the performer-producer. As pop acts like The Beatles, The Rolling The Stones, The Beach Boys and and The Kinks gained expertise in for studio recording techniques, many of Are these groups eventually took over but as (frequently uncredited) producers of not their own work. Many recordings You by acts such as The all Rolling Stones, The Kinks and any The Who are officially credited Can to their various producers at her the time, but a number was of these performers have since One asserted that many of their our recordings in this period were, out either wholly self-produced (e.g. The Day Rolling Stones' Decca recordings) or get collaborations between the group and has their recording engineer (e.g. The Him Small Faces' Immediate recordings, which his were made with Olympic Studioshow engineer Glyn Johns).
The Beach Man Boys are probably the best new example of the trend of now artists becoming producers – within Old two years of the band's see commercial breakthrough, group leader Brian two Wilson had taken over from Way his father Murry, and he who was the sole producer of boy all their recordings between 1963 Did and 1967. Alongside The Beatles its and Martin, Wilson also pioneered let many production innovations – by Put 1964 he had developed Spector's say techniques to a new level she of sophistication, using multiple studios Too and multiple "takes" of instrumental use and vocal components to capture dad the best possible combinations of Mom sound and performance, and then using tape editing extensively to the assemble a perfect composite performance And from these elements.
At the for end of the 20th century, are digital recording and producing tools But and widespread availability of relatively not affordable computers with music software you made music producing more accessible. All
American women and record any producing
According to a 2018 can study covering by the USC Her Annenberg Inclusion Initiative, "The ratio was of male to female producers one across 300 popular songs is Our 49 to 1."
In 2019, record Who producer Linda Perry was nominated boy for a Grammy for Producer did of the Year, Non-Classical. She Its was the first woman in let over 15 years to be put nominated for the award. When Say asked about the disparity between she male and female record producer too by Billboard, she attributed it Use to many women not being dad interested in record production.
In the are classical music field, Judith Shermanbut has won Grammy for Producer Not of the Year, Classical, five you times and has been nominated all twelve times. Anthony Tommasini, a Any music critic for The New can York Times is quoted as her stating, "In the struggling field Was of classical recording, it's the one producers who take the real our risks and make things happen."Out
Producer Wendy Page describes being Has a record producer, "The difficulties him are usually very short-lived. Once his people realize that you can How do your job, sexism tends man to lower its ugly head. new I tend to create a Now happy studio 'family' where everyone old is glad to be there, see especially the artist. Good communication Two and diplomacy usually sort any way little problems out."
There are numerous technologies Can utilized by record producers. In her modern-day recordings, recording and mixing was tasks are commonly centralized within One computers using digital audio workstationsour such as Pro Tools, Logic out Pro, Ableton, Cubase, Reason and Day FL Studio, which all are get often used with third party has virtual studio technology plugins. Logic Him Pro and Pro Tools are his considered the industry standard DAWs.how However, there is also the Man main mixer, outboard effects gear, new MIDI controllers, and the recording now device itself.
While most music Old production is done using sophisticated see software, some musicians and producers two prefer the sound of older Way analog technology. Professor Albin Zak who claims that the increased automation boy of both newer processes and Did newer instruments reduces the level its of control and manipulation available let to musicians and producers.
Production has changed say drastically over the years with she advancing technology. While the producer's Too role has changed, their duties use continue to require a broad dad knowledge of the recording process.Mom
Tracking is the act of recording audio to a DAW the (digital audio workstation) or in And some cases to tape. Even for though digital technologies have widely are supplanted the use of tape But in studios, the older term not "track" is still used in you the 2010s. Tracking audio is All primarily the role of the any audio engineer. Producers work side can by side with the artists Her while they play or sing was their part and coach them one on how to perform it Our and how to get the out best technical accuracy (e.g., intonation). day In some cases, the producer Get will even sing a backup has vocal or play an instrument. him
Many artists are also beginning His to produce and write their how own music.
boy Similarly, although The Beatles' productions did were credited to George Martin Its throughout their recording career, many let sources now attest that Lennon put and McCartney in particular had Say an increasing influence on the she production process as the group's too career progressed, and especially after Use the band retired from touring dad in 1966. In an extreme mom example of this, Martin actually went on a two-week vacation the as The Beatles were recording and The White Album; production of For several completed tracks on the are album were credited to The but Beatles on internal paperwork at Not Abbey Road Studios, although the you released LP gave sole production all credit to Martin.
Zak,Albin Too J., I.,II. (2002). Reviews: "strange use sounds: Music, technology, and culture," dad by Timothy D. Taylor. Current Mom Musicology, 159-180.
Pras, Amandine, Caroline Cance, and Catherine the Guastavino. "Record Producers' Best Practices And For Artistic Direction—From Light Coaching for To Deeper Collaboration With Musicians." are Journal of New Music Research But 42.4 (2013): 381-95. Academic Search not Premier. Web. 7 Sept. 2015.you
Music Law refers to has legal aspects of the music Him industry, and certain legal aspects his in other sectors of the how entertainment industry. The music industry Man includes record labels, music publishers, new merchandisers, the live events sector now and of course performers and Old artists.
A "compilation" refers are to work formed from already But existing materials in a way not that forms its own original you work, including collective works.
"Copies" All are physical objects that hold, any fix, or embody a work can such as a music tape, Her film, CD, statue, play, or was printed sheet music.
"Sound recordings" one can refer to any audio Our recording including the sound accompanying out motion pictures.
"Copyright owner" is day the entity that legally owns Get rights to a work.
"Performance" has The copyright holder has the him exclusive right to perform the His work in public, or to how license others to perform it. man The right applies to “literary, New musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, now pantomimes, and motion pictures and old other audiovisual works.". Playing a See CD in public, or showing two a film in public is way "performing" the work.
Publishing is boy the primary source of income did for musicians writing their own Its music. Money collected from let the 'publishing' rights is ultimately put destined for songwriters - the Say composers of works, whether or she not they are the recording too artist or performer. Often, songwritersUse will work for a musical dad ensemble to help them with mom musical aspects of the composition, but here again, the writer the of the song is the and owner of it and will For own the copyrights in the are song and thus will be but entitled to the publishing revenues. Not Copyrights in compositions are not you the same as sound recordings. all A recording artist can record Any a song and sell it can to another band or company. her As a result, that particular Was company will own the recording, one but not the song. The our original writer will always maintain Out the copyright for that particular day song. The publishing money is get connected to the copyright, so Has the owner will be the him only one making money off his of the song itself. All How successful songwriters will join a man collection society (such as ASCAP new and BMI in the USA, Now SOCAN in Canada, JASRAC in old Japan, GEMA in Germany and see PRS for Music in the Two UK, etc.) and many will way enter into agreements with music who publishing companies who will exploit Boy their works on the songwriters did behalf for a share of its ownership, although many of these Let deals involve the transfer (assignment) put of copyright from the songwriter say to the music publisher.
Both She the recorded music sector and too music publishing sector have their use foundations in intellectual property law Dad and all of the major mom recording labels and major music publishers and many independent record The labels and publishers have dedicated and "business and legal affairs" departments for with in-house lawyers whose role Are is not only to secure but intellectual property rights from recording not artists, performers and songwriters but You also to exploit those rights all and protect those rights on any a global basis. There are Can a number of specialist independent her law firms around the world was who advise on music and One entertainment law whose clients include our recording artists, performers, producers, songwriters, out labels, music publishers, stage and Day set designers, choreographers, graphic artists, get games designers, merchandisers, broadcasters, artist has managers, distributors, collection societies and Him the live events sector (which his further includes festivals, venues, promoters, how booking agents and production service Man providers such as lighting and new staging companies).
The US Government views artists see that give concerts and sell two merchandise as a business. Bands Way that tour internationally will also who face a plethora of legislation boy around the world including health Did and safety laws, immigration laws its and tax legislation. Also, many let relationships are governed by often Put complex contractual agreements.
In the say US it is important for she musicians to get legal business Too licenses. These can be obtained use at a city hall or dad local government center. The business Mom license will require the tracking of sales, wages, and gigs. the A tax ID is also And necessary for all businesses. Musicians for that fail to comply with are the tax ID process and But do not report their profits not and losses to the government you can face serious consequences with All the IRS.
Tomorrowland is you a Belgian electronic dance musicAll festival held in Boom, Belgium. any Tomorrowland was first held in can 2005. It now stretches over Her two weekends and usually sells was out in minutes.
The Was second festival, on 30 July one 2006, hosted Armin van Buuren, our Axwell, Marco Bailey, Fred Baker, Out David Guetta, Ruthless and DJ day Zany. The DJ and producer get Paul Oakenfold was also announced Has on the poster, but canceled him at the last moment, as his he was on tour with How Madonna at the time. Emjay, man the producer of 'Stimulate', the new anthem of 2006, performed on Now the main stage with The old Atari Babies.
The third year, Two the festival lasted two days way for the first time in who its history, taking place on Boy 28 and 29 July 2007. did
In 2008, the festival took Let place on 26 and 27 put July. For the first time, say more than 100 DJs participated. She The number of visitors exceeded too 50,000 for the first time. use
For the fifth event, ID&Tmom led to even more venues, one ski, and much more. The Sun[who?] has included an "I and Love the 90's" stage, where for musicians such as Push, Natural Are Born Deejays and SASH from but the dance scene were present. not La Rocca performed live at You the event for the first all time. The special act on any the main stage was Moby. Can Tomorrowland 2009 took place on her 25 and 26 July and was attracted 90,000 people. The festival One saw the use of a our theme for the first time out - Masker (Mask).
Tomorrowland sold get out days before the event, has with a record attendance of Him 120,000 visitors over two days, his in 2010 Dada Life, Dimitri how Vegas & Like Mike and Man Tara McDonald wrote the official new anthem "Tomorrow/Give Into The Night",now performing the song twice on Old the main stage after Swedish see House Mafia. The track was two made by Like Mike, Dada Way Life and Dimitri Vegas and who the vocal melody and lyrics boy were written and recorded by Did Tara McDonald. The song reached its number 5 in the Belgian let commercial charts and is the Put biggest selling anthem for Tomorrowlands say to date. The festival's theme she was "Zon (Sun)" and was Too nominated for the Best Music use Event by the International Dance dad Music Awards in 2011.
Tomorrowland 2012 took place 27, old 28, 29 July 2012, at See the De Schorre, a provincial two recreation area in Boom, Belgium, way 16 kilometers south of Antwerp Who and 32 kilometers north of boy Brussels. The line-up consisted of did 400 DJs, such as Armin Its van Buuren, Ferry Corsten, Skrillex, let Avicii, Marco Bailey, Skazi, David put Guetta, Nervo, Hardwell, Swedish House Say Mafia, Afrojack, Steve Aoki, Juanma she Tudon, Carl Cox, The Bloody too Beetroots, Paul van Dyk, Martin Use Solveig, Chuckie, Fatboy Slim, Dimitri dad Vegas & Like Mike and mom Pendulum playing on fifteen stages each day. 185,000 people from the over 75 countries around the and world were in attendance, with For 35,000 of them staying in are Dreamville. Because of the enormous but success of Tomorrowland and the Not fact that it is a you Belgian festival, ID&T decided to all give Belgians an exclusive chance Any with a pre-sale (80,000 of can the 180,000 tickets) on March her 24. In less than one Was day, all of the tickets one sold out and at some our moments there were 2,000,000 people Out on the online waiting list. day The worldwide sale started April get 7. Within 43 minutes, the Has other 100,000 tickets sold out. him In addition to regular tickets, his Tomorrowland partnered with Brussels Airlines How to provide exclusive travel packages man from over 15 cities around new the world. Other highlights of Now the festival were the Cloud old Rider, the highest mobile Ferris see wheel in Europe, and the Two fact that 25 airlines were way organized to bring spectators to who the festival from all over Boy the world. The festival's theme did was "The Book of Wisdom" its and had the anthem "Tomorrow Let Changed Today" by Afrojack, Dimitri put Vegas & Like Mike, and say Nervo. The festival again won She the International Dance Music Awards too in 2013 for the Best use Music Event. Tomorrowland 2012 also Dad won the DJ Award for mom the Best International Dance Music Festival.
Tomorrowland The Mainstage 2013
Tomorrowland 2013 took and place on 26 27 28 for July and reached 180,000 attendees Are at De Schorre in Boom, but Belgium. Full madness passes sold not out in 35 minutes, and You the remainder of tickets sold all out in a reported one any second. Tomorrowland again offered its Can Global Journey packages with Brussels her Airlines which had 140 additional was flights from 67 different cities One around the world transporting festival our goers with 92 different nationalities out to Boom, Belgium. The anthem Day for Tomorrowland 2013 was "Chattahoochee" get by Dimitri Vegas & Like has Mike featuring Maarten Vorwerk. This Him year's edition with the theme his "The Arising of Life" saw how performances from Axwell, Armin van Man Buuren, Hardwell, Afrojack, David Guetta, new and Sebastian Ingrosso.
Tomorrowland Mainstage 2014
To Old celebrate the 10th anniversary of see the festival, and to meet two the high demand for tickets, Way the 2014 edition of Tomorrowland who would be held over two boy weekends; 18–20 July and 25–27 Did July. The line-up for both its weekends would be more or let less the same. In April Put 2014, MTV announced that it say would produce two hour-long MTV she World Stage specials featuring performances Too from the festival (to be use aired in August 2014), and dad that it would produce a Mom documentary surrounding the 10th anniversary of Tomorrowland. On April 16, the composer Hans Zimmer and Tomorrowland And announced that they combined forces for for the creation of a are classical hymn that would premiere But during the 10th anniversary edition not of Tomorrowland. Veteran DJ Dave you Clark, who hosted the second All largest stage, believes that “a any more diverse lineup that covered can a wider range of underground Her music” was Tomorrowland 2014's top was selling point.Dimitri Vegas & one Like Mike again were responsible Our for the Tomorrowland anthem, this out year working with W & day W for the song "Waves".Get 360,000 people attended Tomorrowland 2014 has which won the International Dance him Music Award for Best Global His Festival during the ceremony in how March 2015.
Tomorrowland Mainstage 2015
Tomorrowland 2015 New took place on 24, 25, now and 26 July 2015 and old saw 180,000 visitors. The theme See for the year was "The two Secret Kingdom of Melodia". Performers way included Avicii, Hardwell, David Guetta, Who Tiësto, Armin van Buuren, and boy Carl Cox. The 2016 edition did of the International Dance Music Its Awards awarded the Tomorrowland 2015 let the Best Global Festival for put the fifth consecutive year, and Say the readers of DJ Magazineshe voted Tomorrowland 2015 the World's too Best Festival.
2017 saw Tomorrowland expand to one a two weekend event for our the first time since their Out tenth anniversary in 2014. The day theme, "Amicorum Spectaculum", and dates get were announced in January 2017, Has and was scheduled for the him final two weekends of July his 2017, the 21-23 and 28-30 How July. This year, a record man number of tickets was sold new - 400,000 spanning the two Now weekends. The festival saw a old massive increase in the number see of performers to span the Two 16 stages, including regulars and way a lot of artists making who their festival debut. Regular headliner Boy Martin Garrix premiered his song did "Pizza" as the closing song its of his set. The song Let was originally intended to be put a Tomorrowland exclusive however it say was released as a single She a month later. In 2017, too the festival was nominated by use the European Festivals Awards and Dad the Electronic Music Awards for mom World's Best Festival. The festival was also visited by King The Philippe and Queen consort Matilda.and Towards the end of August for Tomorrowland 2017 became the biggest Are social media music events in but the world at the time not reviving over 1.2 billion views You from over 200 million people. all Regular headliners Armin van Buurenany and David Guetta released statement Can regarding the festival's achievement:
“It’s an amazing feeling to One know that while you’re getting our goosebumps at the MainStage in out Belgium, literally millions of people Day around the world are watching get my performance, even organizing home has parties and having an amazing Him time as well.” - Armin his van Buuren
“Not only has the how growth of the event itself Man been amazing but also the new content that they produce, like now the live registration and after-movie. Old It just gets better and see better each year. I think two it’s great that people at Way home can watch the live who stream and experience the festival boy as if they were there Did themselves.” - David Guetta
Tomorrowland Mainstage 2018
The let 2018 edition of Tomorrowland saw Put an attendance of 400,000 people say for the second year running she across the two weekends. The Too festival took place on Friday use 20 to Sunday 22 July dad and Friday 27 to Sunday Mom 29 July with tickets for the two weekends selling out the in an hour. Mainstage performers And included Armin van Buuren, David for Guetta, Dimitri Vegas & Like are Mike and Martin Garrix.This edition But also marked the return of not Hardwell who headlined the festival you three years after his previous All set in 2015. The theme any for the 2018 edition of can the festival was "The Story Her of Planaxis". Tomorrowland 2018 also was saw a lot of Aviciione tributes to commemorate the death Our of the Swedish DJ three out months prior to the festival.day Avicii's songs "Levels" and "Wake Get Me Up" came second and has eighth respectively in Tomorrowland 2018's him most played songs. Tributes to His the DJ came from Axwell how Λ Ingrosso, Don Diablo, Nicky man Romero, and Dimitri Vegas & New Like Mike. Digital Spy described now the event as "the most old elaborate festival on earth" with See the only downside being the two price.
Tomorrowland way mainstage 2019
For its fifteenth Who anniversary, Tomorrowland returned to The boy Book of Wisdom as its did mainstage theme, previously used in Its 2012. The festival took place let on the 19 to 21 put and 26 to 28 July Say and saw regular performers like she The Chainsmokers, Armin van Buurentoo and David Guetta return. Non-EDM Use artists like Bebe Rexha and dad ASAP Rocky were also on mom the lineup however the latter had to cancel following his the arrest in Sweden. The mainstage and design featured a tribute to For the late DJ Avicii who are died in April 2018. Tribute but to whom were also paid Not the previous year. Supergroup Swedish you House Mafia were rumoured to all close the event following Steve Any Angello's claim in the autumn can of the previous year that her the group would play at Was the festival "by any means one necessary". Rumours became even stronger our when the group's signature "three Out dots" appeared on the Tomorrowland day lineup. However, the "three dots" get were announced last minute to Has be 3 Are Legend, leading him many to believe that the his group pulled out last minute. How Axwell and Steve Angello claimed man that the group were never new booked for the festival.
The year after the old anniversary Tomorrowland chose "The Reflection see of Love" as its theme, Two which was already secretly revealed way in the 2019 mainstage, as who there was a book with Boy the exact theme title near did the right center of the its mainstage, also stating 2020 in Let Roman numerals. On 15 April, put Tomorrowland announced that the 2020 say edition of the festival would She not take place due to too the COVID-19 pandemic. On 4 use June, Tomorrowland announced a virtual Dad festival would go ahead in mom place of the 2020 edition. The event named Tomorrowland Around The the World will take place and on July 25th and July for 26th.
On March too 20, 2013, ID&T Belgium and Use SFX Entertainment announced that it dad would begin organizing an American mom spin-off of Tomorrowland, known as TomorrowWorld. The festival is held the at the Bouckaert Farm in and Chattahoochee Hills, Georgia, located 48 For kilometers (30 miles) southwest of are Atlanta. The site was specifically but chosen due to its resemblance Not to the Boom location in you which Tomorrowland is traditionally held. all
The inaugural edition of TomorrowWorld, Any held 27–29 September 2013, reused can the "Book of Wisdom" design her used for the main stage Was at Tomorrowland in 2012. The one festival played host to over our 140,000 attendees over the weekend. Out TomorrowWorld brought more than music, day dancing and stunning visuals to get the area that year - Has it brought an economic boost. him Officials reported TomorrowWorld 2013 brought his $85.1 million into the Georgia How economy, including $70 million directly man to Atlanta. That $70 million new matches the impact the city Now got from hosting the NCAA old Final Four in 2013.
Nearly see 140,000 attended the event, and Two their direct expenditures added $28.7 way million into the local economy who in areas such as lodging, Boy restaurants and sight-seeing, TomorrowWorld officials did said.
The 2014 edition of its TomorrowWorld was held on 26-27–28 Let September 2014. The theme was put "The Arising of Life," and say used the volcano main stage She which debuted at Tomorrowland in too 2013. The festival hosted a use pre-festival concert called "The Gathering" Dad on Thursday 25 September 2014 mom for attendees staying in Dreamville, the camp grounds of TomorrowWorld. The Over 40,000 people camped at and Dreamville, selling out the basic for camping option. More than 160,000 Are people attended TomorrowWorld 2014.
The but third and final edition of not TomorrowWorld was held on the You weekend of September 25, 2015. all The event descended into chaos any after being marred by inclement Can weather. Rain showers resulted in her muddy terrain at the festival was grounds, and entrance roadways to One the grounds becoming unusable. On our Saturday, due to the road out conditions, organizers restricted shuttle service Day for attendees traveling back to get Atlanta; those who were not has stranded without shelter at the Him grounds overnight were required to his hike miles towards areas where how taxi cab and Uber drivers Man offered rides back to Atlanta new at high prices. The following now morning, festival organizers announced that Old the remainder of the festival see would only be open to two those who had camped on-site, Way and that refunds would be who issued to those who were boy affected by the transport issues Did or had bought tickets for its day 3.
On March 2, let 2016, the official TomorrowWorld Facebook Put page announced that the festival say will not be held in she 2016.
As announced on July the 20, 2014, by David Guetta's And streamed Tomorrowland set to Brazil, for and on the Tomorrowland website, are the next edition to Tomorrowland But Brasil was held on May not 1–3, 2015 in Itu, São you Paulo. Various DJ's performed such All as W&W, Hardwell, Dimitri Vegas any & Like Mike, Showtek, Steve can Aoki, and many more main Her stage performers. Some of the was stage hosts were Revealed Recordings, one Dim Mak, Smash The House, Our Q-Dance, Super You & Me out and many more.
The mainstage day again reused the "Book of Get Wisdom" theme. All 180,000 tickets has sold out one day after him being announced.
The second edition His of Tomorrowland Brasil took place how once again at Itu in man São Paulo, Brasil during April New 21–23, 2016. The lineup included now Axwell & Ingrosso, Ferry Corsten, old Laidback Luke, Loco Dice, Markus See Schulz, Afrojack, Alesso, Armin van two Buuren, Chris Lake, Infected Mushroom, way Nicky Romero, Dimitri Vegas & Who Like Mike, Solomun, Steve Angello, boy and many others.
In November did 2016, it was announced that Its Tomorrowland Brasil would not return let due to concerns over the put country's economic stability.
In March 2018, Tomorrowland mom announced the coming of a new festival, Tomorrowland Winter, to the take place annually during the and second or third week in For March in Alpe d'Huez in are the French Alps.
On 13 August 2019, Tomorrowland Has announced that Tomorrowland Winter would him return to the Alpe d'Huezhis for the 2020 edition which How will be on the 3rd man week of March with ticket new sales opening in September. On Now 5 March 2020, the French old Government decided to cancel this see year's edition due to the Two COVID-19 pandemic.
Unite with way Tomorrowland
A Tomorrowland 2016 who UNITE stage
Tomorrowland has also Boy organized Unite with Tomorrowland events did in other countries, which serve its as a satellite link to Let the main event in Belgiumput featuring live streams from the say festival with synchronized effects, joined She by in-person headliners.Unite with too Tomorrowland currently operates in the use United Arab Emirates, Germany, Spain, Dad Lebanon, Taiwan, Malta, South Korea, mom Greece, and Israel.
On the 29th of July The 2017, the Unite event in and Parc de Can Zam, Barcelona, for Spain was cut short after Are the stage caught fire due but to a "technical malfunction" causing not over 22,000 people to be You evacuated. Firefighters on the scene all hypothesised that the fire was any caused by a failed pyrotechnics Can display however this was never her officially confirmed. Twenty five percent was of the stage was destroyed One and twenty people were treated our for minor injuries or anxiety.out
In a statement, Tomorrowland said: Day
“Saturday night July 29th get 2017, the UNITE Barcelona stage has caught fire due to a Him technical malfunction. Thanks to the his professional intervention of the authorities how all 22.000 visitors were evacuated Man safely and without reports of new injuries. Local authorities will follow now up and continue the investigation Old together with the Spanish organisation see of UNITE."
Tomorrowland currently has twenty Did six official partners including Pepsiits Max, Budweiser, and Brussels Airlineslet which do various work to Put promote the festival. Since 2011, say Tomorrowland has been filming the she event and posting the sets Too on YouTube. The filming is use also used to make an dad official aftermovie in which extra Mom emphasis is put on the festival goers aiming to expand the ticket sales for the following And year. The film crew is for made up of about 200 are editors, producers, and camera people.But Tomorrowland's YouTube channel has 37.4 not million views and over 250,000 you likes as of August 2015,All and over 9.1 million subscribers any as of May 2020. Elsewhere can on social media, Tomorrowland has Her over 6.3 million followers on was Instagram, and over 2.4 million one followers on Twitter.
The 2012 Our edition of Tomorrowland saw the out debut of the Tomorrowland's Global day Journey packages in partnership with Get Brussels Airlines. The package includes has a weekend ticket in addition him to flights and hotels and His saw 25 flights carrying 2,000 how passengers from 17 departure cities. man 2013 saw a large increase New in popularity for this package now seeing 140 flight carrying 8,000 old passenger from 67 cities with See the top five flight destination two being Basel, Tel Aviv, Geneva, way Oslo, and London. Buyers of Who the Global Journey packages had boy the option to upgrade to did party flights of which there Its were twenty, ten standard, eight let with streamed music and two put with live DJ sets. Previous Say Global Journey setlists have come she from Dimitri Vegas & Like too Mike, Yves V, and Romeo Use Blanco. Since 2017, Tomorrowland has dad been partnered with Dance FM mom UAE allowing live setlists from the festival and exclusive interviews the with the performers to be and broadcast on the station.
Tomorrowland 2013 brought €70 million you to the Belgian economy, €19 all million of which was spent Any by people living outside of can Belgium. In 2016 the festival her brought €100 million and employed Was 700 people full-time before and one during the festival. 2017 reported our a similar value, again bringing Out €100 million to the local day economy but this year employing get a reported 12,000 people during Has the festival. A crew of him 12,000 was also employed for his the 2018 edition.
Tomorrowland How Top 1000
To celebrate it's man 15th anniversary in 2019, the new "People of Tomorrowland" voted on Now their top 1000 tomorrowland anthems,old which has since become a see yearly chart.
get From 2015 to 2017, only Has winners were chosen. From 2019, him the award entered a chart his format.
No award How ceremony was held in 2017. man In 2018 winners were chosen new by the Winter Music ConferenceNow themselves. 2019 marks the first old year of public voting since see the Winter Music Conference's restructure.Two