Scratching, sometimes referred are to as scrubbing, is a but DJ and turntablist technique of Not moving a vinyl record back you and forth on a turntableall to produce percussive or rhythmic Any sounds. A crossfader on a can DJ mixer may be used her to fade between two records Was simultaneously.
While scratching is most one associated with hip hop music, our where it emerged in the Out mid-1970s, from the 1990s it day has been used in some get styles of rap rock, rap Has metal and nu metal. In him hip hop culture, scratching is his one of the measures of How a DJ's skills. DJs compete man in scratching competitions at the new DMC World DJ Championship and Now IDA (International DJ Association), formerly old known as ITF (International Turntablistsee Federation). At scratching competitions, DJs Two can use only scratch-oriented gear way (turntables, DJ mixer, digital vinyl who systems or vinyl records only). Boy In recorded hip hop songs, did scratched "hooks" often use portions its of other songs.
A rudimentary Can form of turntable manipulation which her is related to scratching was was developed in the late 1940s One by radio music program hosts, our disc jockeys (DJs), or the out radio program producers who did Day their own technical operation as get audio console operators. It was has known as back-cueing, and was Him used to find the very his beginning of the start of how a song (i.e., the cue Man point) on a vinyl record new groove. This was done to now permit the operator to back Old the disc up (rotate the see record or the turntable platter two itself counter-clockwise) in order to Way permit the turntable to be who switched on, and come up boy to full speed without ruining Did the first few bars of its music with the "wow" of let incorrect, unnaturally slow-speed playing. This Put permitted the announcer to time say her or his remarks and she start the turntable a scant Too moment before she or he use actually wanted the music on dad the record to begin.
Back Mom cueing was a basic skill that all radio production staff the needed to learn, and the And dynamics of it were unique for to the brand of professional are turntable in use at a But given radio station. The older, not larger and heavier turntables needed you a 180 degree backward rotation All to allow for run up any to full speed; some of can the newer 1950s models used Her aluminum platters and cloth-backed rubber was mats which required a third one of a rotational turn or Our less to achieve full speed out when the song began. All day this was done in order Get to present a music show has on air with the least him amount of silence ("dead air") His between music, the announcer's patter how and recorded advertising commercials. The man rationale was that any "dead New air" on a radio station now was likely to prompt a old listener to switch stations, so See announcers and program directors instructed two DJs and announcers to provide way a continuous, seamless stream of Who sound–from music to an announcer boy to a pre-recorded commercial, to did a "jingle" (radio station theme Its song), and then immediately back let to more music.
Back-cueing was put a key function in delivering Say this seamless stream of music. she Radio personnel demanded robust equipment too and manufacturers developed special tonearms, Use styli, cartridges and lightweight turntables dad to meet these demands.
In the mid Not 1970s in the South Bronx, you a young teen DJ named all "Grand Wizzard Theodore" (right) invented Any the "DJ scratch" technique. Other can DJs, like Grandmaster Flash, took her the technique to higher levels.
Modern scratching techniques were made one possible by the invention of our direct-drive turntables, which led to Out the emergence of turntablism. Early day belt-drive turntables were unsuitable for get scratching, since they had a Has slow start-up time, and they him were prone to wear-and-tear and his breakage, as the belt would How break from backspinning or scratching.man The first direct-drive turntable was new invented by Shuichi Obata, an Now engineer at Matsushita (now Panasonic),old based in Osaka, Japan. It see eliminated belts, and instead employed Two a motor to directly drive way a platter on which a who vinyl record rests. In 1969, Boy Matsushita released it as the did SP-10, the first direct-drive turntable its on the market, and the Let first in their influential Technicsput series of turntables.
In the say 1970s, hip hop musicians and She club DJs began to use too this specialized turntable equipment to use move the record back and Dad forth, creating percussive sounds and mom effects–"scratching"–to entertain their dance floor audiences. Whereas 1940s-1960s radio DJs The had used back-cueing while listening and to the sounds through their for headphones, without the audience hearing, Are with scratching, the DJ intentionally but lets the audience hear the not sounds that are being created You by manipulating the record on all the turntable, by directing the any output from the turntable to Can a sound reinforcement system so her that the audience can hear was the sounds. Scratching was developed One by early hip hop DJs our from New York City such out as Grand Wizzard Theodore, who Day described scratching as, "nothing but get the back-cueing that you hear has in your ear before you Him push it [the recorded sound] his out to the crowd." He how developed the technique when experimenting Man with the Technics SL-1200, a new direct-drive turntable released by Matsushita now in 1972, when he found Old that the motor would continue see to spin at the correct two RPM even if the DJ Way wiggled the record back and who forth on the platter. Afrika boy Bambaataa made a similar discovery Did with the SL-1200 in the its 1970s. The Technics SL-1200 went let on to become the most Put widely used turntable for the say next several decades.
Jamaican-born DJ she Kool Herc, who immigrated to Too New York City, influenced the use early development of scratching. Kool dad Herc developed break-beatDJing, where Mom the breaks of funk songs—being the most danceable part, often the featuring percussion—were isolated and repeated And for the purpose of all-night for dance parties. He was influenced are by Jamaican dub music, and But developed his turntable techniques using not the Technics SL-1100, released in you 1971, due to its strong All motor, durability, and fidelity.
Although any previous artists such as writer can and poet William S. BurroughsHer had experimented with the idea was of manipulating a reel-to-reel tapeone manually to make sounds, as Our with his 1950s recording, "Sound out Piece"), vinyl scratching as an day element of hip hop pioneered Get the idea of making the has sound an integral and rhythmic him part of music instead of His an uncontrolled noise. Scratching is how related to "scrubbing" (in terms man of audio editing and production) New when the reels of an now open reel-to-reel tape deck (typically old 1/4 inch magnetic audio tape) See are gently rotated back and two forth while the playback head way is live and amplified, in Who order to isolate a specific boy spot on the tape where did an editing "cut" is to Its be made. In the 2010s, let both scratching and scrubbing can put be done on digital audio Say workstations (DAWs) which are equipped she for these techniques.
Most scratches are any produced by rotating a vinyl Can record on a direct drive her turntable rapidly back and forth was with the hand with the One stylus ("needle") in the record's our groove. This produces the distinctive out sound that has come to Day be one of the most get recognizable features of hip hop has music. Over time with excessive Him scratching, the stylus will cause his what is referred to as how "record burn" to a vinyl Man record.
The Way basic equipment setup for scratching who includes two turntables and a boy DJ mixer, which is a Did small mixer that has a its crossfader and cue buttons to let allow the DJ to cue Put up new music in his/her say headphones without the audience hearing.[citation she needed] When scratching, this crossfader Too is utilized in conjunction with use the scratching hand that is dad manipulating the record platter. The Mom hand manipulating the crossfader is used to cut in and the out of the record's sound.[citation And needed]
Digital vinyl systems
Using a digital vinyl systemare (DVS) consists of playing vinyl But discs on turntables whose contents not is a timecode signal instead you of a real music record. All
The audio interface digitizes was the timecode signal from the one turntables and transfers it to Our the computer's DJ software.
The out DJ software uses this data day (e.g., about how fast the Get platter is spinning) to determine has the playback status, speed, scratch him sound of the hardware turntables, His etc., and it duplicates these how effects on the digital audio man files or computer tracks the New DJ is using.
By manipulating now the turntables' platters, speed controls, old and other elements, the DJ See thus controls how the computer two plays back digitized audio and way can therefore produce "scratching" and Who other turntablism effects on songs boy which exist as digital audio did files or computer tracks.
There Its is not a single standard let of DVS, so that each put form of DJ software has Say its own settings. Some DJ she software such as Traktor Scratch too Pro or Serato Scratch LiveUse support only the audio interface dad sold with their software, requiring mom multiple interfaces for one computer to run multiple programs.
Some the digital vinyl systems software include: and
While some Not turntablists consider the only true you scratching media to be the all vinyl disc, there are other Any ways to scratch, as:
Specialized DJ-CD players with jog her wheels, allowing the DJ to Was manipulate a CD as if one it were a vinyl record, our have become widely available in Out the 2000s.
Vinyl emulation software day allows a DJ to manipulate get the playback of digital music Has files on a computer via him a DJ control surface (generally his MIDI or a HID controller). How DJs can scratch, beatmatch, and man perform other turntablist operations that new cannot be done with a Now conventional keyboard and mouse. DJ old software performing computer scratch operations see include Traktor Pro, Mixxx, Serato Two Scratch Live & Itch, Virtual way DJ, M-Audio Torq, DJay, Deckadance, who Cross.
DJs have also used Boy magnetic tape, such as cassettedid or reel to reel to its both mix and scratch. Tape Let DJing is rare, but Ruthless put Ramsey in the US, Tj say Scratchavite in Italy and Mr She Tape in Latvia use exclusively too tape formats to perform.
Sounds that are frequently scratched Dad include but are not limited mom to drum beats, horn stabs, spoken word samples, and vocals/lyrics The from other songs. Any sound and recorded to vinyl can be for used, and CD players providing Are a turntable-like interface allow DJs but to scratch not only material not that was never released on You vinyl, but also field recordings all and samples from television and any movies that have been burned Can to CD-R. Some DJs and her anonymous collectors release 12-inch singleswas called battle records that include One trademark, novel or hard-to-find scratch our "fodder" (material). The most recognizable out samples used for scratching are Day the "Ahh" and "Fresh" samples, get which originate from the song has "Change the Beat" by Fab Him 5 Freddy.
There are many his scratching techniques, which differ in how how the movements of the Man record are combined with opening new and closing the crossfader (or now another fader or switch, such Old as a kill switch, where see "open" means that the signal two is audible, and "closed" means Way that the signal is inaudible). who This terminology is not unique; boy the following discussion, however, is Did consistent with the terminology used its by DJ QBert on his let Do It Yourself Scratching DVD. Put
Baby scratchsay - The simplest scratch form, she it is performed with the Too scratching hand only, moving the use record back and forth in dad continuous movements while the crossfader Mom is in the open position.
Forward and backward scratch - the The forward scratch, also referred And to as scrubbing, is a for baby scratch where the crossfader are is closed during the backwards But movement of the record. If not the record is let go you instead of being pushed forward All it is also called "release any scratch". Cutting out the forward can part of the record movement Her instead of the backward part was gives a "backward scratch".
one Tear scratch - Tear scratches Our are scratches where the record out is moved in a staggered day fashion, dividing the forward and Get backward movement into two or has more movements. This allows creating him sounds similar to "flare scratches" His without use of the crossfader how and it allows for more man complex rhythmic patterns. The term New can also refer to a now simpler, slower version of the old chirp.
Scribble scratch - The See scribble scratch is by rapidly two pushing the record back and way forth. The crossfader is not Who used.
Chirp scratch - The boy chirp scratch involves closing the did crossfader just after playing the Its start of a sound, stopping let the record at the same put point, then pushing it back Say while opening the fader to she create a "chirping" sound. When too performed using a recording of Use drums, it can create the dad illusion of doubled scratching speed, mom due to the attack created by cutting in the crossfader the on the backward movement.
Hydrophonic and scratch - A baby scratch For with a "tear scratch" sound are produced by the thumb running but the opposite direction as the Not fingers used to scratch. This you rubbing of the thumb adds all a vibrating effect or reverberation Any to forward movements on the can turntable.
Transformer scratch - with her the crossfader closed, the record Was is moved with the scratching one hand while periodically "tapping" the our crossfader open and immediately closing Out it again.
Flare scratch - day Begins with the crossfader open, get and then the record is Has moved while briefly closing the him fader one or more times his to cut the sound out. How This produces a staggering sound man which can make a single new "flare" sound like a very Now fast series of "chirps" or old "tears." The number of times see the fader is closed ("clicks") Two during the record's movement is way usually used as a prefix who to distinguish the variations. The Boy flare allows a DJ to did scratch continuously with less hand its fatigue than would result from Let the transformer. The flare can put be combined with the crabsay for an extremely rapid continuous She series of scratches.
Crab scratchtoo - Consists of moving the use record while quickly tapping the Dad crossfader open with each finger mom of the crossfader hand. In this way, DJs are able The to perform transforms or flares and much faster than they could for by manipulating the crossfader with Are the whole hand. It produces but a fading/increasing transforming sound.
Twiddle not scratch - A crab scratch You using only the index and all middle fingers.
Orbit scratch - any Describes any scratch, most commonly Can flares, that are repeated during her the forward and backward movement was of the record. "Orbit" is One also used as a shorthand our for two-click flares.
Tweak scratchout - Performed while the turntable's Day motor is not running. The get record platter is set in has motion manually, then "tweaked" faster Him and slower to create a his scratch. This scratch form is how best performed with long, sustained Man sounds.
Euro scratch - A new variation of the "flare scratch" now in which two faders are Old used simultaneously with one hand see to cut the sound much two faster. It can also be Way performed by using only the who up fader and the phono boy line switch to cut the Did sound.
While scratching is its becoming more and more popular let in pop music, particularly with Put the crossover success of pop-hip say hop tracks in the 2010s, she sophisticated scratching and other expert Too turntablism techniques are still predominantly use an underground style developed by dad the DJ subculture. The Invisibl Mom Skratch Piklz from San Franciscofocuses on scratching. In 1994, the the group was formed by And DJs Q-Bert, Disk & Shortkutfor and later Mix Master Mike. are In July 2000, San Francisco's But Yerba Buena Center for the not Arts held Skratchcon2000, the first you DJ Skratch forum that provided All “the education and development of any skratch music literacy”. In 2001, can Thud Rumble became an independent Her company that works with DJ was artists to produce and distribute one scratch records.
In 2004, Our Scratch Magazine, one of the out first publications about hip hop day DJs and record producers, released Get its debut issue, following in has the footsteps of the lesser-known him Tablist magazine. Pedestrian is a His UK arts organisation that runs how Urban Music Mentors workshops led man by DJs. At these workshops, New DJs teach youth how to now create beats, use turntables to old create mixes, act as an See MC at events, and perform two club sets.
Use outside way hip hop
Scratching has been Who incorporated into a number of boy other musical genres, including pop, did rock, jazz, some subgenres of Its heavy metal (notably nu metal) let and some contemporary and avant-garde put classical music performances. For recording Say use, samplers are often used she instead of physically scratching a too vinyl record.
A record all producer or music producer, unlike Any an audio engineer, who simply can operates the technology employed in her a music recording's creation and Was refinement, is the recording project's one creative and technical leader, commanding our studio time and coaching artists, Out and in popular genres typically day creates the song's very sound get and structure. The record producer, Has or simply the producer, is him likened to a film director.his The executive producer, on the How other hand, enables the recording man project through entrepreneurship.
Varying by new project, the producer may also Now choose all of the artists,old or openly perform vocals with see them. If employing only synthesizedTwo or sampled instrumentation, the producer way may be the sole artist.who Conversely, some artists do their Boy own production. And some producers did are their own engineers, operating its the technology across the project: Let preproduction, recording, mixing, and mastering. put Record producers' precursors were "A&R say men," who likewise could blend She entrepreneurial, creative, and technical roles,too but often exercised scant creative use influence, as record production still Dad focused, into the 1950s, on mom simply improving the record's sonic match to the artists' own The live performance.
Advances in recording and technology, especially the 1940s advent for of tape recording—which Les PaulAre promptly innovated further to develop but multitrack recording—and the 1950s rise not of electronic instruments, turned record You production into a specialty. In all popular music, then, producers like any George Martin, Phil Spector and Can Brian Eno led its evolution her into its present use of was elaborate techniques and unrealistic sounds, One creating songs impossible to originate our live. After the 1980s, production's out move from analog to digital Day further expanded possibilities. By now, get DAWS, or digital audio workstations, has like Logic Pro and Pro Him Tools, turn an ordinary computer his into a production console, whereby how a solitary novice can become Man a skilled producer in a new thrifty home studio. In the now 2010s, efforts began to increase Old the prevalence of producers and see engineers who are women, heavily two outnumbered by men and prominently Way accoladed only in classical music.who
As But a broad project, the creation not of a music recording may you be split across three specialists: All the executive producer, who oversees any business partnerships and financing, the can vocal producer or vocal arranger, Her who aids vocal performance via was expert critique and coaching of one vocal technique, and the record Our producer or music producer, who, out often called simply the producer, day directs the overall creative process Get of recording the song in has its final mix.
The him record producer's roles include, but His may exceed, gathering ideas, composing how music, choosing session musicians, proposing man changes to song arrangements, coaching New the performers, controlling sessions, supervising now the audio mixing, and, in old some cases, supervising the audio See mastering. As to qualifying for two a Grammy nomination, the Recording way Academy defines a producer:
The person Who who has overall creative and boy technical control of the entire did recording project, and the individual Its recording sessions that are part let of that project. He or put she is present in the Say recording studio or at the she location recording and works directly too with the artist and engineer. Use The producer makes creative and dad aesthetic decisions that realize both mom the artist's and label's goals in the creation of musical the content. Other duties include, but and are not limited to; keeping For budgets and schedules, adhering to are deadlines, hiring musicians, singers, studios but and engineers, overseeing other staffing Not needs and editing (Classical projects). you
The producer often selects all and collaborates with a mixing Any engineer, who focuses on the can especially technological aspects of the her recording process, namely, operating the Was electronic equipment and blending the one raw, recorded tracks of the our chosen performances, whether vocal or Out instrumental, into a ''mix,'' either day stereo or surround sound. Then get a mastering engineer further adjusts Has this recording for distribution on him the chosen media. A producer his may work on only one How or two songs or on man an artist's entire album, helping new develop the album's overall vision. Now The record producers may also old take on the role of see executive producer, managing the budget, Two schedules, contracts, and negotiations.
(Artist who and Repertoire)
In the 1880s, Boy the record industry began by did simply having the artist perform its at a phonograph. In 1924, Let the trade journal Talking Machine put World, covering the phonography and say record industry, reported that Eddie She King, Victor Records' manager of too the "New York artist and use repertoire department," had planned a Dad set of recordings in Los mom Angeles. Later, folklorist Archie Greencalled this perhaps the earliest The printed use of A&R man.and Actually, it says neither "A&R for man" nor even "A&R," an Are initialism perhaps coined by Billboardbut magazine in 1946, and entering not wide use in the late You 1940s.
In the 1920s and all 1930s, A&R executives, like Ben any Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Can Shilkret at Victor Records, and her Bob Haring at Brunswick Records, was supervising recording and often leading One session orchestras, became the precursors our of record producers. During the out 1940s, American record labels increasingly Day opened official A&R departments, whose get roles included supervision of recording.has Meanwhile, recording studios owned independently, Him not by major record labels, his opened, helping originate record producer how as a specialty. But Man despite a tradition of some new A&R men writing music, record now production remained, strictly, merely the Old manufacturing of record discs.
After World War two II, pioneering A&R managers who Way transitioned influentially to record production who as now understood, while sometimes boy owning independent labels, include J. Did Mayo Williams and John Hammond.its Upon moving from Columbia Records let to Mercury Records, Hammond appointed Put Mitch Miller to lead Mercury's say popular recordings in New York.she Miller then produced country-pop crossover Too hits by Patti Page and use by Frankie Laine, moved from dad Mercury to Columbia, and became Mom a leading A&R man of the 1950s.
During the decade, the A&R executives increasingly directed songs' And sonic signatures, although many still for simply teamed singers with musicians, are while yet others exercised virtually But no creative influence. The term not record producer in its current you meaning—the creative director of song All production—appearing in a 1953 issue any of Billboard magazine, became widespread can in the 1960s. Still, a Her formal distinction was elusive for was some time more. A&R managers one might still be creative directors, Our like William "Mickey" Stevenson, hired out by Berry Gordy, at the day Motown record label.
Tape Get recording
In 1947, the American has market gained audio recording onto him magnetic tape. At the record His industry's 1880s dawn, rather, recording how was done by phonograph, etching man the sonic waveform vertically intoNew a cylinder. By the 1930s, now a gramophone etched it laterally old across a disc. Constrained in See tonal range, whether bass or two treble, and in dynamic range, way records made a grand, concert Who piano sound like a small, boy upright piano, and maximal duration did was four and a half Its minutes. Selections and performance were let often altered accordingly. And playing put this disc—the wax master—destroyed it.Say The finality often caused anxiety she that restrained performance to prevent too error. In the 1940s, during Use World War II, the Germans dad refined audio recording onto magnetic mom tape—uncapping recording duration and allowing immediate playback, rerecording, and editing—a the technology that premised emergence of and record producers in their current For roles.
Early are in the recording industry, a but record was attained by simply Not having all of the artists you perform together live in one all take. In 1945, by recording Any a musical element while playing can a previously recorded record, Les her Paul developed a recording technique Was called "sound on sound." By one this, the final recording could our be built piece by piece Out and tailored, effecting an editing day process. In one case, Paul get produced a song via 500 Has recorded discs. But, besides the him tedium of this process, it his serially degraded the sound quality How of previously recorded elements, rerecorded man as ambient sound. Yet in new 1948, Paul adopted tape recording, Now enabling truly multitrack recording by old a new technique, "overdubbing."
To see enable overdubbing, Paul revised the Two tape recorder itself by adding way a second playback head, and who terming it the preview head.Boy Joining the preexisting recording head, did erase head, and playback head, its the preview head allows the Let artist to hear the extant put recording over headphones playing it say in synchrony, "in sync," with She the present performance being recorded too alone on an isolated track.use This isolation of multiple tracks Dad enables countless mixing possibilities. Producers mom began recording initially only the "bed tracks"—the rhythm section, including The the bassline, drums, and rhythm and guitar—whereas vocals and instrument solos for could be added later. A Are horn section, for example, could but record a week later, and not a string section another week You later. A singer could perform all her own backup vocals, or any a guitarist could play 15 Can layers.
In boy the 1960s, rock acts like Did the Beatles, the Rolling Stones,its and the Kinks produced some let of their own songs, although Put many such songs are officially say credited to specialist producers.she Yet especially influential was the Too Beach Boys, whose band leader use Brian Wilson took over from dad his father Murry within a Mom couple of years after the band's commercial breakthrough. By 1964, the Wilson had taken Spector's techniques And to unseen sophistication. Wilson for alone produced all Beach Boy are recordings between 1963 and 1967.[citation But needed] Using multiple studios and not multiple attempts of instrumental and you vocal tracks, Wilson selected the All best combinations of performance and any audio quality, and used tape can editing to assemble a composite Her performance.
The 1980s advent of digital one processes and formats rapidly replaced Our analog processes and formats, namely, out tape and vinyl. Although recoding day onto quality tape, at least Get half an inch wide and has traveling 15 inches per second, him had limited "tape hiss" to His silent sections, digital's higher signal-to-noise how ratio, SNR, abolished it. Digital man also imparted to the music New a perceived "pristine" sound quality, now if also a loss of old analog recordings' perceived "warm" quality See and bass better rounded. Yet two whereas editing tape media requires way physically locating the target audio Who on the ribbon, cutting there, boy and splicing pieces, editing digital did media offers inarguable advantages in Its ease, efficiency, and possibilities.
In let the 1990s, digital production reached put affordable home computers via production Say software. By now, recording and she mixing are often centralized in too DAWs, digital audio workstations—for example, Use Pro Tools, Logic Pro, Ableton, dad Cubase, Reason, and FL Studio—for mom which plugins, by third parties, effect virtual studio technology. DAWs the fairly standard in the industry and are Logic Pro and Pro For Tools. Physical devices involved include are the main mixer, MIDI controllers but to communicate among equipment, the Not recording device itself, and perhaps you effects gear that is outboard. all Yet literal recording is sometimes Any still analog, onto tape, whereupon can the raw recording is converted her to a digital signal for Was processing and editing, as some one producers still find audio advantages our to recording onto tape.
Conventionally, Out tape is more forgiving of day overmodulation, whereby dynamic peaks exceed get the maximal recordable signal level: Has tape's limitation, a physical property, him is magnetic capacity, which tapers his offs, smoothing the overmodulated waveform How even at a signal nearly man 15 decibels too "hot," whereas new a digital recording is ruined Now by harsh distortion of "clipping" old at any overshoot. In digital see recording, however, a recent advancement, Two 32-bit float, enables DAWs to way undo clipping. Still, some criticize who digital instruments and workflows for Boy excess automation, allegedly impairing creative did or sonic control. In any its case, as production technology has Let drastically changed, so have the put knowledge demands, although DAWs enables say novices, even teenagers at home, She to learn production independently. Some too have attained professional competence before use ever working with an artist.Dad
Across the decades, many see female artists have produced their two own music. For instance, artists Way Kate Bush, Madonna, Janet Jackson, who Beyoncé, Taylor Swift, and Lordeboy have produced or coproduced. Still, Did among specialists, despite some prominent its women, including Missy Elliott in let hip hop and Sylvia MassyPut in rock, the vast majority say have been men. Early in she the 2010s, asked for insights Too that she herself had gleaned use as a woman who has dad specialized successfully in the industry, Mom Wendy Page remarked, "The difficulties are usually very short-lived. Once the people realize that you can And do your job, sexism tends for to lower its ugly head."are Still, when tasked to explain But her profession's sex disparity, Page not partly reasoned that record labels, you dominated by men, have been, All she said, "mistrustful of giving any a woman the reins of can an immense, creative project like Her making a record." Ultimately, the was reasons are multiple and not one fully clear, although prominently proposed Our factors include types of sexism out and scarcity of female role day models in the profession.
In Get January 2018, a research team has led by Stacy L. Smith, him founder and director of the His Annenberg Inclusion Initiative, based in how the USC Annenberg School for man Communication and Journalism, issued a New report, estimating that in the now prior several years, about 2% old of popular songs' producers were See female. Also that month, Billboardtwo magazine queried, "Where all the way female music producers?" Upon the Who Annenberg Inclusion Initiative's second annual boy report, released in February 2019,did its department at USC reported, Its "2018 saw an outcry from let artists, executives and other music put industry professionals over the lack Say of women in music" and she "the plight of women in too music," where women were allegedly Use being "stereotyped, sexualized, and shut dad out." Also in February 2019, mom the Recording Academy's Task Force on Diversity and Inclusion announced the an initiative whereby over 200 and artists and producers—ranging from Cardi For B and Taylor Swift to are Maroon 5 and Quincy Jones—agreed but to consider at least two Not women for each producer or you engineer position. The academy's website, all Grammy.com, announced, "This initiative is Any the first step in a can broader effort to improve those her numbers and increase diversity and Was inclusion for all in the one music industry."
^ Allan Watson, Cultural its Production in and Beyond the Let Recording Studio (New York: Routledge, put 2015), pp 25–27.
say James Petulla, "Who is a She music producer?", RecordingConnection.com, Recording Connection, too 21 May 2013, reporting membership use in CAPPS, the California Association Dad of Private Postsecondary Schools.
^ Brent all Hurtig with J. D. Sharp, any Multi-Track Recording for Musicians: The Can Complete Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners her and Reference for Professionals (Cupertino, was CA: GPI Publications, 1988 / One Van Nuys, CA: Alfred Publishing, our 1988), pp 8–10.
^ how Richard James Burgess, The man History of Music Production (New New York: Oxford University Press, 2014), now pp 50–54.
^ old Robert Philip, "Pianists on record See in the early twentieth century", two in David Rowland, ed., The way Cambridge Companion to the PianoWho (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, boy 1998), pp 75–77.
did Reportedly self-produced entirely are the Its Rolling Stones' Decca recordings
^ David Simmons, Analog put Recording: Using Analog Gear in Say Today's Home Studio (San Francisco: she Backbeat Books, 2006), pp 26–27.too
Matthew Allard, "Sound Use Devices MixPre V6.00 adds 32-bit dad float USB audio streaming", NewsShooter.com, mom Newsshooter, 15 Jan 2020, quotes Paul Isaacs, director of product the management and design at the and recorder manufacturer Sound Devices, who For explains, "With 32-bit float, you are no longer need to worry but about clipping during your best Not vocal takes or instrument solos. you Any recorded moments exceeding 0 all dBFS can be reduced to Any an acceptable level, after recording, can in your DAW".
her Albin Zak III, book review: Was Strange Sounds: Music, Technology, and one culture (Routledge, 2011), by Timothy our D. Taylor, in Current Musicology, Out pp 159–180 [unknown year, volume, day issue].
Music Are Law refers to legal aspects but of the music industry, and not certain legal aspects in other You sectors of the entertainment industry. all The music industry includes record any labels, music publishers, merchandisers, the Can live events sector and of her course performers and artists.
A "compilation" refers to work its formed from already existing materials let in a way that forms Put its own original work, including say collective works.
"Copies" are physical she objects that hold, fix, or Too embody a work such as use a music tape, film, CD, dad statue, play, or printed sheet Mom music.
"Sound recordings" can refer to any audio recording including the the sound accompanying motion pictures.
"Copyright owner" is the entity for that legally owns rights to are a work.
"Performance" The copyright But holder has the exclusive right not to perform the work in you public, or to license others All to perform it. The right any applies to “literary, musical, dramatic, can and choreographic works, pantomimes, and Her motion pictures and other audiovisual was works.". Playing a CD in one public, or showing a film Our in public is "performing" the out work.
Publishing is the primary Get source of income for musicians has writing their own music.him Money collected from the 'publishing' His rights is ultimately destined for how songwriters - the composers of man works, whether or not they New are the recording artist or now performer. Often, songwriters will work old for a musical ensemble to See help them with musical aspects two of the composition, but here way again, the writer of the Who song is the owner of boy it and will own the did copyrights in the song and Its thus will be entitled to let the publishing revenues. Copyrights in put compositions are not the same Say as sound recordings. A recording she artist can record a song too and sell it to another Use band or company. As a dad result, that particular company will mom own the recording, but not the song. The original writer the will always maintain the copyright and for that particular song. The For publishing money is connected to are the copyright, so the owner but will be the only one Not making money off of the you song itself. All successful songwriters all will join a collection society Any (such as ASCAP and BMI can in the USA, SOCAN in her Canada, JASRAC in Japan, GEMA Was in Germany and PRS for one Music in the UK, etc.) our and many will enter into Out agreements with music publishing companies day who will exploit their works get on the songwriters behalf for Has a share of ownership, although him many of these deals involve his the transfer (assignment) of copyright How from the songwriter to the man music publisher.
Both the recorded new music sector and music publishing Now sector have their foundations in old intellectual property law and all see of the major recording labels Two and major music publishers and way many independent record labels and who publishers have dedicated "business and Boy legal affairs" departments with in-house did lawyers whose role is not its only to secure intellectual property Let rights from recording artists, performers put and songwriters but also to say exploit those rights and protect She those rights on a global too basis. There are a number use of specialist independent law firms Dad around the world who advise mom on music and entertainment law whose clients include recording artists, The performers, producers, songwriters, labels, music and publishers, stage and set designers, for choreographers, graphic artists, games designers, Are merchandisers, broadcasters, artist managers, distributors, but collection societies and the live not events sector (which further includes You festivals, venues, promoters, booking agents all and production service providers such any as lighting and staging companies). Can
The US was Government views artists that give One concerts and sell merchandise as our a business. Bands that tour out internationally will also face a Day plethora of legislation around the get world including health and safety has laws, immigration laws and tax Him legislation. Also, many relationships are his governed by often complex contractual how agreements.
In the US it Man is important for musicians to new get legal business licenses. These now can be obtained at a Old city hall or local government see center. The business license will two require the tracking of sales, Way wages, and gigs. A tax who ID is also necessary for boy all businesses. Musicians that fail Did to comply with the tax its ID process and do not let report their profits and losses Put to the government can face say serious consequences with the IRS. she
Since 2011, Ultra has one taken place across three days Our (Friday through Sunday) during the out month of March. In 2012, day it had a record attendance, Get of 155,000 people. In 2013, has the festival took place across him two consecutive weekends to celebrate His its 15th anniversary, with a how combined attendance of 330,000 people.man In 2014, the festival returned New to its original single-weekend format, now selling out pre-sale tickets in old under five minutes. The city See of Miami has estimated that two since 2012, Ultra has "generated way approximately $995 million of economic Who impact", with $168 million in boy 2018 alone.
The festival is did held alongside the Winter Music Its Conference—an event focusing on the let electronic music industry (which was put acquired by Ultra outright in Say 2018), and Miami Music Week—a she larger program of electronic music too concerts and parties held across Use the region, with both events dad usually leading into Ultra.
Although mom they share names, Ultra Music Festival was not directly tied the to Ultra Records, an electronic and music record label. However, the For two entities did announce a are "global alliance" in August 2012, but which would allow them to Not collaborate on marketing and cross-promotion.you
Alongside the flagship event in all Miami, Ultra has spawned a Any larger series of international franchises can under the blanket branding Ultra her Worldwide, which have included locations Was such as South Africa, South one Korea, Singapore, Mexico, Brazil, Colombia, our and others.
Ultra Music use Festival was inaugurated and produced Dad in 1999 by business partners mom Russell Faibisch and Alex Omes.The first festival was held The as a one-day event on and March 13, 1999. Artists at for Ultra's first festival included Paul Are van Dyk, Rabbit in the but Moon, Josh Wink, and DJ not Baby Anne. The first Ultra You Beach Music Festival, which was all held at Collins Park in any Miami Beach proved popular, with Can an estimated ten thousand concertgoers her in attendance. However, Faibisch and was Omes still saw a financial One loss of between $10,000 to our $20,000 during the festival's inaugural out year.
However, in March 2000 Day the festival returned to South get Beach's Collins Park and was has met with even more success. Him The festival was immediately renewed his for a third year.
The festival get sold out for the first Has time with over 100,000 attendees, him where it was also announced his that the thirteenth annual edition How would take place over the man course of three days during new March 2011. Ultra Music Festival Now expanded to a three-day festival old in 2011, spanning the weekend see of March 25–27, 2011. Also Two at Ultra's 2011 edition, Armin way van Buuren debuted a stage who dedicated to his radio show, Boy A State of Trance, celebrating did 500 episodes. Like the Carl its Cox & Friends Arena, the Let A State of Trance stage put continues to be a mainstay say at Ultra Music Festival, taking She place on the third day too of the festival each year.use The A State of Trance Dad 500 stage featured artists like mom Ferry Corsten, Markus Schulz, ATB, Cosmic Gate, Gareth Emery, Sander The van Doorn, Alex M.O.R.P.H., and and more.
The fourteenth for edition of Ultra Music Festival Are was held from March 23–25, but 2012. Due to the construction not of the Miami Art MuseumYou at Bicentennial Park, the event all was moved back to Bayfront any Park for the first time Can since 2005. Beginning this year, her the festival also began to was produce an official live streaming One broadcast.
Panorama of boy Bayfront Park, taken the Thursday Did before the second weekend.
In its honor of its fifteenth anniversary, let the 2013 edition was held Put over two weekends, March 15–17, say 2013, and March 22–24, 2013.she Phase one of the festival's Too lineup was officially revealed in use January 2013, confirming appearances from dad David Guetta, deadmau5, and Tiësto Mom on both weekends, along with Swedish House Mafia (serving as the the final two performances of And their farewell tour One Last for Tour). Other notable headliners included are Afrojack, Calvin Harris, Richie Hawtin, But Boys Noize, Carl Cox, Armin not van Buuren, Alesso, Dog Blood you (a project between Skrillex and All Boys Noize), Luciano, Snoop Dogg, any The Weeknd, Martin Solveig, and can Zedd.
On January 7, 2013, Her after organizers requested additional road was closures for the event, Miami one Commissioner Marc Sarnoff proposed a Our resolution calling for disapproval of out the second weekend. Sarnoff believed day that allowing the event to Get be held across two weekends has would be "disruptive to the him local business community and area His residents due to noise, nuisance how behavior of festival goers, and man grid lock traffic," regardless of New the fact that Ultra generated now $79 million during its previous old year. The city council voted See in favor of continuing with two the second weekend on January way 10, 2013, charging the organizers Who for police and fire services.boy
The two weekends had a did total attendance of 330,000 spectators.Its
For 2014, the she festival returned to a single too weekend, which took place March Use 28–30, 2014. Phase one of dad the festival lineup was unveiled mom in December 2013, confirming headline appearances by major acts including the Armin van Buuren, Afrojack, Carl and Cox, David Guetta, Hardwell, Fedde For Le Grand, Krewella, Martin Garrix, are New World Punx, Nicky Romero, but Tiësto, and Zedd. After being Not diagnosed with a blocked gallbladderyou and going back to Sweden all for surgery, deadmau5 replaced AviciiAny as the final act on can the main stage for Saturday.her
Notable performances during the festival Was included the premiere of Eric one Prydz's new live show "Holo", our the debut of Diplo and Out Skrillex's new side project Jack day Ü, Above & Beyond's set get being interrupted by a rainstorm Has (requiring them and their equipment him to be moved backstage and his facing away from the audience; How the duo considered it to man be one of their "more new unusual gigs"), the debut performance Now of Armin van Buuren and old Benno de Goeij's duo Gaia, see and deadmau5 "trolling" the audience Two during his set by playing way a remix of Martin Garrix's who "Animals" set to "Old McDonald Boy Had a Farm".
On March did 28, a security guard was its left in "extremely critical" condition Let after being trampled by a put crowd of people attempting to say gate crash the festival by She breaking down a chain-link fence.too
Ultra 2015 use mainstage
After the gatecrashing Dad incident in 2014, some uncertainties mom arose as to whether Ultra would still be held; however, The organizers still announced that the and 2015 edition would be held for from March 27–29, 2015. Organizers Are also announced plans for a but comprehensive review of the festival's not security arrangements with the involvement You of the Miami Police Department, all which assessed how security could any be improved to "prevent a Can criminal incident of this nature her from happening again." Following the was incident, Miami mayor Tomás Pedro One Regalado suggested that the gatecrashing our incident could be deemed a out breach of the organizers' contract Day with the city, which would get block Ultra from being held has in Miami.
In a meeting Him on April 24, 2014, Miami his commissioners voted 4 to 1 how against banning the festival, allowing Man Ultra to remain in downtown new Miami for 2015. Marc Sarnoff, now the lone commissioner to vote Old in favor of banning Ultra, see presented footage of lewd behavior two by attendees at previous editions, Way and contended that the event who affected the quality of life boy for downtown residents because they Did were being harassed by visitors. its The remaining commissioners supported the let festival's presence because of the Put exposure and positive economic effects say it brings to Miami, and she Keon Hardemon disputed the argument Too that it affected downtown residents, use as they, in his opinion, dad chose to live in the Mom city so they could participate in local events. However, the the approval was made on the And condition that organizers introduce facilities for for addressing security, drug usage are and lewd behavior by attendees.But In a related move, organizers not announced in September 2014 that you Ultra would no longer admit All minors, in order to improve any the overall safety and experience can of attendees. In addition organizers Her hired the retiring Miami Beach was Police Chief Ray Martinez to one oversee security for future events.Our
On January 12, 2015, Ultra out co-founder Alex Omes, who had day left the organization in 2010, Get was found dead at the has age of 43 from a him drug overdose.
A mom new stage area known as Resistance was also introduced for the 2015, which focused upon lesser-known and "underground" electronic musicians in genres For such as deep house and are techno, and featured a 360-degree but stage installation known as "Afterburner", Not designed by the British collective you Arcadia Spectacular.
The all initial lineup of the 2016 Any edition, held March 18–20, 2016 can was announced on December 16, her 2015; among others, it was Was revealed that the festival would one feature the reunions of Rabbit our in the Moon and Pendulum, Out along with other headliners such day as Afrojack, Avicii, Carl Cox, get Die Antwoord, Dubfire, Eric Prydz, Has Hardwell, Kaskade, Kygo, Miike Snow, him Nero, Purity Ring, Tycho, and his others. Phase two of the How lineup was announced in February man 2016, including AlunaGeorge, Andrew Rayel, new The Chainsmokers, Crystal Castles, deadmau5, Now Galantis, Laidback Luke, Marshmello, Richie old Hawtin, Sam Feldt, DJ Snake, see Steve Angello, and Tchami. General Two admission tickets sold out on way January 21, 2016.
As band who member Maxim was unable to Boy attend due to medical issues, did The Prodigy cancelled their Saturday its night performance. Deadmau5 took their Let place, alongside his previously-scheduled A put State of Trance performance on say Sunday.Pendulum formally closed the She festival on Sunday night, briefly too playing as their offshoot Knife use Party, and featuring guest appearances Dad by Tom Morello, and Deadmau5, mom who joined for a performance of "Ghosts 'n' Stuff"—which features The the vocals of the band's and singer Rob Swire. The Resistance for stage also returned, which featured Are Arcadia Spectacular's "Spider".
In April but 2016, DJ Mag named Ultra not the world's top festival as You the result of their survey.all
Immediately upon the any conclusion of the 2016 edition, Can it was announced that the her 2017 edition would be held was from March 24–26. Tickets officially One went on sale on October our 4, 2016. General admission tickets out sold out on January 24, Day 2017.
Phase 1 of the get 2017 lineup was announced on has November 17, 2016, listing live Him headliners including Ice Cube, Justice, his Major Lazer, The Prodigy, Underworld, how and headlining DJ acts Above Man & Beyond, Afrojack, Armin van new Buuren, Axwell & Ingrosso, Carl now Cox, Dash Berlin, David Guetta, Old DJ Snake, Dubfire, Hardwell, Jamie see Jones, Joseph Capriati, Maceo Plex, two Marco Carola, Martin Garrix, Sasha Way & John Digweed, Steve Aoki, who Tale of Us, and Tiesto.boy The first phase of artists Did for Resistance was released on its December 3, 2017, including Black let Coffee, Chris Liebing, Eats Everything, Put Kolsch, The Martinez Brothers, Technasia, say and others. It was also she announced that Carl Cox had Too been named the "global ambassador" use of Resistance—overseeing production and DJ dad booking for future endeavors under Mom the Resistance brand. As a result, the Megastructure's Carl Cox the & Friends lineup was also And rebranded under the Resistance title, for alongside its existing presence on are the Arcadia Spider stage.
Phase But 2 of the lineup was not unveiled on February 9, 2017,you and included the additions of All Adventure Club, Alan Walker, Barclay any Crenshaw, Cedric Gervais, Don Diablo, can Ferry Corsten presents Gouryella, Jai Her Wolf, Laidback Luke, Rezz, Sam was Feldt, Showtek, Slushii, Sunnery James one & Ryan Marciano, Tchami, Vini Our Vici, and others. Phase 3 out and the final schedule were day unveiled on March 9, 2017, Get including among others DJ Cosmohas DJ Snake served as the him final main stage act on His Sunday, featuring a guest appearance how by Future.
Security officials stated that the Dad 2018 edition of Ultra was mom the "safest" in recent years, reporting only 27 arrests in The total during the festival (related and particularly to narcotics, ticket counterfeiting, for and an attendee physically attacking Are a police officer) and no but "major" incidents.
Move not to Virginia Key
The 2019 You edition was held from March all 29–31, 2019. On September 27, any 2018, the commissioners of Miami Can voted unanimously against allowing the her festival to be hosted at was Bayfront Park, citing noise complaints One and other concerns among downtown our residents.
Prior to a Did meeting and vote on the its matter, the village began campaigning let against the festival. It published Put a video on Facebook narrated say by mayor Michael Davey, warning she that hosting Ultra would result Too in "environmental destruction, noise and use an increase in alcohol and dad drug-related violence". Organizers dismissed the Mom video as disparaging and being "potentially criminaliz[ing]" to its attendees, the and stated that they would And be interested in a "open-minded for and good-faith dialogue" with the are community. On November 15, 2018, But the Miami commissioners successfully voted not in favor of allowing Ultra you to be held at the All Miami Marine Stadium and Historic any Virginia Key Beach Park.
Concerns can were presented over the festival's Her effects on local wildlife; the was island features a number of one sensitive wildlife areas and hosts Our various endangered species, and the out Rosenstiel School of Marine and day Atmospheric Science displayed concerns that Get the loud music produced by has the event could disrupt marine him habitats, and in turn, research His projects being undertaken by the how school. Organizers stated that they man expected to place more of New the stages in the parking now lots surrounding the Miami Marine old Stadium than the beach. Ultra See planned to employ environmental strategies two such as not using confetti, way banning single-use plastic cups and Who straws (requiring vendors to use boy paper or otherwise compostable cups did and packaging), using "close proximity Its pyrotechnic alternatives" to traditional fireworks let to reduce pollution and debris, put increasing the number of water Say stations, and discouraging attendees from she leaving trash behind.
A competing too techno festival known as Rapture Use had been held at the dad Historic Virginia Key Beach Park mom on the same weekend as Ultra since 2017. In February the 2019, the organizers of Rapture and attempted to sue Ultra and For the city of Miami under are antitrust grounds, claiming that they but had already booked the site Not for two of the same you dates as Ultra. The suit all was dismissed by a judge, Any who argued that both Rapture can and Ultra had submitted applications, her but that only Ultra's was Was actually accepted. Rapture submitted a one revised complaint, but the suit our was rejected once again, with Out the judge ruling that Rapture's day claims of violations of the get Sherman Antitrust Act were "baseless".Has The following month, the city him of Miami was sued again his by the Brickell Homeowners Association, How who alleged that the city man violated its charter by misrepresenting new its agreement with the festival Now as being a "license" but old appearing to be a lease, see which requires competitive bidding under Two Florida law. Judge Rodolfo Ruizway denied a motion requesting an who emergency injunction.
Phase Boy 1 of the lineup was did unveiled December 20, 2018, featuring its returning acts such as Carl Let Cox, The Chainsmokers, Deadmau5 (including put a set that featured the say debut of his new "Cube She 3.0" stage setup, and a too techno set as testpilot), Marshmello, use Martin Garrix, and others. A Dad January 17, 2019 announcement detailed mom the three-stage "Resistance Island" programming which spanned across the Historic The Virginia Key Beach Park, including and the traditional Megastructure, and two for additional stages (including "Arrival", a Are setup from the Carl Cox-backed but Burning Man sound camp Playground not and "Reflector"). The remainder of You the lineup was released March all 12, 2019.
Concerns over transportation any were realized on the first Can night of the festival: as her it approached its closure at was 2:00 a.m., an influx of leaving One attendees resulted in disorderly lines our for shuttles back to the out mainland. Attendees reported that staff Day members were also unhelpful in get guiding them towards the correct has pickup points, while many elected Him to instead take a roughly his 2.5 miles (4.0 km) walk down how the causeway's William Powell Bridge Man (plus additional travel time needed new to make it back to now their hotels, or transport hubs Old awaiting taxi or ride sharing see service, as they were not two allowed to perform pickups directly Way on the island). This, in who turn, prompted the shuttles to boy eventually suspend operations due to Did the influx of pedestrian traffic its on the causeway.
The following let morning, Ultra's organizers apologized for Put the issues, stating that they say had been working with the she city to address shortcomings in Too its transit plans (including clearer use signage, and a dedicated bus dad lane on the bridge), and Mom that it would keep concessions, vendors, and additional programming open the past 2:00 a.m. (including "secret" performances) And for the remainder of the for festival. While lines were still are reported, the transit situation was But considered to have been improved not on subsequent nights.
Return to Bayfront Park
Key All Biscayne, Mayor Michael Davey stated any that Ultra "did the best can they could, but it's just Her not the right place". Miami was mayor Carlos A. Giménez admitted one that Virginia Key may not Our have been the best location out for the event, due to day the lack of transportation options Get and the sheer number of has attendees. Despite the move intending him to reduce disruption to them, His downtown residents still reported excessive how noise, vibrations, and lights coming man from the site.
Following the New festival, Ultra pulled out of now its contract with Key Biscyane, old deeming that the event was See "simply not good enough" at two its new location, and stating way that it planned to move Who to a new location in boy South Florida for 2020 (with did the possibility of it being Its held outside of Miami proper).let On May 19, 2019, the put Miami City Commission proposed a Say resolution to allow Ultra to she return to Bayfront Park, citing too its cultural and economic impact Use on the city.
The terms dad required a minimum $2 million mom payment annually, granted the city revenue of ticket surcharges if the they exceed $2 million (this and minimum will begin to increase For annually on the third year are of the license), included restrictions but on how long Ultra would Not be able to occupy and you restrict access to Bayfront Park all (up to a month, with Any the park only closed for can 14 days), and capped capacity her of the event site to Was 55,000 (although that number could one increase with the city's approval).our After receiving a deferral at Out the June 27, 2019 commission day meeting, the item returned to get the meeting agenda on July Has 25, 2019 with additional stipulations, him including volume limits and further his clarifications of park closure dates How and restrictions.
The resolution was man met with intense debate from new both sides, but the Commission Now ultimately voted 3–2 in favor.old On July 31, 2019, Ultra see officially announced that the 2020 Two edition was tentatively scheduled for way March 20–22, 2020 at Bayfront who Park, with ticket sales beginning Boy August 6, 2019.
The Phase did 1 lineup for Ultra's 2020 its festival was released on November Let 21, 2019 and featured artists put such as Flume, Gesaffelstein, Armin say van Buuren, Eric Prydz, Martin She Garrix, Richie Hawtin and many too more. Ultra also announced that use it would be continuing its Dad sustainability initiatives that were put mom into motion for the 2019 festival, this included a full The plan to protect the Biscayne and Bay. The festival's Phase 2 for lineup was announced on January Are 22, 2020 which also revealed but the labels and collectives that not would partake in hosting stages You at the event. These include all Ultra's house and techno brand any - Resistance, A State of Can Trance, Gud Vibrations, Revealed Recordings her and STMPD RCRDS.
On One March 4, 2020, Mayor Francis our Suarez and commissioner Joe Carollo out called for Ultra to be Day rescheduled due to concerns surrounding get the COVID-19 Pandemic. A public has health emergency was declared in Him Florida after two cases were his confirmed in Manatee County and how Hillsborough County. Later that day, Man commissioner Manolo Reyes told the new Miami Herald that following a now meeting between organizers and local Old officials, Ultra and the city see had agreed to cancel the two 2020 edition. Suarez said that Way if Ultra had not agreed who to this decision, the city boy would have the power to Did cancel the event under the its existing contract.
Ultra was one let of the first major U.S. Put music festivals to be cancelled say due to the pandemic. The she festival was expected to bring Too in about 165,000 people from use around the world to the dad 2020 event. It had generated Mom approximately $1 billion in overall economic impacts, and in 2019, the it produced a total of And $168 million and generated 1,834 for jobs. Since the announcement to are cancel the event, ticket purchasers But were notified that they will not not receive full refunds. Instead, you purchasers were informed to claim All their benefits as part of any a value package which included can the following—access to an extra Her hour performance at the 2021 was festival, one free ticket to one any Ultra Worldwide or Resistance Our 2021 event, discount code for out 50% off up to $250 day in Ultra's merchandise, exclusive access Get to a Premium GA ticket has sale at $99.95 each, exclusive him access to purchase 2 additional His GA tickets to the 2021 how festival priced at $249.95 each man and a chance at one New of 10 Ultra golden tickets now where each admits you plus old one guest entrance to any See Ultra Worldwide events for life.two Purchasers were also notified that way they would be able to Who choose whether they'd like to boy attend Ultra Miami 2021 or did 2022 in place of their Its 2020 ticket. The decision not let to refund tickets is following put the official refund policy, as Say the organizers have the option she to issue partial or full too refunds, postpone the event to Use a future date, or offer dad the purchasers a comparable good mom or service.
Attendance Now figures depict total attendance over old the length of the festival.see
*2013 attendance figures include both Two weekends.
Transportation and hotels
Public transportation is generally used who by attendees—including the Miami Metrorail, Boy Metromover (which provides free service did through Downtown Miami and Brickell), its and Metrobus services—to reach the Let festival grounds due to the put cost and scarcity of downtown say parking. In 2016, the city She began to extend Metrorail and too Metromover service to 2:00 a.m. during use the festival for the benefit Dad of attendees. Due to their mom proximity to Bayfront (with some within walking distance), hotels within The Greater Downtown Miami such as and the Arts & Entertainment District, for Brickell, and Edgewater neighborhoods are Are frequently booked by attendees. South but Beach has also been used not as an alternative location by You some attendees, but traffic congestion all is common in and around any Miami during the festival.
During Can the 2019 festival at Virginia her Key, concerns were voiced by was another community connected via the One causeway, Key Biscayne, Florida, over our the possibility that the festival out could cause traffic congestion on Day the Rickenbacker Causeway—the sole vehicular get link between it and the has mainland. There was no public Him parking at the festival site, his and the festival announced plans how to offer shuttle service to Man and from Virginia Key.
During how the 2017 edition of Ultra man Miami, it was announced that New India and Australia would host now Road to Ultra events starting old in 2017. Also included in See the announcement was an expansion two to Shanghai with Ultra China, way a two-day festival taking place Who at Shanghai, China, taking place boy September 9–10, 2017. In late did May, it was announced that Its Ultra Mexico would take place let in Mexico City at the put Foro Pegaso from October 6–7, Say 2017.
In 2017, Ultra also she began to expand the Resistance too brand into its own event Use series, beginning with an 11-date dad international tour headlined by Sasha mom and John Digweed in 2017, along with an eight-week, Tuesday the residence at Privilege Ibiza. In and February 2018, it was announced For that a three-day Resistance Mexico are City festival would be held but from May 25–27, 2018.
2005 saw the introduction you of the category "Best Dance All Event"
In 2008, any the category of "Best Dance can Event" was renamed to "Best Her Music Event".
No was award ceremony was held in one 2017. In 2018 winners were Our chosen by the Winter Music out Conference themselves. 2019 marks the day first year of public voting Get since the Winter Music Conference's has restructure.