Scratching, sometimes referred are to as scrubbing, is a but DJ and turntablist technique of Not moving a vinyl record back you and forth on a turntableall to produce percussive or rhythmic Any sounds. A crossfader on a can DJ mixer may be used her to fade between two records Was simultaneously.
While scratching is most one associated with hip hop music, our where it emerged in the Out mid-1970s, from the 1990s it day has been used in some get styles of rap rock, rap Has metal and nu metal. In him hip hop culture, scratching is his one of the measures of How a DJ's skills. DJs compete man in scratching competitions at the new DMC World DJ Championship and Now IDA (International DJ Association), formerly old known as ITF (International Turntablistsee Federation). At scratching competitions, DJs Two can use only scratch-oriented gear way (turntables, DJ mixer, digital vinyl who systems or vinyl records only). Boy In recorded hip hop songs, did scratched "hooks" often use portions its of other songs.
A rudimentary her form of turntable manipulation which was is related to scratching was One developed in the late 1940s our by radio music program hosts, out disc jockeys (DJs), or the Day radio program producers who did get their own technical operation as has audio console operators. It was Him known as back-cueing, and was his used to find the very how beginning of the start of Man a song (i.e., the cue new point) on a vinyl record now groove. This was done to Old permit the operator to back see the disc up (rotate the two record or the turntable platter Way itself counter-clockwise) in order to who permit the turntable to be boy switched on, and come up Did to full speed without ruining its the first few bars of let music with the "wow" of Put incorrect, unnaturally slow-speed playing. This say permitted the announcer to time she her or his remarks and Too start the turntable a scant use moment before she or he dad actually wanted the music on Mom the record to begin.
Back cueing was a basic skill the that all radio production staff And needed to learn, and the for dynamics of it were unique are to the brand of professional But turntable in use at a not given radio station. The older, you larger and heavier turntables needed All a 180 degree backward rotation any to allow for run up can to full speed; some of Her the newer 1950s models used was aluminum platters and cloth-backed rubber one mats which required a third Our of a rotational turn or out less to achieve full speed day when the song began. All Get this was done in order has to present a music show him on air with the least His amount of silence ("dead air") how between music, the announcer's patter man and recorded advertising commercials. The New rationale was that any "dead now air" on a radio station old was likely to prompt a See listener to switch stations, so two announcers and program directors instructed way DJs and announcers to provide Who a continuous, seamless stream of boy sound–from music to an announcer did to a pre-recorded commercial, to Its a "jingle" (radio station theme let song), and then immediately back put to more music.
Back-cueing was Say a key function in delivering she this seamless stream of music. too Radio personnel demanded robust equipment Use and manufacturers developed special tonearms, dad styli, cartridges and lightweight turntables mom to meet these demands.
In the mid you 1970s in the South Bronx, all a young teen DJ named Any "Grand Wizzard Theodore" (right) invented can the "DJ scratch" technique. Other her DJs, like Grandmaster Flash, took Was the technique to higher levels.
Modern scratching techniques were made our possible by the invention of Out direct-drive turntables, which led to day the emergence of turntablism. Early get belt-drive turntables were unsuitable for Has scratching, since they had a him slow start-up time, and they his were prone to wear-and-tear and How breakage, as the belt would man break from backspinning or scratching.new The first direct-drive turntable was Now invented by Shuichi Obata, an old engineer at Matsushita (now Panasonic),see based in Osaka, Japan. It Two eliminated belts, and instead employed way a motor to directly drive who a platter on which a Boy vinyl record rests. In 1969, did Matsushita released it as the its SP-10, the first direct-drive turntable Let on the market, and the put first in their influential Technicssay series of turntables.
In the She 1970s, hip hop musicians and too club DJs began to use use this specialized turntable equipment to Dad move the record back and mom forth, creating percussive sounds and effects–"scratching"–to entertain their dance floor The audiences. Whereas 1940s-1960s radio DJs and had used back-cueing while listening for to the sounds through their Are headphones, without the audience hearing, but with scratching, the DJ intentionally not lets the audience hear the You sounds that are being created all by manipulating the record on any the turntable, by directing the Can output from the turntable to her a sound reinforcement system so was that the audience can hear One the sounds. Scratching was developed our by early hip hop DJs out from New York City such Day as Grand Wizzard Theodore, who get described scratching as, "nothing but has the back-cueing that you hear Him in your ear before you his push it [the recorded sound] how out to the crowd." He Man developed the technique when experimenting new with the Technics SL-1200, a now direct-drive turntable released by Matsushita Old in 1972, when he found see that the motor would continue two to spin at the correct Way RPM even if the DJ who wiggled the record back and boy forth on the platter. Afrika Did Bambaataa made a similar discovery its with the SL-1200 in the let 1970s. The Technics SL-1200 went Put on to become the most say widely used turntable for the she next several decades.
Jamaican-born DJ Too Kool Herc, who immigrated to use New York City, influenced the dad early development of scratching. Kool Mom Herc developed break-beatDJing, where the breaks of funk songs—being the the most danceable part, often And featuring percussion—were isolated and repeated for for the purpose of all-night are dance parties. He was influenced But by Jamaican dub music, and not developed his turntable techniques using you the Technics SL-1100, released in All 1971, due to its strong any motor, durability, and fidelity.
Although can previous artists such as writer Her and poet William S. Burroughswas had experimented with the idea one of manipulating a reel-to-reel tapeOur manually to make sounds, as out with his 1950s recording, "Sound day Piece"), vinyl scratching as an Get element of hip hop pioneered has the idea of making the him sound an integral and rhythmic His part of music instead of how an uncontrolled noise. Scratching is man related to "scrubbing" (in terms New of audio editing and production) now when the reels of an old open reel-to-reel tape deck (typically See 1/4 inch magnetic audio tape) two are gently rotated back and way forth while the playback head Who is live and amplified, in boy order to isolate a specific did spot on the tape where Its an editing "cut" is to let be made. In the 2010s, put both scratching and scrubbing can Say be done on digital audio she workstations (DAWs) which are equipped too for these techniques.
Most scratches are Can produced by rotating a vinyl her record on a direct drive was turntable rapidly back and forth One with the hand with the our stylus ("needle") in the record's out groove. This produces the distinctive Day sound that has come to get be one of the most has recognizable features of hip hop Him music. Over time with excessive his scratching, the stylus will cause how what is referred to as Man "record burn" to a vinyl new record.
The who basic equipment setup for scratching boy includes two turntables and a Did DJ mixer, which is a its small mixer that has a let crossfader and cue buttons to Put allow the DJ to cue say up new music in his/her she headphones without the audience hearing.[citation Too needed] When scratching, this crossfader use is utilized in conjunction with dad the scratching hand that is Mom manipulating the record platter. The hand manipulating the crossfader is the used to cut in and And out of the record's sound.[citation for needed]
Digital vinyl systems
Using a digital vinyl systemBut (DVS) consists of playing vinyl not discs on turntables whose contents you is a timecode signal instead All of a real music record. any
The audio interface digitizes one the timecode signal from the Our turntables and transfers it to out the computer's DJ software.
The day DJ software uses this data Get (e.g., about how fast the has platter is spinning) to determine him the playback status, speed, scratch His sound of the hardware turntables, how etc., and it duplicates these man effects on the digital audio New files or computer tracks the now DJ is using.
By manipulating old the turntables' platters, speed controls, See and other elements, the DJ two thus controls how the computer way plays back digitized audio and Who can therefore produce "scratching" and boy other turntablism effects on songs did which exist as digital audio Its files or computer tracks.
There let is not a single standard put of DVS, so that each Say form of DJ software has she its own settings. Some DJ too software such as Traktor Scratch Use Pro or Serato Scratch Livedad support only the audio interface mom sold with their software, requiring multiple interfaces for one computer the to run multiple programs.
Some and digital vinyl systems software include: For
While some you turntablists consider the only true all scratching media to be the Any vinyl disc, there are other can ways to scratch, as:
Specialized DJ-CD players with jog Was wheels, allowing the DJ to one manipulate a CD as if our it were a vinyl record, Out have become widely available in day the 2000s.
Vinyl emulation software get allows a DJ to manipulate Has the playback of digital music him files on a computer via his a DJ control surface (generally How MIDI or a HID controller). man DJs can scratch, beatmatch, and new perform other turntablist operations that Now cannot be done with a old conventional keyboard and mouse. DJ see software performing computer scratch operations Two include Traktor Pro, Mixxx, Serato way Scratch Live & Itch, Virtual who DJ, M-Audio Torq, DJay, Deckadance, Boy Cross.
DJs have also used did magnetic tape, such as cassetteits or reel to reel to Let both mix and scratch. Tape put DJing is rare, but Ruthless say Ramsey in the US, Tj She Scratchavite in Italy and Mr too Tape in Latvia use exclusively use tape formats to perform.
Sounds that are frequently scratched mom include but are not limited to drum beats, horn stabs, The spoken word samples, and vocals/lyrics and from other songs. Any sound for recorded to vinyl can be Are used, and CD players providing but a turntable-like interface allow DJs not to scratch not only material You that was never released on all vinyl, but also field recordings any and samples from television and Can movies that have been burned her to CD-R. Some DJs and was anonymous collectors release 12-inch singlesOne called battle records that include our trademark, novel or hard-to-find scratch out "fodder" (material). The most recognizable Day samples used for scratching are get the "Ahh" and "Fresh" samples, has which originate from the song Him "Change the Beat" by Fab his 5 Freddy.
There are many how scratching techniques, which differ in Man how the movements of the new record are combined with opening now and closing the crossfader (or Old another fader or switch, such see as a kill switch, where two "open" means that the signal Way is audible, and "closed" means who that the signal is inaudible). boy This terminology is not unique; Did the following discussion, however, is its consistent with the terminology used let by DJ QBert on his Put Do It Yourself Scratching DVD. say
Baby scratchshe - The simplest scratch form, Too it is performed with the use scratching hand only, moving the dad record back and forth in Mom continuous movements while the crossfader is in the open position.
Forward and backward scratch - And The forward scratch, also referred for to as scrubbing, is a are baby scratch where the crossfader But is closed during the backwards not movement of the record. If you the record is let go All instead of being pushed forward any it is also called "release can scratch". Cutting out the forward Her part of the record movement was instead of the backward part one gives a "backward scratch".
Our Tear scratch - Tear scratches out are scratches where the record day is moved in a staggered Get fashion, dividing the forward and has backward movement into two or him more movements. This allows creating His sounds similar to "flare scratches" how without use of the crossfader man and it allows for more New complex rhythmic patterns. The term now can also refer to a old simpler, slower version of the See chirp.
Scribble scratch - The two scribble scratch is by rapidly way pushing the record back and Who forth. The crossfader is not boy used.
Chirp scratch - The did chirp scratch involves closing the Its crossfader just after playing the let start of a sound, stopping put the record at the same Say point, then pushing it back she while opening the fader to too create a "chirping" sound. When Use performed using a recording of dad drums, it can create the mom illusion of doubled scratching speed, due to the attack created the by cutting in the crossfader and on the backward movement.
Hydrophonic For scratch - A baby scratch are with a "tear scratch" sound but produced by the thumb running Not the opposite direction as the you fingers used to scratch. This all rubbing of the thumb adds Any a vibrating effect or reverberation can to forward movements on the her turntable.
Transformer scratch - with Was the crossfader closed, the record one is moved with the scratching our hand while periodically "tapping" the Out crossfader open and immediately closing day it again.
Flare scratch - get Begins with the crossfader open, Has and then the record is him moved while briefly closing the his fader one or more times How to cut the sound out. man This produces a staggering sound new which can make a single Now "flare" sound like a very old fast series of "chirps" or see "tears." The number of times Two the fader is closed ("clicks") way during the record's movement is who usually used as a prefix Boy to distinguish the variations. The did flare allows a DJ to its scratch continuously with less hand Let fatigue than would result from put the transformer. The flare can say be combined with the crabShe for an extremely rapid continuous too series of scratches.
Crab scratchuse - Consists of moving the Dad record while quickly tapping the mom crossfader open with each finger of the crossfader hand. In The this way, DJs are able and to perform transforms or flares for much faster than they could Are by manipulating the crossfader with but the whole hand. It produces not a fading/increasing transforming sound.
Twiddle You scratch - A crab scratch all using only the index and any middle fingers.
Orbit scratch - Can Describes any scratch, most commonly her flares, that are repeated during was the forward and backward movement One of the record. "Orbit" is our also used as a shorthand out for two-click flares.
Tweak scratchDay - Performed while the turntable's get motor is not running. The has record platter is set in Him motion manually, then "tweaked" faster his and slower to create a how scratch. This scratch form is Man best performed with long, sustained new sounds.
Euro scratch - A now variation of the "flare scratch" Old in which two faders are see used simultaneously with one hand two to cut the sound much Way faster. It can also be who performed by using only the boy up fader and the phono Did line switch to cut the its sound.
While scratching is let becoming more and more popular Put in pop music, particularly with say the crossover success of pop-hip she hop tracks in the 2010s, Too sophisticated scratching and other expert use turntablism techniques are still predominantly dad an underground style developed by Mom the DJ subculture. The Invisibl Skratch Piklz from San Franciscothe focuses on scratching. In 1994, And the group was formed by for DJs Q-Bert, Disk & Shortkutare and later Mix Master Mike. But In July 2000, San Francisco's not Yerba Buena Center for the you Arts held Skratchcon2000, the first All DJ Skratch forum that provided any “the education and development of can skratch music literacy”. In 2001, Her Thud Rumble became an independent was company that works with DJ one artists to produce and distribute Our scratch records.
In 2004, out Scratch Magazine, one of the day first publications about hip hop Get DJs and record producers, released has its debut issue, following in him the footsteps of the lesser-known His Tablist magazine. Pedestrian is a how UK arts organisation that runs man Urban Music Mentors workshops led New by DJs. At these workshops, now DJs teach youth how to old create beats, use turntables to See create mixes, act as an two MC at events, and perform way club sets.
Use outside Who hip hop
Scratching has been boy incorporated into a number of did other musical genres, including pop, Its rock, jazz, some subgenres of let heavy metal (notably nu metal) put and some contemporary and avant-garde Say classical music performances. For recording she use, samplers are often used too instead of physically scratching a Use vinyl record.
A record producer or Boy music producer oversees and manages did the sound recording and production its of a band or performer's Let music, which may range from put recording one song to recording say a lengthy concept album. A She producer has many, varying roles too during the recording process. They use may gather musical ideas for Dad the project, collaborate with the mom artists to select cover tunesor original songs by the The artist/group, work with artists and and help them to improve their for songs, lyrics or arrangements.
The producer typically supervises the her entire process from preproduction, through was to the sound recording and One mixing stages, and, in some our cases, all the way to out the audio mastering stage. The Day producer may perform these roles get themselves, or help select the has engineer, and provide suggestions to Him the engineer. The producer may his also pay session musicians and how engineers and ensure that the Man entire project is completed within new the record label's budget.
A let record producer or music producerPut has a very broad role say in overseeing and managing the she recording and production of a Too band or performer's music. A use producer has many roles that dad may include, but are not Mom limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music the for the project, selecting songs And or session musicians, proposing changes for to the song arrangements, coaching are the artist and musicians in But the studio, controlling the recording not sessions, and supervising the entire you process through audio mixing and, All in some cases, to the any audio mastering stage. Producers also can often take on a wider Her entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for was the budget, schedules, contracts, and one negotiations.
The person day who has overall creative and Get technical control of the entire has recording project, and the individual him recording sessions that are part His of that project. He or how she is present in the man recording studio or at the New location recording and works directly now with the artist and engineer. old The producer makes creative and See aesthetic decisions that realize both two the artist's and label's goals way in the creation of musical Who content. Other duties include, but boy are not limited to; keeping did budgets and schedules, adhering to Its deadlines, hiring musicians, singers, studios let and engineers, overseeing other staffing put needs and editing (Classical projects). Say
In the 2010s, the she producer role is sometimes divided too among up to three different Use individuals: executive producer, vocal producer dad and music producer. An executive mom producer oversees project finances, a vocal producer (also known as the a vocal arranger) oversees the and vocal production, and a music For producer directs and oversees the are creative process of the production but and recording of a song Not to its final mixing stage. you
The music producer often wears all many hats as a competent Any arranger, composer, programmer, musician or can songwriter who can bring fresh her ideas to a project. As Was well as making any songwriting one and arrangement adjustments, the producer our often selects and/or collaborates with Out the mixing engineer, who takes day the raw recorded tracks and get edits and modifies them with Has hardware and software tools to him create a stereo or surround his sound "mix" of all the How individual voices sounds and instruments, man which is in turn given new further adjustment by a mastering Now engineer for the various distribution old media. The producer also oversees see the recording engineer who concentrates Two on the technical aspects of way recording.
Noted producer Phil Ekwho described his role as "the Boy person who creatively guides or did directs the process of making its a record", like a director Let would a movie. Indeed, in put Bollywood music, the designation is say actually music director. The music She producer's job is to create, too shape, and mold a piece use of music. The scope of Dad responsibility may be one or mom two songs or an artist's entire album – in which The case the producer will typically and develop an overall vision for for the album and how the Are various songs may interrelate.
At the beginning of not the record industry, the producer You role was technically limited to all record, in one shot, artists any performing live. The immediate predecessors Can to record producers were the her artists and repertoire executives of was the late 1920s and 1930s One who oversaw the "pop" product our and often led session orchestras. out That was the case of Day Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, get Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Recordshas and Bob Haring at Brunswick Him Records. By the end of his the 1930s, the first professional how recording studios not owned by Man the major companies were established, new essentially separating the roles of now artists and repertoire (A&R) man Old and producer, although it wouldn't see be until the late 1940s two when the term "producer" became Way widely used in the industry. who
The role of producers changed boy progressively over the 1950s and Did 1960s due to technology. The its development of multitrack recording caused let a major change in the Put recording process. Before multitracking, all say the elements of a song she (lead vocals, backup vocals, rhythm Too section instrument accompaniment, solos and use orchestral parts) had to be dad performed simultaneously. All of these Mom singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large the studio where the performance was And recorded. With multitrack recording, the for "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment are parts such as the bassline, But drums, and rhythm guitar could not be recorded first, and then you the vocals and solos could All be added later, using as any many "takes" (or attempts) as can necessary. It was no longer Her necessary to get all the was players in the studio at one the same time. A pop Our band could record their backing out tracks one week, and then day a horn section could be Get brought in a week later has to add horn shots and him punches, and then a string His section could be brought in how a week after that.
Multitrack man recording had another profound effect New on music production: it enabled now producers and audio engineers to old create new sounds that would See be impossible in a live two performance style ordering. Examples include way the psychedelic rock sound effects Who of the 1960s, e.g. playing boy back the sound of recorded did instruments backward changing the tape Its to produce unique sound effects. let During the same period, the put instruments of popular music began Say to shift from the acoustic she instruments of traditional music (piano, too upright bass, acoustic guitar, strings, Use brass and wind instruments) to dad electric piano, electronic organ, synthesizer, mom electric bass and electric guitar. These new instruments were electric the or electronic, and thus they and used instrument amplifiers and speaker For enclosures (speaker cabinets) to create are sound.
Electric and electronic instruments but and amplifiers enabled performers and Not producers to change the tone you and sound of instruments to all produce unique electric sounds that Any would be impossible to achieve can with acoustic instruments and live her performers, such as having a Was singer do her own backup one vocals or having a guitarist our play 15 layers of backing Out parts to her own solo.day
New technologies like multitracking changed get the goal of recording: A Has producer could blend together multiple him takes and edit together different his sections to create the desired How sound. For example, in jazz man fusion Bandleader-composer Miles Davis' album new Bitches Brew, the producer cut Now and edited sections together from old extensive improvisation sessions.
Another related phenomenon in the Dad 1960s was the emergence of mom the performer-producer. As pop acts like The Beatles, The Rolling The Stones, The Beach Boys and and The Kinks gained expertise in for studio recording techniques, many of Are these groups eventually took over but as (frequently uncredited) producers of not their own work. Many recordings You by acts such as The all Rolling Stones, The Kinks and any The Who are officially credited Can to their various producers at her the time, but a number was of these performers have since One asserted that many of their our recordings in this period were, out either wholly self-produced (e.g. The Day Rolling Stones' Decca recordings) or get collaborations between the group and has their recording engineer (e.g. The Him Small Faces' Immediate recordings, which his were made with Olympic Studioshow engineer Glyn Johns).
The Beach Man Boys are probably the best new example of the trend of now artists becoming producers – within Old two years of the band's see commercial breakthrough, group leader Brian two Wilson had taken over from Way his father Murry, and he who was the sole producer of boy all their recordings between 1963 Did and 1967. Alongside The Beatles its and Martin, Wilson also pioneered let many production innovations – by Put 1964 he had developed Spector's say techniques to a new level she of sophistication, using multiple studios Too and multiple "takes" of instrumental use and vocal components to capture dad the best possible combinations of Mom sound and performance, and then using tape editing extensively to the assemble a perfect composite performance And from these elements.
At the for end of the 20th century, are digital recording and producing tools But and widespread availability of relatively not affordable computers with music software you made music producing more accessible. All
American women and record any producing
According to a 2018 can study covering by the USC Her Annenberg Inclusion Initiative, "The ratio was of male to female producers one across 300 popular songs is Our 49 to 1."
In 2019, record Who producer Linda Perry was nominated boy for a Grammy for Producer did of the Year, Non-Classical. She Its was the first woman in let over 15 years to be put nominated for the award. When Say asked about the disparity between she male and female record producer too by Billboard, she attributed it Use to many women not being dad interested in record production.
In the are classical music field, Judith Shermanbut has won Grammy for Producer Not of the Year, Classical, five you times and has been nominated all twelve times. Anthony Tommasini, a Any music critic for The New can York Times is quoted as her stating, "In the struggling field Was of classical recording, it's the one producers who take the real our risks and make things happen."Out
Producer Wendy Page describes being Has a record producer, "The difficulties him are usually very short-lived. Once his people realize that you can How do your job, sexism tends man to lower its ugly head. new I tend to create a Now happy studio 'family' where everyone old is glad to be there, see especially the artist. Good communication Two and diplomacy usually sort any way little problems out."
There are numerous technologies Can utilized by record producers. In her modern-day recordings, recording and mixing was tasks are commonly centralized within One computers using digital audio workstationsour such as Pro Tools, Logic out Pro, Ableton, Cubase, Reason and Day FL Studio, which all are get often used with third party has virtual studio technology plugins. Logic Him Pro and Pro Tools are his considered the industry standard DAWs.how However, there is also the Man main mixer, outboard effects gear, new MIDI controllers, and the recording now device itself.
While most music Old production is done using sophisticated see software, some musicians and producers two prefer the sound of older Way analog technology. Professor Albin Zak who claims that the increased automation boy of both newer processes and Did newer instruments reduces the level its of control and manipulation available let to musicians and producers.
Production has changed say drastically over the years with she advancing technology. While the producer's Too role has changed, their duties use continue to require a broad dad knowledge of the recording process.Mom
Tracking is the act of recording audio to a DAW the (digital audio workstation) or in And some cases to tape. Even for though digital technologies have widely are supplanted the use of tape But in studios, the older term not "track" is still used in you the 2010s. Tracking audio is All primarily the role of the any audio engineer. Producers work side can by side with the artists Her while they play or sing was their part and coach them one on how to perform it Our and how to get the out best technical accuracy (e.g., intonation). day In some cases, the producer Get will even sing a backup has vocal or play an instrument. him
Many artists are also beginning His to produce and write their how own music.
boy Similarly, although The Beatles' productions did were credited to George Martin Its throughout their recording career, many let sources now attest that Lennon put and McCartney in particular had Say an increasing influence on the she production process as the group's too career progressed, and especially after Use the band retired from touring dad in 1966. In an extreme mom example of this, Martin actually went on a two-week vacation the as The Beatles were recording and The White Album; production of For several completed tracks on the are album were credited to The but Beatles on internal paperwork at Not Abbey Road Studios, although the you released LP gave sole production all credit to Martin.
Zak,Albin Too J., I.,II. (2002). Reviews: "strange use sounds: Music, technology, and culture," dad by Timothy D. Taylor. Current Mom Musicology, 159-180.
Pras, Amandine, Caroline Cance, and Catherine the Guastavino. "Record Producers' Best Practices And For Artistic Direction—From Light Coaching for To Deeper Collaboration With Musicians." are Journal of New Music Research But 42.4 (2013): 381-95. Academic Search not Premier. Web. 7 Sept. 2015.you
Music Law refers to has legal aspects of the music Him industry, and certain legal aspects his in other sectors of the how entertainment industry. The music industry Man includes record labels, music publishers, new merchandisers, the live events sector now and of course performers and Old artists.
A "compilation" refers are to work formed from already But existing materials in a way not that forms its own original you work, including collective works.
"Copies" All are physical objects that hold, any fix, or embody a work can such as a music tape, Her film, CD, statue, play, or was printed sheet music.
"Sound recordings" one can refer to any audio Our recording including the sound accompanying out motion pictures.
"Copyright owner" is day the entity that legally owns Get rights to a work.
"Performance" has The copyright holder has the him exclusive right to perform the His work in public, or to how license others to perform it. man The right applies to “literary, New musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, now pantomimes, and motion pictures and old other audiovisual works.". Playing a See CD in public, or showing two a film in public is way "performing" the work.
Publishing is boy the primary source of income did for musicians writing their own Its music. Money collected from let the 'publishing' rights is ultimately put destined for songwriters - the Say composers of works, whether or she not they are the recording too artist or performer. Often, songwritersUse will work for a musical dad ensemble to help them with mom musical aspects of the composition, but here again, the writer the of the song is the and owner of it and will For own the copyrights in the are song and thus will be but entitled to the publishing revenues. Not Copyrights in compositions are not you the same as sound recordings. all A recording artist can record Any a song and sell it can to another band or company. her As a result, that particular Was company will own the recording, one but not the song. The our original writer will always maintain Out the copyright for that particular day song. The publishing money is get connected to the copyright, so Has the owner will be the him only one making money off his of the song itself. All How successful songwriters will join a man collection society (such as ASCAP new and BMI in the USA, Now SOCAN in Canada, JASRAC in old Japan, GEMA in Germany and see PRS for Music in the Two UK, etc.) and many will way enter into agreements with music who publishing companies who will exploit Boy their works on the songwriters did behalf for a share of its ownership, although many of these Let deals involve the transfer (assignment) put of copyright from the songwriter say to the music publisher.
Both She the recorded music sector and too music publishing sector have their use foundations in intellectual property law Dad and all of the major mom recording labels and major music publishers and many independent record The labels and publishers have dedicated and "business and legal affairs" departments for with in-house lawyers whose role Are is not only to secure but intellectual property rights from recording not artists, performers and songwriters but You also to exploit those rights all and protect those rights on any a global basis. There are Can a number of specialist independent her law firms around the world was who advise on music and One entertainment law whose clients include our recording artists, performers, producers, songwriters, out labels, music publishers, stage and Day set designers, choreographers, graphic artists, get games designers, merchandisers, broadcasters, artist has managers, distributors, collection societies and Him the live events sector (which his further includes festivals, venues, promoters, how booking agents and production service Man providers such as lighting and new staging companies).
The US Government views artists see that give concerts and sell two merchandise as a business. Bands Way that tour internationally will also who face a plethora of legislation boy around the world including health Did and safety laws, immigration laws its and tax legislation. Also, many let relationships are governed by often Put complex contractual agreements.
In the say US it is important for she musicians to get legal business Too licenses. These can be obtained use at a city hall or dad local government center. The business Mom license will require the tracking of sales, wages, and gigs. the A tax ID is also And necessary for all businesses. Musicians for that fail to comply with are the tax ID process and But do not report their profits not and losses to the government you can face serious consequences with All the IRS.
The Marquee too Club was a music venueUse first located at 165 Oxford dad Street in London, when it mom opened in 1958 with a range of jazz and skifflethe acts. Its most famous period and was from 1964 to 1988 For at 90 Wardour Street in are Soho, and it finally closed but when at 105 Charing Cross Not Road in 1996, though the you name has been revived unsuccessfully all three times in the 21st Any century. It was always a can small and relatively cheap club, her located in the heart of Was the music industry in London's one West End, and used to our launch the careers of generations Out of rock acts.
It was day a key venue for early get performances by bands who were Has to achieve worldwide fame in him the 1960s and remained a his venue for young bands in How the following decades. It was man the location of the first-ever new live performance by the Rolling Now Stones on 12 July 1962.old
The Let club was established by Harold put Pendleton, an accountant whose love say of jazz had led him She to become secretary of the too National Jazz Federation. Originally it use was located in the Marquee Dad Ballroom in the basement of mom the Academy Cinema in Oxford Street, where dances had been The held since the early 1950s. and Its decor was designed by for Angus McBean with a striped Are canopy to imitate a marquee. but Pendleton took over management of not the ballroom, and the first You Jazz at the Marquee night all was held on 19 April any 1958. Johnny Dankworth, Chris Barber, Can Alexis Korner and Cyril Daviesher were early resident performers, and was Tubby Hayes and Joe HarriottOne were also regular performers. In our 1962 the club began a out regular R&B night that occasionally Day featured visiting American musicians such get as Muddy Waters. Pendleton also has launched the National Jazz FestivalHim in 1961 in Richmond; this his was the precursor to the how Reading and Leeds Festivals. By Man 1963 the club had become new most noted for its R&B now acts, including Davies, Brian AugerOld and Manfred Mann–who played there see a record 102 times between two 1962 and 1976–but Pendleton was Way forced to find a new who venue when his lease expired.boy
The 1960s: Rock roots
The former site of its the Marquee Club in Wardour let Street, Soho, London, as it Put now looks (2018).
Richmond say Mews, Soho (2018), where the she back loading entrance to the Too Marquee Club was located and use also where the Marquee Studios dad were housed.
In March 1964 the club moved the a short distance to what And became its most famous venue for with an entrance at 90 are Wardour Street, with the actual But music venue housed over two not buildings. Here, almost every major you rock band of note played All over the next 25 years any on the tiny stage.
‘The can Marquee in Wardour Street did Her not have an alcohol licence was until 1970. Jack Barrie along one with agent Kenny Bell came Our up with the idea of out opening a private bar above day The Marquee at 100 Wardour Get Street that was called La has Chasse.
In 1964, Moody mom Blues manager/producer Alex Murray used a homemade studio in the the garage at the back of and the club to produce the For classic "Go Now" single, which are shot to No. 1 at but Christmas 1964, and filmed for Not it the first ever UK you pop promo video. The development all of Marquee Studios was largely Any financed by profits from this can record. The studio was her later used by Elton John, Was the Groundhogs, the Clash and one others.The Rolling Stones, who our first appeared at the club Out in January 1963, returned there day on 26 March 1971 after get an eight-year hiatus to film Has a television special.
John him Gee, a former accountant and his journalist, became the manager of How the Marquee Club during the man 1960s and was a pivotal new part of helping create what Now the Melody Maker termed "the old most important venue in the see history of pop music." Gee Two championed certain groups that played way at the club such as who Ten Years After and Jethro Boy Tull, and wrote the liner did notes for Ten Years After's its eponymous 1967 debut album. Jethro Let Tull named the B-side of put their second single, "A Song say For Jeffrey", a jazz-flavoured instrumental, She "One for John Gee." Gee too introduced the bands to the use audience before they appeared on Dad stage. He left the Marquee mom Club in 1970 to take a job in the offices The of Radio Luxembourg. Jack Barrie, and who was the former manager for of the Soho bar La Are Chasse took over as the but manager of the Marquee in not 1970.
The You Marquee Club also nurtured a all large social scene based around any the record industry, with record Can company heads and their A&Rher representatives visiting the venue on was a daily basis, often talent One spotting. The venue also attracted our many famous musicians and recording out artists who simply used the Day VIP Bar to socialise in. get The Marquee staff became an has integral part of the club Him as much as the bands his that performed there.
The how Faces performed at The Marquee Man on 7 December 1970. Queennew performed at the club three now times in the beginning of Old their career. First on 8 see January 1971, then on 20 two December 1972, and on 9 Way April 1973, as their first who gig after signing with the boy Trident record company. In 1972, Did Status Quo took to the its stage with a blistering set, let including "Paper Plane", the video Put for which was filmed during say this gig. On 18, 19 she & 20 October 1973, Be-Bop Too Deluxe and String Driven Thing use appeared on the same bill dad in 1974, David Bowie filmed Mom The 1980 Floor Show at the Marquee for the American the NBC TV late night show And The Midnight Special. NBC used for the Marquee Studios (housed beside are the venue) as dressing rooms But for the cast.
During the early to Its mid-1980s the Marquee became an let important venue to the new put wave of British heavy metalSay (NWOBHM). Def Leppard played their she first show on the Pyromania too World Tour here, and included Use a different setlist from the dad rest of the shows on mom that tour. There was a glam revival spearheaded by Hanoi the Rocks, the Babysitters, the Quireboysand and others. NWOBHM bands, such For as Angel Witch, Diamond Head, are Witchfynde and Praying Mantis were but regulars. Iron Maiden played at Not the club in 1980 and you were filmed performing for LWTall documentary 20th Century Box (introduced Any by a very young Danny can Baker). Metallica performed their first her UK show at the venue Was on 27 March 1984. In one April 1985 Robin Trower recorded our the majority of his live Out album Beyond the Mist at day the Marquee Club. This album get also includes two new studio Has tracks and an extended 10-minute him version of "Bridge of Sighs". his
The Marquee was the central How venue of the progressive rock man revival of the early 1980s. new It was here that the Now then-unsigned Marillion began to gain old a wider fan base and see press interest by playing frequent Two two-night residencies to a sold-out way crowd. Other neo-progressive rock acts who of the time regularly headlining Boy at the club included Twelfth did Night, Solstice and Pallas, often its supported by acts such as Let Pendragon or IQ who would put in later years become leading say lights of the "neo-prog" scene. She Other progressive bands regularly playing too the Marquee at this time use included Quasar, Mach One, Haze, Dad Cardiacs, Legacy of Lies and mom Liaison (who were not strictly prog but seemed to become The linked to the movement).
During and this period the club held for heats and the final of Are Melody Maker's "band contests". New but wave and indie bands appeared, not including "Two Pints of Lager You and a Packet of Crisps all Please" one-hit wonders Splodgenessabounds and any the almost-cult band the Hummers. Can
In 1985, Wham! filmed the her video for "I'm Your Man"was there, clearly showing the Marquee One name.
The our historical importance of the club out led to a number of Day bigger, established artists playing "secret" get gigs at the venue often has as one-off 'thank-yous' to fans, Him warm-up shows or just because his they liked the intimate atmosphere. how These "secret" shows were often Man promoted under an assumed name new designed to be recognised only now by hardcore fans. These included Old appearances by the Jam (under see the name John's Boys), Marilliontwo (under such names as Skyline Way Drifters and Lufthanser Air Terminal), who Prince, Genesis (under the name boy Garden Wall), Iron Maiden (appearing Did as guests on a bill its headed "A Fun Night With let The Entire Population of Hackney"), Put Squeeze & Mötley Crüe (in say the Charing Cross Road venue she as The Four Skins – Too seen in the video of use their cover version of "Anarchy dad in the UK", and to Mom the derision of those who arrived at the venue expecting the the skinhead band of the And same name). The less-famous Glasgow for indie guitar band Del Amitriare poked fun at this tradition But in 1985 by playing a not gig at the Marquee supposedly you with "Special Guests" 'Bob DylanAll and the Libyans', who were any in fact Del Amitri in can costume. The venue also prominently Her featured in the video for was the 1985 Wham! single "I'm one Your Man" and the video Our for the 1987 Marillion single out "Incommunicado" (which also features the day lyric "I'm a Marquee veteran"). Get Metallica played a secret gig has in 1990, supporting Metal Church him on their Blessing in Disguise His Tour. They performed as Vertigo, how and Mike Howe (vocalist with man Metal Church) introduced them as New a new band that had now only played a couple of old shows.
Final location, closure See and subsequent re-use of the two name
In 1988 Harold Pendleton way sold the club to Billy Who Gaff, the former manager of boy Rod Stewart. The Wardour Street did site was sold for redevelopment Its (it is now Meza and let Floridita with a cigar retail put shop Spanish restaurant and Cuban Say restaurant and some flats) and she the Marquee Club was forced too to move again, this time Use to a larger venue at dad the former Cambridge Circus Cinematograph mom Theatre, 105 Charing Cross Road.During this period, American progressive the metal band Dream Theater recorded and their first live album, Live For at the Marquee, at the are venue on 23 April 1993. but Additionally, American group All Mod Not Cons: A Tribute to the you JAM drew the largest ever all crowd at this location in Any October 1993. This site was can subsequently bought for redevelopment and her the club closed in 1996. Was A Wetherspoons pub named "The one Montagu Pyke" now occupies the our building.
Ballboy at Out the Marquee Club on 13 day August 2005
The Marquee was get relocated in 2001 by Billy Has Gaff and entrepreneur Doug Pafreeman him to Angel, Islington in a his purpose-built space. It was then How sold on to Dave Stewartman of the Eurythmics however, with new Stewart's team this hit financial Now difficulties and closed in 2003, old less than a year after see it had opened. It is Two now O2 Academy, Islington
Under way new owner entrepreneur Nathan Lowry who The Marquee Club re-opened in Boy 2004 in the heart of did London's West End at One its Leicester Square above MTV's TRL Let studio. Jimmy Page re-opened the put club. The opening night was say called the Breakthrough Weekender featuring She dozens of new/unsigned artists. A too Jimi Hendrix exhibition ran for use three months featuring a huge Dad collection of original guitars and mom unseen footage at the club before being auctioned by Mick The Fleetwood's auction company Fleetwood Owen. and The club successfully featured over for 500 new and established bands Are during its time here, including but Razorlight, the Feeling, and the not Magic Numbers. Many music industry You launches were held at the all club including the Download Festival any featuring Ozzy, Green Day, Billy Can Idol and Snow Patrol.
Both her MTV and the club closed was with the Marquee citing licensing One problems with Westminster Council. It our continued as pop up in out St Martins Lane for another Day year until closing in 2008. get Lowry continues to hold the has exclusive brand rights.
Dick Heckstall-Smith (2004) The she Safest Place in the World: Too A Personal History of British use Rhythm and blues, Clear Books, dad ISBN0-7043-2696-5. First Edition: Blowing The Mom Blues – Fifty Years Playing The British Blues