Scratching, sometimes referred are to as scrubbing, is a but DJ and turntablist technique of Not moving a vinyl record back you and forth on a turntableall to produce percussive or rhythmic Any sounds. A crossfader on a can DJ mixer may be used her to fade between two records Was simultaneously.
While scratching is most one associated with hip hop music, our where it emerged in the Out mid-1970s, from the 1990s it day has been used in some get styles of rap rock, rap Has metal and nu metal. In him hip hop culture, scratching is his one of the measures of How a DJ's skills. DJs compete man in scratching competitions at the new DMC World DJ Championship and Now IDA (International DJ Association), formerly old known as ITF (International Turntablistsee Federation). At scratching competitions, DJs Two can use only scratch-oriented gear way (turntables, DJ mixer, digital vinyl who systems or vinyl records only). Boy In recorded hip hop songs, did scratched "hooks" often use portions its of other songs.
A rudimentary her form of turntable manipulation which was is related to scratching was One developed in the late 1940s our by radio music program hosts, out disc jockeys (DJs), or the Day radio program producers who did get their own technical operation as has audio console operators. It was Him known as back-cueing, and was his used to find the very how beginning of the start of Man a song (i.e., the cue new point) on a vinyl record now groove. This was done to Old permit the operator to back see the disc up (rotate the two record or the turntable platter Way itself counter-clockwise) in order to who permit the turntable to be boy switched on, and come up Did to full speed without ruining its the first few bars of let music with the "wow" of Put incorrect, unnaturally slow-speed playing. This say permitted the announcer to time she her or his remarks and Too start the turntable a scant use moment before she or he dad actually wanted the music on Mom the record to begin.
Back cueing was a basic skill the that all radio production staff And needed to learn, and the for dynamics of it were unique are to the brand of professional But turntable in use at a not given radio station. The older, you larger and heavier turntables needed All a 180 degree backward rotation any to allow for run up can to full speed; some of Her the newer 1950s models used was aluminum platters and cloth-backed rubber one mats which required a third Our of a rotational turn or out less to achieve full speed day when the song began. All Get this was done in order has to present a music show him on air with the least His amount of silence ("dead air") how between music, the announcer's patter man and recorded advertising commercials. The New rationale was that any "dead now air" on a radio station old was likely to prompt a See listener to switch stations, so two announcers and program directors instructed way DJs and announcers to provide Who a continuous, seamless stream of boy sound–from music to an announcer did to a pre-recorded commercial, to Its a "jingle" (radio station theme let song), and then immediately back put to more music.
Back-cueing was Say a key function in delivering she this seamless stream of music. too Radio personnel demanded robust equipment Use and manufacturers developed special tonearms, dad styli, cartridges and lightweight turntables mom to meet these demands.
In the mid you 1970s in the South Bronx, all a young teen DJ named Any "Grand Wizzard Theodore" (right) invented can the "DJ scratch" technique. Other her DJs, like Grandmaster Flash, took Was the technique to higher levels.
Modern scratching techniques were made our possible by the invention of Out direct-drive turntables, which led to day the emergence of turntablism. Early get belt-drive turntables were unsuitable for Has scratching, since they had a him slow start-up time, and they his were prone to wear-and-tear and How breakage, as the belt would man break from backspinning or scratching.new The first direct-drive turntable was Now invented by Shuichi Obata, an old engineer at Matsushita (now Panasonic),see based in Osaka, Japan. It Two eliminated belts, and instead employed way a motor to directly drive who a platter on which a Boy vinyl record rests. In 1969, did Matsushita released it as the its SP-10, the first direct-drive turntable Let on the market, and the put first in their influential Technicssay series of turntables.
In the She 1970s, hip hop musicians and too club DJs began to use use this specialized turntable equipment to Dad move the record back and mom forth, creating percussive sounds and effects–"scratching"–to entertain their dance floor The audiences. Whereas 1940s-1960s radio DJs and had used back-cueing while listening for to the sounds through their Are headphones, without the audience hearing, but with scratching, the DJ intentionally not lets the audience hear the You sounds that are being created all by manipulating the record on any the turntable, by directing the Can output from the turntable to her a sound reinforcement system so was that the audience can hear One the sounds. Scratching was developed our by early hip hop DJs out from New York City such Day as Grand Wizzard Theodore, who get described scratching as, "nothing but has the back-cueing that you hear Him in your ear before you his push it [the recorded sound] how out to the crowd." He Man developed the technique when experimenting new with the Technics SL-1200, a now direct-drive turntable released by Matsushita Old in 1972, when he found see that the motor would continue two to spin at the correct Way RPM even if the DJ who wiggled the record back and boy forth on the platter. Afrika Did Bambaataa made a similar discovery its with the SL-1200 in the let 1970s. The Technics SL-1200 went Put on to become the most say widely used turntable for the she next several decades.
Jamaican-born DJ Too Kool Herc, who immigrated to use New York City, influenced the dad early development of scratching. Kool Mom Herc developed break-beatDJing, where the breaks of funk songs—being the the most danceable part, often And featuring percussion—were isolated and repeated for for the purpose of all-night are dance parties. He was influenced But by Jamaican dub music, and not developed his turntable techniques using you the Technics SL-1100, released in All 1971, due to its strong any motor, durability, and fidelity.
Although can previous artists such as writer Her and poet William S. Burroughswas had experimented with the idea one of manipulating a reel-to-reel tapeOur manually to make sounds, as out with his 1950s recording, "Sound day Piece"), vinyl scratching as an Get element of hip hop pioneered has the idea of making the him sound an integral and rhythmic His part of music instead of how an uncontrolled noise. Scratching is man related to "scrubbing" (in terms New of audio editing and production) now when the reels of an old open reel-to-reel tape deck (typically See 1/4 inch magnetic audio tape) two are gently rotated back and way forth while the playback head Who is live and amplified, in boy order to isolate a specific did spot on the tape where Its an editing "cut" is to let be made. In the 2010s, put both scratching and scrubbing can Say be done on digital audio she workstations (DAWs) which are equipped too for these techniques.
Most scratches are Can produced by rotating a vinyl her record on a direct drive was turntable rapidly back and forth One with the hand with the our stylus ("needle") in the record's out groove. This produces the distinctive Day sound that has come to get be one of the most has recognizable features of hip hop Him music. Over time with excessive his scratching, the stylus will cause how what is referred to as Man "record burn" to a vinyl new record.
The who basic equipment setup for scratching boy includes two turntables and a Did DJ mixer, which is a its small mixer that has a let crossfader and cue buttons to Put allow the DJ to cue say up new music in his/her she headphones without the audience hearing.[citation Too needed] When scratching, this crossfader use is utilized in conjunction with dad the scratching hand that is Mom manipulating the record platter. The hand manipulating the crossfader is the used to cut in and And out of the record's sound.[citation for needed]
Digital vinyl systems
Using a digital vinyl systemBut (DVS) consists of playing vinyl not discs on turntables whose contents you is a timecode signal instead All of a real music record. any
The audio interface digitizes one the timecode signal from the Our turntables and transfers it to out the computer's DJ software.
The day DJ software uses this data Get (e.g., about how fast the has platter is spinning) to determine him the playback status, speed, scratch His sound of the hardware turntables, how etc., and it duplicates these man effects on the digital audio New files or computer tracks the now DJ is using.
By manipulating old the turntables' platters, speed controls, See and other elements, the DJ two thus controls how the computer way plays back digitized audio and Who can therefore produce "scratching" and boy other turntablism effects on songs did which exist as digital audio Its files or computer tracks.
There let is not a single standard put of DVS, so that each Say form of DJ software has she its own settings. Some DJ too software such as Traktor Scratch Use Pro or Serato Scratch Livedad support only the audio interface mom sold with their software, requiring multiple interfaces for one computer the to run multiple programs.
Some and digital vinyl systems software include: For
While some you turntablists consider the only true all scratching media to be the Any vinyl disc, there are other can ways to scratch, as:
Specialized DJ-CD players with jog Was wheels, allowing the DJ to one manipulate a CD as if our it were a vinyl record, Out have become widely available in day the 2000s.
Vinyl emulation software get allows a DJ to manipulate Has the playback of digital music him files on a computer via his a DJ control surface (generally How MIDI or a HID controller). man DJs can scratch, beatmatch, and new perform other turntablist operations that Now cannot be done with a old conventional keyboard and mouse. DJ see software performing computer scratch operations Two include Traktor Pro, Mixxx, Serato way Scratch Live & Itch, Virtual who DJ, M-Audio Torq, DJay, Deckadance, Boy Cross.
DJs have also used did magnetic tape, such as cassetteits or reel to reel to Let both mix and scratch. Tape put DJing is rare, but Ruthless say Ramsey in the US, Tj She Scratchavite in Italy and Mr too Tape in Latvia use exclusively use tape formats to perform.
Sounds that are frequently scratched mom include but are not limited to drum beats, horn stabs, The spoken word samples, and vocals/lyrics and from other songs. Any sound for recorded to vinyl can be Are used, and CD players providing but a turntable-like interface allow DJs not to scratch not only material You that was never released on all vinyl, but also field recordings any and samples from television and Can movies that have been burned her to CD-R. Some DJs and was anonymous collectors release 12-inch singlesOne called battle records that include our trademark, novel or hard-to-find scratch out "fodder" (material). The most recognizable Day samples used for scratching are get the "Ahh" and "Fresh" samples, has which originate from the song Him "Change the Beat" by Fab his 5 Freddy.
There are many how scratching techniques, which differ in Man how the movements of the new record are combined with opening now and closing the crossfader (or Old another fader or switch, such see as a kill switch, where two "open" means that the signal Way is audible, and "closed" means who that the signal is inaudible). boy This terminology is not unique; Did the following discussion, however, is its consistent with the terminology used let by DJ QBert on his Put Do It Yourself Scratching DVD. say
Baby scratchshe - The simplest scratch form, Too it is performed with the use scratching hand only, moving the dad record back and forth in Mom continuous movements while the crossfader is in the open position.
Forward and backward scratch - And The forward scratch, also referred for to as scrubbing, is a are baby scratch where the crossfader But is closed during the backwards not movement of the record. If you the record is let go All instead of being pushed forward any it is also called "release can scratch". Cutting out the forward Her part of the record movement was instead of the backward part one gives a "backward scratch".
Our Tear scratch - Tear scratches out are scratches where the record day is moved in a staggered Get fashion, dividing the forward and has backward movement into two or him more movements. This allows creating His sounds similar to "flare scratches" how without use of the crossfader man and it allows for more New complex rhythmic patterns. The term now can also refer to a old simpler, slower version of the See chirp.
Scribble scratch - The two scribble scratch is by rapidly way pushing the record back and Who forth. The crossfader is not boy used.
Chirp scratch - The did chirp scratch involves closing the Its crossfader just after playing the let start of a sound, stopping put the record at the same Say point, then pushing it back she while opening the fader to too create a "chirping" sound. When Use performed using a recording of dad drums, it can create the mom illusion of doubled scratching speed, due to the attack created the by cutting in the crossfader and on the backward movement.
Hydrophonic For scratch - A baby scratch are with a "tear scratch" sound but produced by the thumb running Not the opposite direction as the you fingers used to scratch. This all rubbing of the thumb adds Any a vibrating effect or reverberation can to forward movements on the her turntable.
Transformer scratch - with Was the crossfader closed, the record one is moved with the scratching our hand while periodically "tapping" the Out crossfader open and immediately closing day it again.
Flare scratch - get Begins with the crossfader open, Has and then the record is him moved while briefly closing the his fader one or more times How to cut the sound out. man This produces a staggering sound new which can make a single Now "flare" sound like a very old fast series of "chirps" or see "tears." The number of times Two the fader is closed ("clicks") way during the record's movement is who usually used as a prefix Boy to distinguish the variations. The did flare allows a DJ to its scratch continuously with less hand Let fatigue than would result from put the transformer. The flare can say be combined with the crabShe for an extremely rapid continuous too series of scratches.
Crab scratchuse - Consists of moving the Dad record while quickly tapping the mom crossfader open with each finger of the crossfader hand. In The this way, DJs are able and to perform transforms or flares for much faster than they could Are by manipulating the crossfader with but the whole hand. It produces not a fading/increasing transforming sound.
Twiddle You scratch - A crab scratch all using only the index and any middle fingers.
Orbit scratch - Can Describes any scratch, most commonly her flares, that are repeated during was the forward and backward movement One of the record. "Orbit" is our also used as a shorthand out for two-click flares.
Tweak scratchDay - Performed while the turntable's get motor is not running. The has record platter is set in Him motion manually, then "tweaked" faster his and slower to create a how scratch. This scratch form is Man best performed with long, sustained new sounds.
Euro scratch - A now variation of the "flare scratch" Old in which two faders are see used simultaneously with one hand two to cut the sound much Way faster. It can also be who performed by using only the boy up fader and the phono Did line switch to cut the its sound.
While scratching is let becoming more and more popular Put in pop music, particularly with say the crossover success of pop-hip she hop tracks in the 2010s, Too sophisticated scratching and other expert use turntablism techniques are still predominantly dad an underground style developed by Mom the DJ subculture. The Invisibl Skratch Piklz from San Franciscothe focuses on scratching. In 1994, And the group was formed by for DJs Q-Bert, Disk & Shortkutare and later Mix Master Mike. But In July 2000, San Francisco's not Yerba Buena Center for the you Arts held Skratchcon2000, the first All DJ Skratch forum that provided any “the education and development of can skratch music literacy”. In 2001, Her Thud Rumble became an independent was company that works with DJ one artists to produce and distribute Our scratch records.
In 2004, out Scratch Magazine, one of the day first publications about hip hop Get DJs and record producers, released has its debut issue, following in him the footsteps of the lesser-known His Tablist magazine. Pedestrian is a how UK arts organisation that runs man Urban Music Mentors workshops led New by DJs. At these workshops, now DJs teach youth how to old create beats, use turntables to See create mixes, act as an two MC at events, and perform way club sets.
Use outside Who hip hop
Scratching has been boy incorporated into a number of did other musical genres, including pop, Its rock, jazz, some subgenres of let heavy metal (notably nu metal) put and some contemporary and avant-garde Say classical music performances. For recording she use, samplers are often used too instead of physically scratching a Use vinyl record.
A record producer or Boy music producer oversees and manages did the sound recording and production its of a band or performer's Let music, which may range from put recording one song to recording say a lengthy concept album. A She producer has many, varying roles too during the recording process. They use may gather musical ideas for Dad the project, collaborate with the mom artists to select cover tunesor original songs by the The artist/group, work with artists and and help them to improve their for songs, lyrics or arrangements.
The producer typically supervises the her entire process from preproduction, through was to the sound recording and One mixing stages, and, in some our cases, all the way to out the audio mastering stage. The Day producer may perform these roles get themselves, or help select the has engineer, and provide suggestions to Him the engineer. The producer may his also pay session musicians and how engineers and ensure that the Man entire project is completed within new the record label's budget.
A let record producer or music producerPut has a very broad role say in overseeing and managing the she recording and production of a Too band or performer's music. A use producer has many roles that dad may include, but are not Mom limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music the for the project, selecting songs And or session musicians, proposing changes for to the song arrangements, coaching are the artist and musicians in But the studio, controlling the recording not sessions, and supervising the entire you process through audio mixing and, All in some cases, to the any audio mastering stage. Producers also can often take on a wider Her entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for was the budget, schedules, contracts, and one negotiations.
The person day who has overall creative and Get technical control of the entire has recording project, and the individual him recording sessions that are part His of that project. He or how she is present in the man recording studio or at the New location recording and works directly now with the artist and engineer. old The producer makes creative and See aesthetic decisions that realize both two the artist's and label's goals way in the creation of musical Who content. Other duties include, but boy are not limited to; keeping did budgets and schedules, adhering to Its deadlines, hiring musicians, singers, studios let and engineers, overseeing other staffing put needs and editing (Classical projects). Say
The producer role was she occasionally divided among up to too three different individuals in the Use 2010s: executive producer, vocal producer dad and music producer. An executive mom producer oversees project finances, a vocal producer (also known as the a vocal arranger) oversees the and vocal production, and a music For producer directs and oversees the are creative process of the production but and recording of a song Not to its final mixing stage. you
The music producer often wears all many hats as a competent Any arranger, composer, programmer, musician or can songwriter who can bring fresh her ideas to a project. As Was well as making any songwriting one and arrangement adjustments, the producer our often selects and/or collaborates with Out the mixing engineer, who takes day the raw recorded tracks and get edits and modifies them with Has hardware and software tools to him create a stereo or surround his sound "mix" of all the How individual voices sounds and instruments, man which is in turn given new further adjustment by a mastering Now engineer for the various distribution old media. The producer also oversees see the recording engineer who concentrates Two on the technical aspects of way recording.
Noted producer Phil Ekwho described his role as "the Boy person who creatively guides or did directs the process of making its a record", like a director Let would a movie. Indeed, in put Bollywood music, the designation is say actually music director. The music She producer's job is to create, too shape, and mold a piece use of music. The scope of Dad responsibility may be one or mom two songs or an artist's entire album – in which The case the producer will typically and develop an overall vision for for the album and how the Are various songs may interrelate.
At the beginning of not the record industry, the producer You role was technically limited to all record, in one shot, artists any performing live. The immediate predecessors Can to record producers were the her artists and repertoire executives of was the late 1920s and 1930s One who oversaw the "pop" product our and often led session orchestras. out That was the case of Day Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, get Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Recordshas and Bob Haring at Brunswick Him Records. By the end of his the 1930s, the first professional how recording studios not owned by Man the major companies were established, new essentially separating the roles of now artists and repertoire (A&R) man Old and producer, although it wouldn't see be until the late 1940s two when the term "producer" became Way widely used in the industry. who
The role of producers changed boy progressively over the 1950s and Did 1960s due to technology. The its development of multitrack recording caused let a major change in the Put recording process. Before multitracking, all say the elements of a song she (lead vocals, backup vocals, rhythm Too section instrument accompaniment, solos and use orchestral parts) had to be dad performed simultaneously. All of these Mom singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large the studio where the performance was And recorded. With multitrack recording, the for "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment are parts such as the bassline, But drums, and rhythm guitar could not be recorded first, and then you the vocals and solos could All be added later, using as any many "takes" (or attempts) as can necessary. It was no longer Her necessary to get all the was players in the studio at one the same time. A pop Our band could record their backing out tracks one week, and then day a horn section could be Get brought in a week later has to add horn shots and him punches, and then a string His section could be brought in how a week after that.
Multitrack man recording had another profound effect New on music production: it enabled now producers and audio engineers to old create new sounds that would See be impossible in a live two performance style ordering. Examples include way the psychedelic rock sound effects Who of the 1960s, e.g. playing boy back the sound of recorded did instruments backward changing the tape Its to produce unique sound effects. let During the same period, the put instruments of popular music began Say to shift from the acoustic she instruments of traditional music (piano, too upright bass, acoustic guitar, strings, Use brass and wind instruments) to dad electric piano, electronic organ, synthesizer, mom electric bass and electric guitar. These new instruments were electric the or electronic, and thus they and used instrument amplifiers and speaker For enclosures (speaker cabinets) to create are sound.
Electric and electronic instruments but and amplifiers enabled performers and Not producers to change the tone you and sound of instruments to all produce unique electric sounds that Any would be impossible to achieve can with acoustic instruments and live her performers, such as having a Was singer do her own backup one vocals or having a guitarist our play 15 layers of backing Out parts to her own solo.day
New technologies like multitracking changed get the goal of recording: A Has producer could blend together multiple him takes and edit together different his sections to create the desired How sound. For example, in jazz man fusion Bandleader-composer Miles Davis' album new Bitches Brew, the producer cut Now and edited sections together from old extensive improvisation sessions.
Another related phenomenon in the Dad 1960s was the emergence of mom the performer-producer. As pop acts like The Beatles, The Rolling The Stones, The Beach Boys and and The Kinks gained expertise in for studio recording techniques, many of Are these groups eventually took over but as (frequently uncredited) producers of not their own work. Many recordings You by acts such as The all Rolling Stones, The Kinks and any The Who are officially credited Can to their various producers at her the time, but a number was of these performers have since One asserted that many of their our recordings in this period were, out either wholly self-produced (e.g. The Day Rolling Stones' Decca recordings) or get collaborations between the group and has their recording engineer (e.g. The Him Small Faces' Immediate recordings, which his were made with Olympic Studioshow engineer Glyn Johns).
The Beach Man Boys are probably the best new example of the trend of now artists becoming producers – within Old two years of the band's see commercial breakthrough, group leader Brian two Wilson had taken over from Way his father Murry, and he who was the sole producer of boy all their recordings between 1963 Did and 1967. Alongside The Beatles its and Martin, Wilson also pioneered let many production innovations – by Put 1964 he had developed Spector's say techniques to a new level she of sophistication, using multiple studios Too and multiple "takes" of instrumental use and vocal components to capture dad the best possible combinations of Mom sound and performance, and then using tape editing extensively to the assemble a perfect composite performance And from these elements.
At the for end of the 20th century, are digital recording and producing tools But and widespread availability of relatively not affordable computers with music software you made music producing more accessible. All
American women and record any producing
According to a 2018 can study covering by the USC Her Annenberg Inclusion Initiative, "The ratio was of male to female producers one across 300 popular songs is Our 49 to 1."
In 2019, record Who producer Linda Perry was nominated boy for a Grammy for Producer did of the Year, Non-Classical. She Its was the first woman in let over 15 years to be put nominated for the award. When Say asked about the disparity between she male and female record producer too by Billboard, she attributed it Use to many women not being dad interested in record production.
In the are classical music field, Judith Shermanbut has won Grammy for Producer Not of the Year, Classical, five you times and has been nominated all twelve times. Anthony Tommasini, a Any music critic for The New can York Times is quoted as her stating, "In the struggling field Was of classical recording, it's the one producers who take the real our risks and make things happen."Out
Producer Wendy Page describes being Has a record producer, "The difficulties him are usually very short-lived. Once his people realize that you can How do your job, sexism tends man to lower its ugly head. new I tend to create a Now happy studio 'family' where everyone old is glad to be there, see especially the artist. Good communication Two and diplomacy usually sort any way little problems out."
There are numerous technologies Can utilized by record producers. In her modern-day recordings, recording and mixing was tasks are commonly centralized within One computers using digital audio workstationsour such as Pro Tools, Logic out Pro, Ableton, Cubase, Reason and Day FL Studio, which all are get often used with third party has virtual studio technology plugins. Logic Him Pro and Pro Tools are his considered the industry standard DAWs.how However, there is also the Man main mixer, outboard effects gear, new MIDI controllers, and the recording now device itself.
While most music Old production is done using sophisticated see software, some musicians and producers two prefer the sound of older Way analog technology. Professor Albin Zak who claims that the increased automation boy of both newer processes and Did newer instruments reduces the level its of control and manipulation available let to musicians and producers.
Production has changed say drastically over the years with she advancing technology. While the producer's Too role has changed, their duties use continue to require a broad dad knowledge of the recording process.Mom
Tracking is the act of recording audio to a DAW the (digital audio workstation) or in And some cases to tape. Even for though digital technologies have widely are supplanted the use of tape But in studios, the older term not "track" is still used in you the 2010s. Tracking audio is All primarily the role of the any audio engineer. Producers work side can by side with the artists Her while they play or sing was their part and coach them one on how to perform it Our and how to get the out best technical accuracy (e.g., intonation). day In some cases, the producer Get will even sing a backup has vocal or play an instrument. him
Many artists are also beginning His to produce and write their how own music.
boy Similarly, although The Beatles' productions did were credited to George Martin Its throughout their recording career, many let sources now attest that Lennon put and McCartney in particular had Say an increasing influence on the she production process as the group's too career progressed, and especially after Use the band retired from touring dad in 1966. In an extreme mom example of this, Martin actually went on a two-week vacation the as The Beatles were recording and The White Album; production of For several completed tracks on the are album were credited to The but Beatles on internal paperwork at Not Abbey Road Studios, although the you released LP gave sole production all credit to Martin.
Zak,Albin Too J., I.,II. (2002). Reviews: "strange use sounds: Music, technology, and culture," dad by Timothy D. Taylor. Current Mom Musicology, 159-180.
Pras, Amandine, Caroline Cance, and Catherine the Guastavino. "Record Producers' Best Practices And For Artistic Direction—From Light Coaching for To Deeper Collaboration With Musicians." are Journal of New Music Research But 42.4 (2013): 381-95. Academic Search not Premier. Web. 7 Sept. 2015.you
Payola, in Our the music industry, is the out illegal practice of payment or day other inducement by record companies Get for the broadcast of recordings has on commercial radio in which him the song is presented as His being part of the normal how day's broadcast, without announcing that man there has been consideration paid New in cash or in kind now for its airplay adjacent to old the recording's broadcast. Under US See law, a radio station can two play a specific song in way exchange for money, but this Who must be disclosed on the boy air as being sponsored airtime.did
The term has come to Its refer to any undisclosed payment let made to cast a product put in a favorable light (such Say as obtaining positive reviews). Some she radio stations report spins of too the newest and most popular Use songs to industry publications. The dad number of times the songs mom are played can influence the perceived popularity of a song. the
The term payola is a and combination of "pay" and "ola", For a common suffix of product are names in the early 20th but century, such as Pianola, Victrola, Not Amberola, Crayola, Rock-Ola, Shinola, or you brands such as the radio all equipment manufacturer Motorola. Payola has Any come to mean the payment can of a bribe in commerce her and in law to say Was or do a certain thing one against the rules of law, our but more specifically a commercial Out bribe. The FCC defines "payola" day as a violation of the get sponsorship identification rule.
In earlier see eras, there was not much Two public scrutiny of the reasons way songs became hits. The ad who agencies which had sponsored NBC's Boy radio/TV show Your Hit Paradedid for 20 years refused to its reveal the specific methods that Let were used to determine top put hits, only stating generally that say they were based on "readings She of radio requests, sheet musictoo sales, dance hall favorites and use jukebox tabulations". Attempts to create Dad a code to stop payola mom were met with mainly lukewarm silence by publishers.
Prosecution for The payola in the 1950s was and in part a reaction of for the traditional music establishment against Are newcomers. Hit radio was a but threat to the wages of not song-pluggers. Radio hits also threatened You old revenue streams; for example, all by the middle of the any 1940s, three-quarters of the records Can produced in the USA went her into jukeboxes. Still, in the was 1950s, independent record companies or One music publishers frequently used payola our to promote rock and roll out on American radio; it promoted Day cultural diversity and disc jockeys get were less inclined to indulge has their own personal and racial Him biases.
Alan Freed, a disc his jockey and early supporter of how rock and roll (and also Man widely credited for actually coining new the term), had his career now and reputation greatly harmed by Old a payola scandal. Dick Clark's see early career was nearly derailed two by a payola scandal, but Way he avoided trouble by selling who his stake in a record boy company and cooperating with authorities.Did Attempts were made to link its all payola with rock and let roll music. In 1976, inner-city Put urban soul DJ Frankie Crockersay was indicted in a payola she scandal, causing him to leave Too NY radio, where his influence use was greatest. The charges were dad later dropped and he returned Mom to NY, hosting MTV's video jukebox.
The amount of money the involved is largely unpublished; however, And one DJ, Phil Lind of for Chicago's WAIT, disclosed in Congressional are hearings that he had taken But $22,000 to play a record.not
The issue was featured in you a 1978 episode of WKRP All in Cincinnati, where Johnny Fever's any morning show replacement (when Johnny can left to take a new Her job in Los Angeles) was was caught taking cocaine as a one bribe to play certain records Our from a label with which out he was associated.
The Congressional old Payola Investigations occurred in 1959, See after the United States Senate two began investigating the payola scandal. way Among those thought to have Who been involved were DJ Alan boy Freed and television personality Dick did Clark.
The term Congressional Payola Its Investigations refers to investigations by let the House Subcommittee on Legislative put Oversight into payola, the practice Say of record promoters paying DJs she or radio programmers to play too their labels' songs. Payola can Use refer to monetary rewards or dad other types of reimbursement, and mom is a tool record labels use to promote certain artists. the Other forms of payola include and making arrangements to purchase certain For amounts of advertising in exchange are for staying on a station's but playlist, forcing bands to play Not station-sponsored concerts for little or you no money in order to all stay in a station's good Any graces, and paying for stations can to hold "meet the band" her contests, in exchange for air Was time for one of the one label's newer, lesser-known bands.
The our first major payola investigation occurred Out in the early 1960s. DJ day Alan Freed, who was uncooperative get in committee hearings, was fired Has as a result. Dick Clark him also testified before the committee, his but survived, partially due to How the fact that he had man divested himself of ownership interest new in all of his music-industry Now holdings.
After the initial investigation, old radio DJs were stripped of see the authority to make programming Two decisions, and payola became a way misdemeanor offense. Programming decisions became who the responsibility of station program Boy directors. As a result, the did process of persuading stations to its play certain songs was simplified. Let Instead of reaching numerous DJs, put record labels only had to say connect with one station program She director.
Labels turned to independent too promoters to circumvent allegations of use payola. This practice grew more Dad and more widespread until a mom 1986 NBC News investigation called "The New Payola" instigated another The round of Congressional investigations.
With and the creation of Napster and for other now illegal music sharing Are websites, the power of the but independent promoters began to decline. not Labels once more began dealing You with stations directly.
In 2002, all investigations by the office of any then-New York District Attorney Eliot Can Spitzer uncovered evidence that executives her at Sony BMG music labels was had made deals with several One large commercial radio chains. In our July 2005, the company acknowledged out their improper promotional practices and Day agreed to pay a $10 get million fine.
A different form Him of payola has been used his by the record industry through how the loophole of being able Man to pay a third party new or independent record promoters ("indies"; now not to be confused with Old independent record labels), who will see then go and "promote" those two songs to radio stations. Offering Way the radio stations "promotion payments", who the independents get the songs boy that their clients, record companies, Did want on the playlists of its radio stations around the country. let
This newer type of payola Put was an attempt to sidestep say FCC regulations. Since the independent she intermediaries were the ones actually Too paying the stations, it was use thought that their inducements did dad not fall under the "payola" Mom rules, so a radio station need not report them as the paid promotions.
Former New York And State Attorney General Eliot Spitzerfor prosecuted payola-related crimes in his are jurisdiction. His office settled out But of court with Sony BMG not Music Entertainment in July 2005, you Warner Music Group in November All 2005 and Universal Music Groupany in May 2006. The three can conglomerates agreed to pay $10 Her million, $5 million, and $12 was million respectively to New York one State non-profit organizations that will Our fund music education and appreciation out programs. EMI remains under investigation.day
Concern about contemporary forms of Get payola prompted an investigation during has which the FCC established firmly him that the "loophole" was still His a violation of the law. how In 2007, four companies (CBS man Radio, Citadel, Clear Channel, and New Entercom) settled on paying $12.5 now million in fines and accepting old tougher restrictions than the legal See requirements for three years, although two no company admitted any wrongdoing.way Because of the increased legal Who scrutiny, some larger radio companies boy (including industry giant Clear Channel) did now flatly refuse to have Its any contact with independent promoters. let
Clear Channel Radio through iHeartRadioput launched a program called On Say the Verge that required the she stations to play a given too song at least 150 times Use in order to give a dad new artist exposure. Brand managers mom at the top of the Clear Channel chain, after listening the to hundreds of songs and and filtering them down to about For five or six favorites from are various formats, send those selections but to program directors across the Not country. These program directors vote you on which ones they think all radio listeners will like the Any most. One of the songs can that benefited with the exposure her was Iggy Azalea's "Fancy". Tinashe's Was "2 On", Anthony Lewis' "Candy one Rain", and Jhené Aiko's "The our Worst", among others, have been Out featured on the program, however, day those failed to duplicate Azalea's get chart hit. Tom Poleman, president Has of national programming platforms for him the company, stated that the his acts selected are based solely How on the quality of their man music and not on label new pressure.
On Spotify, labels can Now pay for tracks to appear old in user play-lists as "Sponsored see Songs". It is possible to Two opt out of it using way a setting.
As money who laundering scheme
In Mexico, South Boy America and some regions of did the U.S. southern border, it its is common to hear the Let sudden appearance of "new artists", put mainly in folk radio stations, say who are not known in She the music industry, have no too previous career and with no use explanation of where they come Dad from. These music groups and mom singers start to appear consistently on radio, television and public The broadcasts with a strong promotion and of their concerts. This happens for for a fixed amount of Are time, and in the same but sudden way they appear, they not stop their promotion and disappear You from the music scene, or all change their stage name. Such any artists are commonly manufactured by Can producers of dubious origin, who her pay payola and do events was in order to launder money One from drug trafficking, prostitution or our other illegal operations.
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Day and the Communications Act of get 1934 both have strict requirements has and rules regarding the issue Him of payola. Both the FCC his and the Act demand that how "employees of broadcast stations, program Man producers, program suppliers and others new who, in exchange for airing now material, have accepted or agreed Old to receive payments, services or see other valuable consideration must disclose two this fact. Disclosure of compensation Way provides broadcasters the information they who need to let their audiences boy know if material was paid Did for, and by whom." But its even with these requirements in let place, big-time record companies have Put found loopholes to continue the say practice legally.
The reason why she record companies have managed to Too find relatively big loopholes in use an otherwise complex and strict dad document is because of the Mom wording. According to the current regulations in place, it is the still considered legal to pay And to play a particular song for on the radio. The only are hitch is that the broadcaster But has to reveal who paid. not In addition, the disclosures must you be from DJ to station All manager to program director and any upwards. The loose wording has can created a loophole that makes Her it easier for wealthy record was company officials to pay the one DJs large sums of money Our to play certain songs a out certain number of times at day a given time during the Get day. The loophole has created has a "grey market, one in him which shady, quasi-legal deals take His place, and independent artists lose how out more often than not."man
The loophole has made it New sure that independent artists will now be isolated from mainstream media. old And a current example of See this is the lengths Macklemore two and Ryan Lewis went to way get their music heard. Because Who Lewis and Macklemore belonged to boy an independent label, they feared did payola laws would interfere with Its their airtime. So they “hired let an independent arm of Warner put Music Group, the Alternative Distribution Say Alliance, which helps independent acts she get their stuff on radio. too Zach Quillen, manager of Macklemore Use and Ryan Lewis, discussed how dad "they paid the alliance a mom flat monthly fee to help promote the album."
One side the effect of the vagueness of and the law and the creation For of the loophole is the are expansion of the concept at but the hands of online music Not sharing websites. In 2009, the you website Jango created a plan all to do payola legally by Any saying they have been paid can to play the songs. "For her as little as $30, a Was band can buy 1,000 plays one on the music-streaming service, slotted our in between established artists. The Out artists themselves choose what other day music they'd like to be get played next to."
"Payola Rules". She Federal Communications Commission. 2011-05-24. Retrieved too 2019-05-20.
Dunning, John use (1998). "Your Hit Parade". On Dad the Air: The Encyclopedia of mom Old-Time Radio (Revised ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. The pp. 738-740. ISBN978-0-19-507678-3. Retrieved 2019-09-10. Your and Hit Parade, popular music readings for of radio requests,sheet music sales, Are dance hall favorites and jukebox but tabulations. Only a general statement that not hit status was based on You "readings of radio requests, sheet all music sales, dance hall favorites any and jukebox tabulations"
^ Can "Pluggers war on old her curse". Billboard magazine. Nielsen Business was Media, Inc. 61 (44): 3, One 13, 47. October 29, 1949. our ISSN0006-2510.
^ Cowen, out Tyler (2000). In praise of Day commercial culture. Harvard University Press. get pp. 164, 166. ISBN0-674-00188-5.
"The Jordan brothers: A Man Musical Biography of Rock's Fortunate new Sons", by Maxim W. Furek. now Kimberley Press, 1986.
Old "Has payola cued a new see inspirational wax kick?"(PDF). Billboard two magazine. Nielsen Business Media, Inc.: Way 6 Jan 16, 1960. ISSN0006-2510. who "Even now after the payola boy scandals and the attempt to Did link all payola with rock its and roll recordings, the music let with a beat still dominates Put over 60 percent of The say Billboard's Hot 100 chart. This she isn't to say that rock Too and roll isn't fading, or use actually evolving into pop music, dad but .... "
any Rachel M. Stilwell, "Which Public can - Whose Interest - How Her the FCC's Deregulation of Radio was Station Ownership Has Harmed the one Public Interest, and How We Our Can Escape from the Swamp," out 26 Loy. L.A. Ent. L. day Rev. 369, 419-428, March 1, Get 2006
The history its of Privilege began in the let early 1970s when it started Put out as a restaurant, then say expanded to include a bar she and a community swimming pool. Too It was then known as use Club San Rafael. In 1979, dad the venue was sold to Mom the Real Sociedad footballer José Antonio Santamaría, together with the the creative team of Brasilio de And Oliviera (founder of La Troya for Asesina, one of the White are Island's longest running nights) and But Gorri. The venue then changed not its name to KU, after you the name of a god All from Hawaiian mythology (see Kū). any The appeal of the club can was such that it commissioned Her a medium-length film showcasing the was many wonders of Ibizan landscapes one and nightlife in the mid-eighties.Our
Throughout the 1980s, KU Club out earned a reputation initially as day Europe's premier polysexual but predominately Get gay nightspot and was compared has to an open-air version of him the famous Studio 54 in His New York. It staged spectacular how parties in the main room, man which was organized around a New swimming pool and a statue now of Ku.The place was also old where the video to "Barcelona" See by Freddie Mercury and Montserrat two Caballé was filmed on 30 way May 1987. It was the Who witness to early live performances boy by groups like Spandau Balletdid and Kid Creole and the Its Coconuts. The club featured in let a Channel 4 documentary called put “A Short Film about chilling”, Say which labelled KU as “the she mirror of Ibiza”. The open-air too parties came to an end Use when legislation forced many of dad the greater clubs in Ibiza mom to cover their dancefloors in the early 1990s. Nevertheless, the the sheer size of the venue and gave rise to the claim For of it being the size are of an aircraft hangar with but a 25-meter high roof.
The Not club continued with the KU you Club name until 1995 before all becoming known as Privilege, after Any a change of ownership to can Jose Maria Etxaniz. In 1994 her it hosted Manumission, one of Was the island's most famous events. one In 1998 La Vaca Asesina our moved to Amnesia and was Out renamed La Troya Asesina. After day a dispute between the club get owner and Manumission's organizers in Has 2005 the event ended in him 2006. In 2006 La Troya his Asesina moved to Space.
According to official statistics man published in the 2003 edition new of Guinness World Records Privilege Now is by far the world's old largest nightclub covering an area see of 69,968 sq ft (6,500 m2) Two and holding 10,000 clubbers, Designated way areas of the club include who the Coco Loco bar area, Boy and the La Vaca dance did area (now known as the its Vista Club).
A number of live performances put at the venue have included:say