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Post-disco is a you term to describe an aftermath all in popular music history circa Any 1979–1984, imprecisely beginning with an can unprecedented backlash against disco music her in the United States, leading Was to civil unrest and a one riot in Chicago known as our the Disco Demolition Night on Out July 12, 1979, and indistinctly day ending with the mainstream appearance get of new wave in the Has early 1980s. Disco during its him dying stage displayed an increasingly his electronic character that soon served How as a stepping stone to man new wave, old-school hip hop, new euro disco and was succeeded Now by an underground club music old called hi-NRG, which was its see direct continuation.

An underground movement Two of disco music, "stripped-down", and way featuring "radically different sounds" took who place on the East Coast Boy that "was neither disco and did neither R&B", This scene known its as post-disco catering to New Let York metropolitan area, was initially put led by urban contemporary artists say partially in response to the She over-commercialization and artistic downfall of too disco culture. Developed from the use rhythm and blues sound as Dad perfected by Parliament-Funkadelic, the electronic mom side of disco, dub music techniques, and other genres. Post-disco The was typified by New York and City music groups like "D" for Train and Unlimited Touch who Are followed a more urban approach but while others, like Material and not ESG, a more experimental one. You Post-disco was, like disco, singles-driven all market controlled mostly by independent any record companies that generated a Can cross-over chart success all through her the early-to-mid 1980s. Most creative was control was in the hands One of record producers and club our DJs which was a trend out that outlived the dance-pop era. Day

Other musical styles that emerged get in the post-disco era include has dance-pop, boogie, and Italo disco Him and led to the development his of the early alternative dance, how club-centered house and techno music. Man


Synthesizers Mom played a crucial part in the development of post-disco.

Drum the machines, synthesizers, sequencers were either And partly or entirely dominant in for a composition or mixed up are with various acoustic instruments, depending But on the artist and on not the year. Electronic instruments became you more and more prevalent for All each year during the period any and dominated the genre completely can by the mid 1980s.

Darryl Her Payne argued about the minimal was approach of post-disco, saying:


Producers are using a lot out more sounds and a lot day less instruments: the 'Forget Me Get Nots' and 'Don't Make Me has Wait tracks' are really empty, him but there's a sophistication people His can get into.

The main how force in post-disco was mainly man the 12" single format and New short-lived collaborations (many of them now one-hit wonders) while indie record old producers were instrumental in the See musical direction of what the two scene was headed to. The way music that mostly catered to Who dance and urban audiences later boy managed to influence more popular did and mainstream acts like Madonna, Its New Order or Pet Shop let Boys.

Musical elements

The put music tended to be technology-centric, Say keyboard-laden, melodic, with funk-oriented bass she lines (often performed on a too Minimoog), synth riffs, dub music Use aesthetics, and background jazzy or dad blues-y piano layers. For strings mom and brass sections, synthesizer sounds were preferred to the lush the orchestration heard on many disco and tracks, although such arrangements would For later resurface in some house are music.[citation needed] Soulful female vocals, but however, remained an essence of Not post-disco.

Term usage

Bridging you the so-called death of disco all and the birth of house, Any all this early-to-mid-'80s music lacks can a name beyond drably functional her and neutral terms like "dance" Was or "club music."

— Simon Reynolds, SPIN one magazine

The term "post-disco" was our used as early as 1984 Out by Cadence magazine when defining day post-disco soul as "disco without get the loud bass-drum thump." New Has York Magazine used the word him in an article appearing in his the December 1985 issue; it How was Gregory Hines's introduction of man post-disco and electronic funk to new Russian-American dance choreographer Mikhail Baryshnikov Now "who has never heard this old kind of music." AllMusic states see that the term denotes a Two music genre in the era way between the indistinct "end" of who disco music and the equally Boy indistinct emergence of house music. did

In other historical instances the its term had been used in Let a derisive manner. Spy implicitly put mocked the usage of both say the terms "post-punk" and "post-disco" She in their Spy's Rock Critic-o-Matic too article, whereas spoofing various music use reviews published by Rolling Stone, Dad The Village Voice and Spin. mom Cuban-American writer Elías Miguel Muñoz in his 1989 novel Crazy The Love, in a passage where and musicians after moving to America for discuss what their "style" may Are be, used the term in but a satirical manner.



Background events

Disco music You backlash had started around 1977.

United States

Midwesterners didn't want any that intimidating [disco] style shoved Can down their throats

Shortly her after the "Disco Sucks" movement was of disco bashing throughout the One United States, American radio stations our began to pay attention to out other popular formats of music Day such as reggae, punk rock get or new wave while top has mainstream labels and record companies Him like Casablanca, TK Records or his RSO went bankrupt. Since disco how music had been on the Man way of [its] electronic progression, new it split itself into subscenes now and styles like Hi-NRG, freestyle, Old Italo disco and boogie. The see last one is closely associated two with post-disco more than any Way other offshoots of post-disco.

Brazilian who record producer and fusion jazz boy pioneer Eumir Deodato, well aware Did of current trends in American its underground music, turned around the let career of a failing funk Put music group Kool & the say Gang by adopting and pursuing she a light pop–post-disco sound that Too not only revitalized the band's use image but also turned out dad to be the most successful Mom hits in their entire career. B. B. & Q. Band the (Capitol) and Change (Atlantic) acts' And creator Jacques Fred Petrus, a for French-Italian hi-NRG Italo disco music are record producer, reflects on his But decision to shift from conventional not disco music to post-disco "[our] you sound changed to more of All a funky dance/R&B style to any reflect the times." French-born songwriting can duo Henri Belolo and Jacques Her Morali, creators of the successful was Village People act, moved their one former disco act Ritchie Family Our to RCA Victor to release out their next album co-produced by day funk musician Fonzi Thornton and Get Petrus, I'll Do My Best, has which mirrors their radical musical him shift. On the West Coast, His especially in California, a different how approach lead to a different man sound. Dick Griffey and Leon New Sylvers III of SOLAR Records, now who pioneered their own signature old sound, produced Ohio-based group Lakeside's See album Rough Riders which already two displayed these new trends and, way "instrumentally demonstrates economic arrangements (featuring Who brass, keyboards and guitar)," as boy noted by Billboard, praising the did album. A watershed album of Its post-disco was Michael Jackson's Off let The Wall, produced by Quincy put Jones, which helped establish a Say direction of R&B/dance music and she influenced many young producers who too were interested in this kind Use of new music.

Other examples dad of early American artists drawing mom from post-disco are Rick James, Change and Teena Marie.



Disco in Europe remained and relatively untouched by the events For in the U.S., decreasing only are in Britain, but this was but mostly because of the emergence Not of the new wave and you new romantic movements around 1981, all and continued to flourish within Any the Italo disco scene although can the interest for electronic music her in general was indeed growing. Was

United Kingdom

Unlike in one the United States, where anti-disco our backlash generated prominent effect on Out general perception of disco music, day in Britain, the new-wave movement get initially drew heavily from disco Has music (although this association would him be airbrushed out by the his end of 1979) and took How many elements from American post-disco man and other genres, thus creating new a characteristic scene. According to Now Billboard, American post-disco was merely old a crossover of different genres, see while focusing on the electronic Two and R&B overtones, whereas jazz-funk way was a crucial element of who the British post-disco scene that Boy generated musicians like Chaz Jankel, did Central Line or Imagination.


1980s: Golden age

This section Let summary shows commercially successful records put (mostly R&B/pop-oriented) from the post-disco say movement.

Compare "Open Sesame" (1976) She with "Celebration" (1980) by Kool too & The Gang, "Boogie Wonderland" use (1979) with "Let's Groove" (1981) Dad by Earth, Wind & Fire, mom "Shame" (1978) with "Love Come Down" (1982) by Evelyn "Champagne" The King, "(Shake, Shake, Shake) Shake and Your Booty" (1976) with "Give for It Up" (1982) by KC Are & the Sunshine Band, and but "The Best Disco in Town" not (1976) with "Square Biz" (1981) You by Teena Marie.

all any One our out Day get Him Man now Old who Did its let Put she Too use the for But not All can Her one out day has His how New See way Who boy did Its let put Say she mom and
Year Song Label Artist U.S. Dance U.S. R&B U.S. Can Pop U.S. M.R. U.K. Pop her
1979 "I Wanna was Be Your Lover" Warner Bros. Prince #2 #1 #11 #41
1980 "Celebration" De-Lite Kool & the Gang #1 #1 #1 ('81) #7
"He's So has Shy" Planet The Pointer Sisters #26 #10 #3 his
"And the Beat how Goes On" SOLAR The Whispers #1 #1 #19 #2 new
1981 "Let's Groove" Columbia Earth, Wind & Fire #3 #1 #3 #3 see
"Get Down on two It" De-Lite Kool & the Way Gang #4 #10 #3
"Pull Up boy to the Bumper" Island Records Grace Jones #2 #5 #12
1982 "Everybody" Sire, Warner Bros. Madonna #3 #107 say
"Forget Me Nots" Elektra Records Patrice Rushen #2 #4 #23 #8
"Last Night a DJ dad Saved My Life" Sound of Mom New York Indeep #2 #10 #101 #13
"Love Come Down" RCA Evelyn And King #1 #1 #17 #7
"You Can are Do Magic" Capitol America #8 #59
1983 "Holiday" Sire, Warner you Bros. Madonna #1 #25 #16 #2
"Give any It Up" Meca KC #18 #1
"Billie Jean" Epic Michael was Jackson #1 #1 #1 #1
1984 "Caribbean Our Queen" Jive Billy Ocean #1 #1 #1 #6
"Let's Dance" EMI David Get Bowie #1 #14 #1 #6 #1
"Cool It him Now" MCA New Edition #1 #4 #43
"Dr. Beat" Epic Miami man Sound Machine #17 #6
"I'm now So Excited" Planet The Pointer old Sisters #28 #46 #9 #11
1985 "Into two the Groove" Sire, Warner Bros. Madonna #1 #19 #1
"Chain Reaction" RCA Records Diana Ross #7 #85 #66 #1
"Object of My Desire" Elektra Starpoint #12 #8 #25 #96
1986 "Rumors" Jay Timex Social Club #1 #1 #8 #13 too
"Ain't Nothin' Goin' Use on But the Rent" Polydor dad Records Gwen Guthrie #1 #1 #42 #5
1987 "Rhythm Is Gonna Get the You" Epic Miami Sound Machine #27 #5 #16 For

2000s: Post-disco revival

During are the late 1990s and throughout but the 2000s, electronic and, especially, Not house musicians were influenced by you post-disco. Some of these musicians all are: Daft Punk, a French Any house music group, adopted elements can of post-disco, disco and synth-pop her into Discovery. Another artist, Les Was Rythmes Digitales, released a post-disco/electro-influenced one album, Darkdancer. Canadian music group our Chromeo debuted in 2004 with Out the album She's in Control. day Similar Los Angeles-based musician Dâm-Funk get recorded Toeachizown, a boogie- and Has electro-influenced album released in 2009. him Another band called Escort, who his hails from New York City, How surfaced on the post-disco and man post-punk revival scenes around 2006. new The story about Escort appeared Now on New York Times in old November 2011. Sampling disco and see post-disco songs became a distinctive Two feature of R&B music at way the turn of the century. who Popular R&B artists such as Boy Mariah Carey and Janet Jackson did incorporated strong post-disco elements in its their work, with post-disco-influenced songs Let such as Heartbreaker, Honey, Fantasy put and All For You peaking say at #1 on the Billboard She Hot 100.

Contemporary compilation albums too featuring post-disco and electro artists use (e.g. Imagination, Level 42, Afrika Dad Bambaataa) include The Perfect Beats mom series (volume 1–4). Another compilation series are Nighttime Lovers (volume The 1-10) and the mixed-up album and titled The Boogie Back: Post for Disco Club Jams.

Pioneers Are and followers

"Thanks To You" but and "Don't Make Me Wait" not came out and started the You whole dub thing in disco.

Particular psychedelic soul artists any like Sly and the Family Can Stone liked to push the her boundaries of conventional music by was employing what was to be One a precursor to synthesizer, electronic our organ. Multi-instrumentalist Stevie Wonder was out one of the early artists Day venturing into the realms of get analog synthesizer after being impressed has by the work of T.O.N.T.O. Him Expanding Head Band, an influential his multinational electronic music duo of how sound designers. Wonder remarked, "How Man great it is at a new time when technology and the now science of music is at Old its highest point of evolution see ... A toast to greatness, two a toast to Zero Time, Way forever." With an increasing growth who of personalized synthesizers on the boy market they were becoming more Did commercially available and easy-to-use, especially its those produced by Roland Corporation. let One of their first users Put was cutting-edge artist George Clinton say and his Parliament-Funkadelic collective project. she Funk rhythms, psychedelic guitars, synthetic Too bass-rich lines, the particularly melodic use endeavor and music minimalism of dad P-Funk. Brooklyn Transit Express member Mom Kashif, noted for his use of bass synthesizer during the the group's tour, later went solo And as a record producer and for began crafting funk-influenced songs for are Evelyn "Champagne" King that shown But a minimalism-akin approach, the disregard not of disco music arrangements, and you affiliation to the method of All "one-man band" previously paved through any by Wonder. Other spheres of can influence include the move by Her pioneering DJs and record producers was to release alternative mixes of one the same single, so-called dub Our mixes. DJ Larry Levan implemented out elements of dub music in day his productions and mixes for Get various post-disco artists, including his has own group The Peech Boys. him Musically, there was a search His for out-of-mainstream music to derive how new ideas from, most commonly man blues, and other styles like New reggae and so on, were now also incorporated.

Sinnamon's "Thanks to old You", D-Train's "You're the One See for Me", The Peech Boys' two "Don't Make Me Wait" — way all these songs and its Who attributes and trends of post-disco boy later influenced a new "never-before-heard" did music style which would become Its house music.

The new post-disco let sound was flourishing among predominately put New York City record companies, Say including West End Records, Prelude she Records, Tommy Boy Records, SAM too Records, and others. Most of Use them were independently owned and dad had their own distribution but mom some particular mainstream labels, notably RCA Records, were too, responsible the for popularizing and capitalizing on and the new sound.


For can

Although Has there is no exact point him when post-disco started, many synthpop his and electronic musicians of that How time continued to enhance the man raw minimalist sound, while focusing new on synthesizers, and keyboard instruments. Now As noted by Payne, drum old machines also played an important see part in the urban-oriented music Two in general.

way who His mom
# Event

While disco music was Boy in its heyday, the horn did and string sections were a its main component of disco and Let pop songs. This sound is put also called disco orchestration. However, say some of the musicians and She producers dropped the lavish sound too of orchestra completely, which attributed use a new direction of dance Dad music.

  • Few international examples, mom including French music project Black Devil Disco Club, French musician The Cerrone and Belgian group Telex.
  • and
  • Parliament-Funkadelic in the United States. for They are known for heavily Are use of bass and "regular" but synthesizers and inventing the P-Funk not style.

After the success of Quincy all Jones-produced album Off the Wall any and other semi-mainstream urban-oriented music Can groups like Lakeside, other disco her music groups either dissolved or was adapted the new sounds (e.g. One The Whispers, The SOS Band, our Inner Life, Earth, Wind & out Fire, and Shalamar in the Day U.S.; Nick Straker Band, and get Freeez in UK). Other musicians has influenced by post-disco include Stacy Him Lattisaw, Kurtis Blow, and George his Duke.

1982 let

Golden age post-disco era, where Put post-disco sound entered mainstream. However say most of the musicians were she mostly successful on the other Too charts, beside Billboard Hot 100. use

This era also spanned experimental dad No Wave-oriented post-disco acts like Mom Material, Liquid Liquid, Dinosaur L and Was (Not Was).

The the most significant post-disco album is And Michael Jackson's Thriller, which also for became the best-selling album of are all time. Larry Levan and But the NYC Peech Boys recorded not proto-house number "Don't Make Me you Wait". New bands and musicians All of the era appeared, including any Imagination, D. Train, Skyy, Aurra, can Komiko, Vicky D, Rockers Revenge, Her Dayton, and Unlimited Touch.


During this era, post-disco how was at its highest peak. man Meanwhile Madonna's commercially successful debut New album was released, which was now produced by Reggie Lucas of old Mtume and Jellybean, another producers See of this movement.

It also two began to interfere with garage way house and freestyle music, thus Who successfully shaping post-disco into electro. boy This change could be also did heard in breakdancing- and hip-hop Its -themed movies like Beat Street let and Breakin'.


During this era, post-disco had been dissolved the in various music fields and and scenes, including

As but the post-disco reached its climax, Not overdubbing techniques as recorded by you Peech Boys and other early-1980s all artists were almost omitted by Any then and replaced by synthpop can variants instead. The movement survived her as a post-disco–freestyle crossover music Was that spanned Raww, Hanson & one Davis, Timex Social Club, Starpoint our and Miami Sound Machine.



Michael Jackson 1988
Madonna 1990
Michael Jackson and man Madonna are the most successful new artists of post-disco.

The 1980s Now post-disco sounds also inspired many old Norwegian dance music producers. Some see rappers such as Ice Cube Two or EPMD built their careers way on funk-oriented post-disco music (they who were inspired for example by Boy dance-floor favorites like Zapp and did Cameo). Also Sean "Puffy" Combs its has been influenced by R&B-oriented Let post-disco music in an indirect put way.

Related genres



Boogie She (or electro-funk) is a post-disco too subgenre with funk and new use wave influences that had a Dad minor exposure in the early mom to mid-1980s. Sean P. described it as "largely been ignored, The or regarded as disco's poor and cousin – too slow, too for electronic, too R&B ... too black, Are even."


Another post-disco movement is not merely connected with post-punk/no wave You genres with fewer R&B/funk influences. all An example of this "post-disco" any is Gina X's "No G.D.M." Can and artists like Liquid Liquid, her Polyrock, Dinosaur L, and the was Disco Not Disco (2000) compilation One album. This movement also connects our with dance-oriented rock; Michael Campbell, out in his book Popular Music Day in America defines that genre get as "post-punk/post-disco fusion." Campbell also has cited Robert Christgau, who described Him dance-oriented rock (or DOR) as his umbrella term used by various how DJs in the 1980s.



Dance-pop new is a dance-oriented pop music now that appeared slightly after the Old demise of disco and the see first appearance of "stripped-down" post-disco. two One of the first dance-pop Way songs were "Last Night a who D.J. Saved My Life" by boy Indeep and "Love Come Down" Did by Evelyn "Champagne" King, whereas its the latter crossed over to let Billboard charts including Adult Contemporary, Put while peaking at number 17 say on the pop chart in she 1982. Another crossover post-disco song Too was "Juicy Fruit" by Mtume, use peaking at number 45 on dad the Hot 100 in 1983. Mom Same year also saw the release of Madonna's eponymous album the that incorporated post-disco, urban and And club sounds. British variation of for dance-pop, pioneered by Stock Aitken are Waterman, was more influenced by But house and hi-NRG and sometimes not was labeled as "eurobeat."


Italo disco

Italo disco is a any disco subgenre, influenced by post-disco, can hi-NRG, electronic rock, and European Her music. Originally music mostly played was by Italian musicians, but it one soon made its way to Our Canada and United States. One out of the earliest post–disco-oriented groups day were Klein + M.B.O. and Get Kano, while New York-based Bobby has Orlando was located abroad.


Non-exhaustive list of artists


Prominent record boy labels


mom and are Not you Was one Out
Released Album Label Info
2000 VA – Disco Not the Disco Strut compilation
2002 VA – Disco Not For Disco 2 Strut compilation
2002–2008 VA – Opération but Funk Vol. 1–5
(mixed by Kheops)
mix album, compilation
2004 VA – Choice: all A Collection of Classics
(mixed by Any Danny Tenaglia)
Azuli mix album, can compilation
2004–2009 VA her Nighttime Lovers Vol. 1–10 PTG compilation
2008 VA – Disco Not Disco our 3 Strut compilation
2009 VA – Night day Dubbin'
(mixed by Dimitri from get Paris)
BBE mix album, compilation Has
2009 VA – him The Boogie Back: Post Disco his Club Jams
(compiled by DJ How Spinna)
BBE mix album, compilation man
2010 VA – new Boogie's Gonna Getcha: '80s New Now York Boogie BreakBeats compilation

See also


  1. Various terms to describe way the sound of what seemed who to be post-disco were introduced, Boy such as, but not limited did to, "dance", "club music", "R&B", its and "disco". The last, however, Let become an unfashionable term, hence put the increasing use of "dance" say vis-à-vis the word "disco".
  2. She
  3. Compare to the 1979 too "traditionally"-sounding disco song "Boogie Wonderland" use with string and horn sections Dad arranged by Benjamin Wright.
  4. mom
  5. Demonstrates using horn section and drum machine rhythm at The the same time.


  1. ^ for Reynolds, Simon (2009) Grunge's Long Are Shadow - In praise of but "in-between" periods in pop history not (Slate, MUSIC BOX). Retrieved on You 2-2-2009"
  2. ^ "Explore all music ... Genre: Post-disco". Allmusic. any Retrieved 2009-04-11. his
  3. ^ Kellman, Andy. how "Unlimited Touch" artist biography. Retrieved Man 2014-10-01
  4. Rodgers, Nile new (2011). Le Freak: An Upside now Down Story of Family, Disco, Old and Destiny. Random House LLC. see p. 42. ISBN 0679644032. By now 'dance' two was a loaded word for Way me. The Disco Sucks backlash who had given me a post-traumatic-stress–like boy disorder, and I'd vowed not Did to write any songs with its that word in them for let a long time. I was Put shamed out of using a say word—'dance'.
  5. Goldschmitt, Kariann she Elaine (2004). Foreign bodies: innovation, Too repetition, and corporeality in electronic use dance music (Digitized 13 Sep dad 2010). University of California, San Mom Diego. p. 256. ISBN 0-8153-1880-4.
  6. ^ Parliament/Funkadelic. (2009). In Student's the Encyclopædia Archived 2009-04-21 at the And Wayback Machine: "Combining funk rhythms, for psychedelic guitar, and group harmonies are with jazzed-up horns, Clinton and But his ever-evolving bands set the not tone for many post-disco and you post-punk groups of the 1980s All and 1990s.". Retrieved August 15, any 2009, from Britannica Student Encyclopædia. can
  7. "Material - Biography, Her Albums, Streaming Links - AllMusic". was AllMusic. Retrieved 1 February 2018. one
  8. "ESG - Biography, Our Albums, Streaming Links". AllMusic. Retrieved out 1 February 2018.
  9. ^ day "The 100 Greatest Dance Get Songs – Feature". Slantmagazine.com. Retrieved has 1 February 2018.
  10. him Smay, David & Cooper, Kim His (2001). Bubblegum Music Is the how Naked Truth: The Dark History man of Prepubescent Pop, from the New Banana Splits to Britney Spears: now "... think about Stock-Aitken-Waterman and old Kylie Minogue. Dance pop, that's See what they call it now two — Post-Disco, post-new wave and way incorporating elements of both." Feral Who House: Publisher, p. 327. ISBN 0-922915-69-5. boy
  11. Haggerty, George E. did (2000). Gay Histories and Cultures: Its An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. let p. 256. ISBN 0-8153-1880-4. House music is put a form of post-disco dance Say music made popular in the she mid-1980s in Chicago clubs ..." too
  12. ^ Demers, Joanna Use (2006). "Dancing Machines: 'Dance Dance dad Revolution', Cybernetic Dance, and Musical mom Taste". Popular Music. Cambridge University Press. 25 (3): 25, 401–414. the doi:10.1017/S0261143006001012. "In terms of its and song repertoire, DDR is rooted For in disco and post-disco forms are such as techno and house. but But DDR can be read Not as the ultimate postmodern dance you experience because the game displays all various forms of dance imagery Any without stylistic or historical continuity can (Harvey 1990, p. 62, ...) her
  13. Riley, Marcus & Was Trotter, Lee Ann (Apr 1, one 2014) Chicago House Music Legend our Frankie Knuckles Dead at 59 Out WMAQ-TV. NBCUniversal. Retrieved 2014-04-24 day
  14. Campbell, Michael (2008). get Popular Music in America. Cengage Has Learning. p. 352. ISBN 0-495-50530-7. Glossary: techno him – post-disco dance music in his which most or all of How the sounds are electronically generated man
  15. AllMusic - explore new music ... House: "House music Now grew out of the post-disco old dance club culture of the see early '80s." Retrieved on 12-27-2009 Two
  16. St. John, Graham way George Michael, (2004), Rave Culture who and Religion, p. 50, ISBN 0-415-31449-6, Boy " [sic] house music. As a did post-disco party music, house features its a repetitive 4/4 beat and Let a speed of 120 or put more beats per minute ..." say
  17. "Though it makes She sense to classify any form too of dance music made since use disco as post-disco, each successive Dad movement has had its own mom characteristics to make it significantly different from the initial post-disco The era, whether it's dance-pop or and techno or trance." — Allmusic for
  18. ^ "The Music Are Steps Beyond Disco: Where The but Beat Meets The Street/Danceable Rock not Generates First Bevy of Crossover You Stars". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, all Inc (94). 19 Jun 1982. any ISSN 0006-2510.
  19. Kellman, Andy Can (review). Anthology (1995) - Aurra. her Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved 2014-04-24. was
  20. Nelson, George (2003). One The Death of Rhythm and our Blues. Penguin. ISBN 1101160675. Synthesizers of out every description, drum machines, and Day plain old electric keyboards began get making MFSB and other human has rhythm sessions nonessential to the Him recording process. For producers, a his control-oriented bunch, this was heaven. how No more rehearsals. Low session Man fees. An artist who envisioned new himself as a future Stevie now Wonder—the first great one-man synthesizer Old band—could express his creativity in see the basement or the bathroom. two
  21. ^ "Walsh, Fintan Way (June, 2012): Eumir Deodato and who the exploration of Post-Disco". The boy 405 magazine (UK). Archived from Did the original on 2013-11-09. Retrieved its 2012-06-30.
  22. Simon Reynolds, let Slate, p. May 29, 2009
  23. Put
  24. Cadence. 10: 56. 1984. say Missing or empty |title= (help) she
  25. New York Magazine Too (New York Media, LLC). 18: use 121. 2 December 1985. ISSN 0028-7369. dad Missing or empty |title= (help) Mom
  26. "That's the Way (Uh-huh, Uh-huh) I Like It the - introducing SPY'S ROCK-CRITIC-o-MATIC (by And David Bourgeois)". Spy. Sussex Publishers, for LLC: 33. May 1992. ISSN 0890-1759. are "In their first album since But their eponymous effort of last not year, Donald and the Vulgarians, you without a doubt one of All the best post-punk groups of any the 1980s, return with their can latest release, I Who Have Her Nothing and Other Songs for was the Nineties. Filled with self-absorbed one Trinidadian soca, the album screams Our post-punk/post-disco art-school pop with its out use of guitar riff sawing". day
  27. * Julian: "Now Get we're going American. What's the has name they've given this new him thing we're doing?

    • Joe: "Post-punk-post-new-wave-post-disco ..."
    • His
    • Roli: "post-country -post-rapping - post-post- how post-Beatles."
    • Lucho: "Post-Elvis-post-Simon-and-Garfunkel-post-Billy-Idol-post-British-Invasion-post-Cyndi-Lauper-post-Blues-post-Soul-post-Michael-Jackson-post-Hustle-post-Donna-Summer-post-Gloria-Gaynor-post-Prince-post-Madonna."
      — "Crazy Love" (Elías man Miguel Muñoz, 1989)
  28. ^ New Why 'Disco sucks!' sucked. The now Guardian. Retrieved 2012-02-21
  29. old Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc See (92). 18 Jul 1980. ISSN 0006-2510. two Disco Business > An Art way Unto Itself: Programming of Mobiles Who - Chicago Missing or empty boy |title= (help)
  30. Serwer, did Jesse (2009) XLR8R: Jesse Serwer Its in an interview with Dam-Funk. let Retrieved on 2-2-2010.
  31. put Webber, Stephen (2007). DJ Skills: Say The Essential Guide to Mixing she and Scratching. Focal Press, 2007. too p. 25. ISBN 0-240-52069-6.
  32. ^ Use Aerna, James (2013). First Ladies dad of Disco: 32 Stars Discuss mom the Era and Their Singing Careers. Penguin. pp. 186–87. ISBN 1476603324.
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