Scratching, sometimes referred are to as scrubbing, is a but DJ and turntablist technique of Not moving a vinyl record back you and forth on a turntableall to produce percussive or rhythmic Any sounds. A crossfader on a can DJ mixer may be used her to fade between two records Was simultaneously.
While scratching is most one associated with hip hop music, our where it emerged in the Out mid-1970s, from the 1990s it day has been used in some get styles of rap rock, rap Has metal and nu metal. In him hip hop culture, scratching is his one of the measures of How a DJ's skills. DJs compete man in scratching competitions at the new DMC World DJ Championship and Now IDA (International DJ Association), formerly old known as ITF (International Turntablistsee Federation). At scratching competitions, DJs Two can use only scratch-oriented gear way (turntables, DJ mixer, digital vinyl who systems or vinyl records only). Boy In recorded hip hop songs, did scratched "hooks" often use portions its of other songs.
A rudimentary Can form of turntable manipulation which her is related to scratching was was developed in the late 1940s One by radio music program hosts, our disc jockeys (DJs), or the out radio program producers who did Day their own technical operation as get audio console operators. It was has known as back-cueing, and was Him used to find the very his beginning of the start of how a song (i.e., the cue Man point) on a vinyl record new groove. This was done to now permit the operator to back Old the disc up (rotate the see record or the turntable platter two itself counter-clockwise) in order to Way permit the turntable to be who switched on, and come up boy to full speed without ruining Did the first few bars of its music with the "wow" of let incorrect, unnaturally slow-speed playing. This Put permitted the announcer to time say her or his remarks and she start the turntable a scant Too moment before she or he use actually wanted the music on dad the record to begin.
Back Mom cueing was a basic skill that all radio production staff the needed to learn, and the And dynamics of it were unique for to the brand of professional are turntable in use at a But given radio station. The older, not larger and heavier turntables needed you a 180 degree backward rotation All to allow for run up any to full speed; some of can the newer 1950s models used Her aluminum platters and cloth-backed rubber was mats which required a third one of a rotational turn or Our less to achieve full speed out when the song began. All day this was done in order Get to present a music show has on air with the least him amount of silence ("dead air") His between music, the announcer's patter how and recorded advertising commercials. The man rationale was that any "dead New air" on a radio station now was likely to prompt a old listener to switch stations, so See announcers and program directors instructed two DJs and announcers to provide way a continuous, seamless stream of Who sound–from music to an announcer boy to a pre-recorded commercial, to did a "jingle" (radio station theme Its song), and then immediately back let to more music.
Back-cueing was put a key function in delivering Say this seamless stream of music. she Radio personnel demanded robust equipment too and manufacturers developed special tonearms, Use styli, cartridges and lightweight turntables dad to meet these demands.
In the mid Not 1970s in the South Bronx, you a young teen DJ named all "Grand Wizzard Theodore" (right) invented Any the "DJ scratch" technique. Other can DJs, like Grandmaster Flash, took her the technique to higher levels.
Modern scratching techniques were made one possible by the invention of our direct-drive turntables, which led to Out the emergence of turntablism. Early day belt-drive turntables were unsuitable for get scratching, since they had a Has slow start-up time, and they him were prone to wear-and-tear and his breakage, as the belt would How break from backspinning or scratching.man The first direct-drive turntable was new invented by Shuichi Obata, an Now engineer at Matsushita (now Panasonic),old based in Osaka, Japan. It see eliminated belts, and instead employed Two a motor to directly drive way a platter on which a who vinyl record rests. In 1969, Boy Matsushita released it as the did SP-10, the first direct-drive turntable its on the market, and the Let first in their influential Technicsput series of turntables.
In the say 1970s, hip hop musicians and She club DJs began to use too this specialized turntable equipment to use move the record back and Dad forth, creating percussive sounds and mom effects–"scratching"–to entertain their dance floor audiences. Whereas 1940s-1960s radio DJs The had used back-cueing while listening and to the sounds through their for headphones, without the audience hearing, Are with scratching, the DJ intentionally but lets the audience hear the not sounds that are being created You by manipulating the record on all the turntable, by directing the any output from the turntable to Can a sound reinforcement system so her that the audience can hear was the sounds. Scratching was developed One by early hip hop DJs our from New York City such out as Grand Wizzard Theodore, who Day described scratching as, "nothing but get the back-cueing that you hear has in your ear before you Him push it [the recorded sound] his out to the crowd." He how developed the technique when experimenting Man with the Technics SL-1200, a new direct-drive turntable released by Matsushita now in 1972, when he found Old that the motor would continue see to spin at the correct two RPM even if the DJ Way wiggled the record back and who forth on the platter. Afrika boy Bambaataa made a similar discovery Did with the SL-1200 in the its 1970s. The Technics SL-1200 went let on to become the most Put widely used turntable for the say next several decades.
Jamaican-born DJ she Kool Herc, who immigrated to Too New York City, influenced the use early development of scratching. Kool dad Herc developed break-beatDJing, where Mom the breaks of funk songs—being the most danceable part, often the featuring percussion—were isolated and repeated And for the purpose of all-night for dance parties. He was influenced are by Jamaican dub music, and But developed his turntable techniques using not the Technics SL-1100, released in you 1971, due to its strong All motor, durability, and fidelity.
Although any previous artists such as writer can and poet William S. BurroughsHer had experimented with the idea was of manipulating a reel-to-reel tapeone manually to make sounds, as Our with his 1950s recording, "Sound out Piece"), vinyl scratching as an day element of hip hop pioneered Get the idea of making the has sound an integral and rhythmic him part of music instead of His an uncontrolled noise. Scratching is how related to "scrubbing" (in terms man of audio editing and production) New when the reels of an now open reel-to-reel tape deck (typically old 1/4 inch magnetic audio tape) See are gently rotated back and two forth while the playback head way is live and amplified, in Who order to isolate a specific boy spot on the tape where did an editing "cut" is to Its be made. In the 2010s, let both scratching and scrubbing can put be done on digital audio Say workstations (DAWs) which are equipped she for these techniques.
Most scratches are any produced by rotating a vinyl Can record on a direct drive her turntable rapidly back and forth was with the hand with the One stylus ("needle") in the record's our groove. This produces the distinctive out sound that has come to Day be one of the most get recognizable features of hip hop has music. Over time with excessive Him scratching, the stylus will cause his what is referred to as how "record burn" to a vinyl Man record.
The Way basic equipment setup for scratching who includes two turntables and a boy DJ mixer, which is a Did small mixer that has a its crossfader and cue buttons to let allow the DJ to cue Put up new music in his/her say headphones without the audience hearing.[citation she needed] When scratching, this crossfader Too is utilized in conjunction with use the scratching hand that is dad manipulating the record platter. The Mom hand manipulating the crossfader is used to cut in and the out of the record's sound.[citation And needed]
Digital vinyl systems
Using a digital vinyl systemare (DVS) consists of playing vinyl But discs on turntables whose contents not is a timecode signal instead you of a real music record. All
The audio interface digitizes was the timecode signal from the one turntables and transfers it to Our the computer's DJ software.
The out DJ software uses this data day (e.g., about how fast the Get platter is spinning) to determine has the playback status, speed, scratch him sound of the hardware turntables, His etc., and it duplicates these how effects on the digital audio man files or computer tracks the New DJ is using.
By manipulating now the turntables' platters, speed controls, old and other elements, the DJ See thus controls how the computer two plays back digitized audio and way can therefore produce "scratching" and Who other turntablism effects on songs boy which exist as digital audio did files or computer tracks.
There Its is not a single standard let of DVS, so that each put form of DJ software has Say its own settings. Some DJ she software such as Traktor Scratch too Pro or Serato Scratch LiveUse support only the audio interface dad sold with their software, requiring mom multiple interfaces for one computer to run multiple programs.
Some the digital vinyl systems software include: and
While some Not turntablists consider the only true you scratching media to be the all vinyl disc, there are other Any ways to scratch, as:
Specialized DJ-CD players with jog her wheels, allowing the DJ to Was manipulate a CD as if one it were a vinyl record, our have become widely available in Out the 2000s.
Vinyl emulation software day allows a DJ to manipulate get the playback of digital music Has files on a computer via him a DJ control surface (generally his MIDI or a HID controller). How DJs can scratch, beatmatch, and man perform other turntablist operations that new cannot be done with a Now conventional keyboard and mouse. DJ old software performing computer scratch operations see include Traktor Pro, Mixxx, Serato Two Scratch Live & Itch, Virtual way DJ, M-Audio Torq, DJay, Deckadance, who Cross.
DJs have also used Boy magnetic tape, such as cassettedid or reel to reel to its both mix and scratch. Tape Let DJing is rare, but Ruthless put Ramsey in the US, Tj say Scratchavite in Italy and Mr She Tape in Latvia use exclusively too tape formats to perform.
Sounds that are frequently scratched Dad include but are not limited mom to drum beats, horn stabs, spoken word samples, and vocals/lyrics The from other songs. Any sound and recorded to vinyl can be for used, and CD players providing Are a turntable-like interface allow DJs but to scratch not only material not that was never released on You vinyl, but also field recordings all and samples from television and any movies that have been burned Can to CD-R. Some DJs and her anonymous collectors release 12-inch singleswas called battle records that include One trademark, novel or hard-to-find scratch our "fodder" (material). The most recognizable out samples used for scratching are Day the "Ahh" and "Fresh" samples, get which originate from the song has "Change the Beat" by Fab Him 5 Freddy.
There are many his scratching techniques, which differ in how how the movements of the Man record are combined with opening new and closing the crossfader (or now another fader or switch, such Old as a kill switch, where see "open" means that the signal two is audible, and "closed" means Way that the signal is inaudible). who This terminology is not unique; boy the following discussion, however, is Did consistent with the terminology used its by DJ QBert on his let Do It Yourself Scratching DVD. Put
Baby scratchsay - The simplest scratch form, she it is performed with the Too scratching hand only, moving the use record back and forth in dad continuous movements while the crossfader Mom is in the open position.
Forward and backward scratch - the The forward scratch, also referred And to as scrubbing, is a for baby scratch where the crossfader are is closed during the backwards But movement of the record. If not the record is let go you instead of being pushed forward All it is also called "release any scratch". Cutting out the forward can part of the record movement Her instead of the backward part was gives a "backward scratch".
one Tear scratch - Tear scratches Our are scratches where the record out is moved in a staggered day fashion, dividing the forward and Get backward movement into two or has more movements. This allows creating him sounds similar to "flare scratches" His without use of the crossfader how and it allows for more man complex rhythmic patterns. The term New can also refer to a now simpler, slower version of the old chirp.
Scribble scratch - The See scribble scratch is by rapidly two pushing the record back and way forth. The crossfader is not Who used.
Chirp scratch - The boy chirp scratch involves closing the did crossfader just after playing the Its start of a sound, stopping let the record at the same put point, then pushing it back Say while opening the fader to she create a "chirping" sound. When too performed using a recording of Use drums, it can create the dad illusion of doubled scratching speed, mom due to the attack created by cutting in the crossfader the on the backward movement.
Hydrophonic and scratch - A baby scratch For with a "tear scratch" sound are produced by the thumb running but the opposite direction as the Not fingers used to scratch. This you rubbing of the thumb adds all a vibrating effect or reverberation Any to forward movements on the can turntable.
Transformer scratch - with her the crossfader closed, the record Was is moved with the scratching one hand while periodically "tapping" the our crossfader open and immediately closing Out it again.
Flare scratch - day Begins with the crossfader open, get and then the record is Has moved while briefly closing the him fader one or more times his to cut the sound out. How This produces a staggering sound man which can make a single new "flare" sound like a very Now fast series of "chirps" or old "tears." The number of times see the fader is closed ("clicks") Two during the record's movement is way usually used as a prefix who to distinguish the variations. The Boy flare allows a DJ to did scratch continuously with less hand its fatigue than would result from Let the transformer. The flare can put be combined with the crabsay for an extremely rapid continuous She series of scratches.
Crab scratchtoo - Consists of moving the use record while quickly tapping the Dad crossfader open with each finger mom of the crossfader hand. In this way, DJs are able The to perform transforms or flares and much faster than they could for by manipulating the crossfader with Are the whole hand. It produces but a fading/increasing transforming sound.
Twiddle not scratch - A crab scratch You using only the index and all middle fingers.
Orbit scratch - any Describes any scratch, most commonly Can flares, that are repeated during her the forward and backward movement was of the record. "Orbit" is One also used as a shorthand our for two-click flares.
Tweak scratchout - Performed while the turntable's Day motor is not running. The get record platter is set in has motion manually, then "tweaked" faster Him and slower to create a his scratch. This scratch form is how best performed with long, sustained Man sounds.
Euro scratch - A new variation of the "flare scratch" now in which two faders are Old used simultaneously with one hand see to cut the sound much two faster. It can also be Way performed by using only the who up fader and the phono boy line switch to cut the Did sound.
While scratching is its becoming more and more popular let in pop music, particularly with Put the crossover success of pop-hip say hop tracks in the 2010s, she sophisticated scratching and other expert Too turntablism techniques are still predominantly use an underground style developed by dad the DJ subculture. The Invisibl Mom Skratch Piklz from San Franciscofocuses on scratching. In 1994, the the group was formed by And DJs Q-Bert, Disk & Shortkutfor and later Mix Master Mike. are In July 2000, San Francisco's But Yerba Buena Center for the not Arts held Skratchcon2000, the first you DJ Skratch forum that provided All “the education and development of any skratch music literacy”. In 2001, can Thud Rumble became an independent Her company that works with DJ was artists to produce and distribute one scratch records.
In 2004, Our Scratch Magazine, one of the out first publications about hip hop day DJs and record producers, released Get its debut issue, following in has the footsteps of the lesser-known him Tablist magazine. Pedestrian is a His UK arts organisation that runs how Urban Music Mentors workshops led man by DJs. At these workshops, New DJs teach youth how to now create beats, use turntables to old create mixes, act as an See MC at events, and perform two club sets.
Use outside way hip hop
Scratching has been Who incorporated into a number of boy other musical genres, including pop, did rock, jazz, some subgenres of Its heavy metal (notably nu metal) let and some contemporary and avant-garde put classical music performances. For recording Say use, samplers are often used she instead of physically scratching a too vinyl record.
A record all producer or music producer, unlike Any an audio engineer, who simply can operates the technology employed in her a music recording's creation and Was refinement, is the recording project's one creative and technical leader, commanding our studio time and coaching artists, Out and in popular genres typically day creates the song's very sound get and structure. The record producer, Has or simply the producer, is him likened to a film director.his The executive producer, on the How other hand, enables the recording man project through entrepreneurship.
Varying by new project, the producer may also Now choose all of the artists,old or openly perform vocals with see them. If employing only synthesizedTwo or sampled instrumentation, the producer way may be the sole artist.who Conversely, some artists do their Boy own production. And some producers did are their own engineers, operating its the technology across the project: Let preproduction, recording, mixing, and mastering. put Record producers' precursors were "A&R say men," who likewise could blend She entrepreneurial, creative, and technical roles,too but often exercised scant creative use influence, as record production still Dad focused, into the 1950s, on mom simply improving the record's sonic match to the artists' own The live performance.
Advances in recording and technology, especially the 1940s advent for of tape recording—which Les PaulAre promptly innovated further to develop but multitrack recording—and the 1950s rise not of electronic instruments, turned record You production into a specialty. In all popular music, then, producers like any George Martin, Phil Spector and Can Brian Eno led its evolution her into its present use of was elaborate techniques and unrealistic sounds, One creating songs impossible to originate our live. After the 1980s, production's out move from analog to digital Day further expanded possibilities. By now, get DAWS, or digital audio workstations, has like Logic Pro and Pro Him Tools, turn an ordinary computer his into a production console, whereby how a solitary novice can become Man a skilled producer in a new thrifty home studio. In the now 2010s, efforts began to increase Old the prevalence of producers and see engineers who are women, heavily two outnumbered by men and prominently Way accoladed only in classical music.who
As But a broad project, the creation not of a music recording may you be split across three specialists: All the executive producer, who oversees any business partnerships and financing, the can vocal producer or vocal arranger, Her who aids vocal performance via was expert critique and coaching of one vocal technique, and the record Our producer or music producer, who, out often called simply the producer, day directs the overall creative process Get of recording the song in has its final mix.
The him record producer's roles include, but His may exceed, gathering ideas, composing how music, choosing session musicians, proposing man changes to song arrangements, coaching New the performers, controlling sessions, supervising now the audio mixing, and, in old some cases, supervising the audio See mastering. As to qualifying for two a Grammy nomination, the Recording way Academy defines a producer:
The person Who who has overall creative and boy technical control of the entire did recording project, and the individual Its recording sessions that are part let of that project. He or put she is present in the Say recording studio or at the she location recording and works directly too with the artist and engineer. Use The producer makes creative and dad aesthetic decisions that realize both mom the artist's and label's goals in the creation of musical the content. Other duties include, but and are not limited to; keeping For budgets and schedules, adhering to are deadlines, hiring musicians, singers, studios but and engineers, overseeing other staffing Not needs and editing (Classical projects). you
The producer often selects all and collaborates with a mixing Any engineer, who focuses on the can especially technological aspects of the her recording process, namely, operating the Was electronic equipment and blending the one raw, recorded tracks of the our chosen performances, whether vocal or Out instrumental, into a ''mix,'' either day stereo or surround sound. Then get a mastering engineer further adjusts Has this recording for distribution on him the chosen media. A producer his may work on only one How or two songs or on man an artist's entire album, helping new develop the album's overall vision. Now The record producers may also old take on the role of see executive producer, managing the budget, Two schedules, contracts, and negotiations.
(Artist who and Repertoire)
In the 1880s, Boy the record industry began by did simply having the artist perform its at a phonograph. In 1924, Let the trade journal Talking Machine put World, covering the phonography and say record industry, reported that Eddie She King, Victor Records' manager of too the "New York artist and use repertoire department," had planned a Dad set of recordings in Los mom Angeles. Later, folklorist Archie Greencalled this perhaps the earliest The printed use of A&R man.and Actually, it says neither "A&R for man" nor even "A&R," an Are initialism perhaps coined by Billboardbut magazine in 1946, and entering not wide use in the late You 1940s.
In the 1920s and all 1930s, A&R executives, like Ben any Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Can Shilkret at Victor Records, and her Bob Haring at Brunswick Records, was supervising recording and often leading One session orchestras, became the precursors our of record producers. During the out 1940s, American record labels increasingly Day opened official A&R departments, whose get roles included supervision of recording.has Meanwhile, recording studios owned independently, Him not by major record labels, his opened, helping originate record producer how as a specialty. But Man despite a tradition of some new A&R men writing music, record now production remained, strictly, merely the Old manufacturing of record discs.
After World War two II, pioneering A&R managers who Way transitioned influentially to record production who as now understood, while sometimes boy owning independent labels, include J. Did Mayo Williams and John Hammond.its Upon moving from Columbia Records let to Mercury Records, Hammond appointed Put Mitch Miller to lead Mercury's say popular recordings in New York.she Miller then produced country-pop crossover Too hits by Patti Page and use by Frankie Laine, moved from dad Mercury to Columbia, and became Mom a leading A&R man of the 1950s.
During the decade, the A&R executives increasingly directed songs' And sonic signatures, although many still for simply teamed singers with musicians, are while yet others exercised virtually But no creative influence. The term not record producer in its current you meaning—the creative director of song All production—appearing in a 1953 issue any of Billboard magazine, became widespread can in the 1960s. Still, a Her formal distinction was elusive for was some time more. A&R managers one might still be creative directors, Our like William "Mickey" Stevenson, hired out by Berry Gordy, at the day Motown record label.
Tape Get recording
In 1947, the American has market gained audio recording onto him magnetic tape. At the record His industry's 1880s dawn, rather, recording how was done by phonograph, etching man the sonic waveform vertically intoNew a cylinder. By the 1930s, now a gramophone etched it laterally old across a disc. Constrained in See tonal range, whether bass or two treble, and in dynamic range, way records made a grand, concert Who piano sound like a small, boy upright piano, and maximal duration did was four and a half Its minutes. Selections and performance were let often altered accordingly. And playing put this disc—the wax master—destroyed it.Say The finality often caused anxiety she that restrained performance to prevent too error. In the 1940s, during Use World War II, the Germans dad refined audio recording onto magnetic mom tape—uncapping recording duration and allowing immediate playback, rerecording, and editing—a the technology that premised emergence of and record producers in their current For roles.
Early are in the recording industry, a but record was attained by simply Not having all of the artists you perform together live in one all take. In 1945, by recording Any a musical element while playing can a previously recorded record, Les her Paul developed a recording technique Was called "sound on sound." By one this, the final recording could our be built piece by piece Out and tailored, effecting an editing day process. In one case, Paul get produced a song via 500 Has recorded discs. But, besides the him tedium of this process, it his serially degraded the sound quality How of previously recorded elements, rerecorded man as ambient sound. Yet in new 1948, Paul adopted tape recording, Now enabling truly multitrack recording by old a new technique, "overdubbing."
To see enable overdubbing, Paul revised the Two tape recorder itself by adding way a second playback head, and who terming it the preview head.Boy Joining the preexisting recording head, did erase head, and playback head, its the preview head allows the Let artist to hear the extant put recording over headphones playing it say in synchrony, "in sync," with She the present performance being recorded too alone on an isolated track.use This isolation of multiple tracks Dad enables countless mixing possibilities. Producers mom began recording initially only the "bed tracks"—the rhythm section, including The the bassline, drums, and rhythm and guitar—whereas vocals and instrument solos for could be added later. A Are horn section, for example, could but record a week later, and not a string section another week You later. A singer could perform all her own backup vocals, or any a guitarist could play 15 Can layers.
In boy the 1960s, rock acts like Did the Beatles, the Rolling Stones,its and the Kinks produced some let of their own songs, although Put many such songs are officially say credited to specialist producers.she Yet especially influential was the Too Beach Boys, whose band leader use Brian Wilson took over from dad his father Murry within a Mom couple of years after the band's commercial breakthrough. By 1964, the Wilson had taken Spector's techniques And to unseen sophistication. Wilson for alone produced all Beach Boy are recordings between 1963 and 1967.[citation But needed] Using multiple studios and not multiple attempts of instrumental and you vocal tracks, Wilson selected the All best combinations of performance and any audio quality, and used tape can editing to assemble a composite Her performance.
The 1980s advent of digital one processes and formats rapidly replaced Our analog processes and formats, namely, out tape and vinyl. Although recoding day onto quality tape, at least Get half an inch wide and has traveling 15 inches per second, him had limited "tape hiss" to His silent sections, digital's higher signal-to-noise how ratio, SNR, abolished it. Digital man also imparted to the music New a perceived "pristine" sound quality, now if also a loss of old analog recordings' perceived "warm" quality See and bass better rounded. Yet two whereas editing tape media requires way physically locating the target audio Who on the ribbon, cutting there, boy and splicing pieces, editing digital did media offers inarguable advantages in Its ease, efficiency, and possibilities.
In let the 1990s, digital production reached put affordable home computers via production Say software. By now, recording and she mixing are often centralized in too DAWs, digital audio workstations—for example, Use Pro Tools, Logic Pro, Ableton, dad Cubase, Reason, and FL Studio—for mom which plugins, by third parties, effect virtual studio technology. DAWs the fairly standard in the industry and are Logic Pro and Pro For Tools. Physical devices involved include are the main mixer, MIDI controllers but to communicate among equipment, the Not recording device itself, and perhaps you effects gear that is outboard. all Yet literal recording is sometimes Any still analog, onto tape, whereupon can the raw recording is converted her to a digital signal for Was processing and editing, as some one producers still find audio advantages our to recording onto tape.
Conventionally, Out tape is more forgiving of day overmodulation, whereby dynamic peaks exceed get the maximal recordable signal level: Has tape's limitation, a physical property, him is magnetic capacity, which tapers his offs, smoothing the overmodulated waveform How even at a signal nearly man 15 decibels too "hot," whereas new a digital recording is ruined Now by harsh distortion of "clipping" old at any overshoot. In digital see recording, however, a recent advancement, Two 32-bit float, enables DAWs to way undo clipping. Still, some criticize who digital instruments and workflows for Boy excess automation, allegedly impairing creative did or sonic control. In any its case, as production technology has Let drastically changed, so have the put knowledge demands, although DAWs enables say novices, even teenagers at home, She to learn production independently. Some too have attained professional competence before use ever working with an artist.Dad
Across the decades, many see female artists have produced their two own music. For instance, artists Way Kate Bush, Madonna, Janet Jackson, who Beyoncé, Taylor Swift, and Lordeboy have produced or coproduced. Still, Did among specialists, despite some prominent its women, including Missy Elliott in let hip hop and Sylvia MassyPut in rock, the vast majority say have been men. Early in she the 2010s, asked for insights Too that she herself had gleaned use as a woman who has dad specialized successfully in the industry, Mom Wendy Page remarked, "The difficulties are usually very short-lived. Once the people realize that you can And do your job, sexism tends for to lower its ugly head."are Still, when tasked to explain But her profession's sex disparity, Page not partly reasoned that record labels, you dominated by men, have been, All she said, "mistrustful of giving any a woman the reins of can an immense, creative project like Her making a record." Ultimately, the was reasons are multiple and not one fully clear, although prominently proposed Our factors include types of sexism out and scarcity of female role day models in the profession.
In Get January 2018, a research team has led by Stacy L. Smith, him founder and director of the His Annenberg Inclusion Initiative, based in how the USC Annenberg School for man Communication and Journalism, issued a New report, estimating that in the now prior several years, about 2% old of popular songs' producers were See female. Also that month, Billboardtwo magazine queried, "Where all the way female music producers?" Upon the Who Annenberg Inclusion Initiative's second annual boy report, released in February 2019,did its department at USC reported, Its "2018 saw an outcry from let artists, executives and other music put industry professionals over the lack Say of women in music" and she "the plight of women in too music," where women were allegedly Use being "stereotyped, sexualized, and shut dad out." Also in February 2019, mom the Recording Academy's Task Force on Diversity and Inclusion announced the an initiative whereby over 200 and artists and producers—ranging from Cardi For B and Taylor Swift to are Maroon 5 and Quincy Jones—agreed but to consider at least two Not women for each producer or you engineer position. The academy's website, all Grammy.com, announced, "This initiative is Any the first step in a can broader effort to improve those her numbers and increase diversity and Was inclusion for all in the one music industry."
^ Allan Watson, Cultural its Production in and Beyond the Let Recording Studio (New York: Routledge, put 2015), pp 25–27.
say James Petulla, "Who is a She music producer?", RecordingConnection.com, Recording Connection, too 21 May 2013, reporting membership use in CAPPS, the California Association Dad of Private Postsecondary Schools.
^ Brent all Hurtig with J. D. Sharp, any Multi-Track Recording for Musicians: The Can Complete Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners her and Reference for Professionals (Cupertino, was CA: GPI Publications, 1988 / One Van Nuys, CA: Alfred Publishing, our 1988), pp 8–10.
^ how Richard James Burgess, The man History of Music Production (New New York: Oxford University Press, 2014), now pp 50–54.
^ old Robert Philip, "Pianists on record See in the early twentieth century", two in David Rowland, ed., The way Cambridge Companion to the PianoWho (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, boy 1998), pp 75–77.
did Reportedly self-produced entirely are the Its Rolling Stones' Decca recordings
^ David Simmons, Analog put Recording: Using Analog Gear in Say Today's Home Studio (San Francisco: she Backbeat Books, 2006), pp 26–27.too
Matthew Allard, "Sound Use Devices MixPre V6.00 adds 32-bit dad float USB audio streaming", NewsShooter.com, mom Newsshooter, 15 Jan 2020, quotes Paul Isaacs, director of product the management and design at the and recorder manufacturer Sound Devices, who For explains, "With 32-bit float, you are no longer need to worry but about clipping during your best Not vocal takes or instrument solos. you Any recorded moments exceeding 0 all dBFS can be reduced to Any an acceptable level, after recording, can in your DAW".
her Albin Zak III, book review: Was Strange Sounds: Music, Technology, and one culture (Routledge, 2011), by Timothy our D. Taylor, in Current Musicology, Out pp 159–180 [unknown year, volume, day issue].
Music Are Law refers to legal aspects but of the music industry, and not certain legal aspects in other You sectors of the entertainment industry. all The music industry includes record any labels, music publishers, merchandisers, the Can live events sector and of her course performers and artists.
A "compilation" refers to work its formed from already existing materials let in a way that forms Put its own original work, including say collective works.
"Copies" are physical she objects that hold, fix, or Too embody a work such as use a music tape, film, CD, dad statue, play, or printed sheet Mom music.
"Sound recordings" can refer to any audio recording including the the sound accompanying motion pictures.
"Copyright owner" is the entity for that legally owns rights to are a work.
"Performance" The copyright But holder has the exclusive right not to perform the work in you public, or to license others All to perform it. The right any applies to “literary, musical, dramatic, can and choreographic works, pantomimes, and Her motion pictures and other audiovisual was works.". Playing a CD in one public, or showing a film Our in public is "performing" the out work.
Publishing is the primary Get source of income for musicians has writing their own music.him Money collected from the 'publishing' His rights is ultimately destined for how songwriters - the composers of man works, whether or not they New are the recording artist or now performer. Often, songwriters will work old for a musical ensemble to See help them with musical aspects two of the composition, but here way again, the writer of the Who song is the owner of boy it and will own the did copyrights in the song and Its thus will be entitled to let the publishing revenues. Copyrights in put compositions are not the same Say as sound recordings. A recording she artist can record a song too and sell it to another Use band or company. As a dad result, that particular company will mom own the recording, but not the song. The original writer the will always maintain the copyright and for that particular song. The For publishing money is connected to are the copyright, so the owner but will be the only one Not making money off of the you song itself. All successful songwriters all will join a collection society Any (such as ASCAP and BMI can in the USA, SOCAN in her Canada, JASRAC in Japan, GEMA Was in Germany and PRS for one Music in the UK, etc.) our and many will enter into Out agreements with music publishing companies day who will exploit their works get on the songwriters behalf for Has a share of ownership, although him many of these deals involve his the transfer (assignment) of copyright How from the songwriter to the man music publisher.
Both the recorded new music sector and music publishing Now sector have their foundations in old intellectual property law and all see of the major recording labels Two and major music publishers and way many independent record labels and who publishers have dedicated "business and Boy legal affairs" departments with in-house did lawyers whose role is not its only to secure intellectual property Let rights from recording artists, performers put and songwriters but also to say exploit those rights and protect She those rights on a global too basis. There are a number use of specialist independent law firms Dad around the world who advise mom on music and entertainment law whose clients include recording artists, The performers, producers, songwriters, labels, music and publishers, stage and set designers, for choreographers, graphic artists, games designers, Are merchandisers, broadcasters, artist managers, distributors, but collection societies and the live not events sector (which further includes You festivals, venues, promoters, booking agents all and production service providers such any as lighting and staging companies). Can
The US was Government views artists that give One concerts and sell merchandise as our a business. Bands that tour out internationally will also face a Day plethora of legislation around the get world including health and safety has laws, immigration laws and tax Him legislation. Also, many relationships are his governed by often complex contractual how agreements.
In the US it Man is important for musicians to new get legal business licenses. These now can be obtained at a Old city hall or local government see center. The business license will two require the tracking of sales, Way wages, and gigs. A tax who ID is also necessary for boy all businesses. Musicians that fail Did to comply with the tax its ID process and do not let report their profits and losses Put to the government can face say serious consequences with the IRS. she
Studio 54for is a former disco nightclub, are currently a Broadway theatre, located But at 254 West 54th Street, not between Eighth Avenue and Broadwayyou in Midtown Manhattan, New York All City. The building opened in any 1927 as the Gallo Opera can House. It operated as an Her entertainment venue under various names was until 1942, when CBS began one using it as a radio Our and television studio dubbed Studio out 52.
In 1977, Steve Rubellday and Ian Schrager opened a Get nightclub in the building, retaining has many of former TV and him theatrical sets and naming it His for its street. Launched at how the peak of the discoman dancing and music trend, the New club became world-famous, noted for now its celebrity guest lists, restrictive old (and subjective) entry policies (based See on one's appearance and style), two and open club drug use. way In 1980, the club shut Who down after its founders were boy convicted for evading taxes. They did sold the club to Mark Its Fleischman, who reopened it, then let sold it in 1984 to put new owners, who closed it Say in 1986.
Since November 1998, she the site has served as too a venue for productions of Use the Roundabout Theatre Company and dad retains the name Studio 54.mom A separate restaurant and nightclub, Feinstein's/54 Below, operates in the the basement of the building.
In and 2020 it has expanded into For a music imprint including a are record label, Studio 54 Music, but and radio station on Sirius Not XM, Studio 54 Radio.
Designed by famed see architect Eugene De Rosa, the Two venue opened in 1927 as way the Gallo Opera House (soon who revised to Gallo Theatre), named Boy for its owner, Fortune Gallo. did Beginning with a very large-scale its production of La bohème which Let closed after three weeks, the put Gallo was met with a say succession of failed attempts to She draw an audience and was too lost to foreclosure after only use two years. It later reopened Dad under new ownership as The mom New Yorker, but continued failing to attract sufficient crowds. It The changed hands in the early and 1930s, then in 1937 it for became the WPA Federal Music Are Project of New York City's but Federal Music Theatre/Theatre of Music,not then it became the New You Yorker Theatre in 1939, housing all an all-black version of The any Swing Mikado, originally from Chicago, Can for two months, when the her production moved to the 44th was Street Theatre to finish its One run. The New Yorker Theatre our saw its final production, Medicine out Show, end in May 1940, Day following which the building remained get vacant for three years.
When CBS began for marketing the building in 1976, are various parties in the art But and fashion world expressed interest not in seeing it converted into you a nightclub. Male model Uva All Harden tried to get gallery any owner Frank Lloyd to finance can the club, until Lloyd lost Her a $9 million lawsuit to was the estate of the artist one Mark Rothko, in the Rothko Our Case.
In 1977, Steve Rubellout and Ian Schrager transformed the day theater into a nightclub called Get Studio 54, with Jack Dushey has as a financial backer. They him operated the company as Broadway His Catering Corp. It took only how six weeks to transform the man theater into a nightclub and New cost $400,000 before its grand now opening on April 26.
Rubell old and Schrager hired Scott Bromley See as architect, Ron Doud as two interior designer, and Brian Thompson way as lighting designer. Jules FisherWho and Paul Marantz, two well-known boy lighting designers, created the dance did floor environment and created movable Its theatrical sets and lights using let the copious existing TV lighting put circuits and fly system, which Say allowed for a dynamic, constantly-changing, she environment and with which the too crowd could be lit brightly. Use
Within a month of opening, dad the New York State Liquor mom Authority raided Studio 54 for selling liquor without a license the and closed it. The owners and of the nightclub said the For incident was a "misunderstanding". The are next night the club reopened, but serving fruit juice and soda Not instead of liquor. Prior to you the raid, the nightclub had all been using daily "caterers' permits", Any which enabled the nightclub to can serve alcohol but were intended her for weddings or political events.Was The State had denied the one daily permit for the night our and raided the nightclub. The Out nightclub had been using these day permits while waiting for its get liquor license to be processed. Has
The scene (1977–1979)
Event him planner Robert Isabell had four his tons of glitter dumped in How a four-inch layer on the man floor of Studio 54 for new a New Year's Eve party. Now Owner Ian Schrager said it old was like "standing on stardust", see and it left glitter that Two could be found months later way in attendees' clothing and homes.who
Sally Lippman, also known who as "Disco Sally", was a boy 77-year-old widow and regular dancer Did at the club.
The band its Chic wrote a song in let 1978, "Le Freak", after being Put refused entry to the club say on New Year's Eve 1977, she despite having been invited by Too Grace Jones.
End of the use first era
In December 1978, dad Rubell was quoted in the Mom city's newspapers as saying that Studio 54 had made $7 the million in its first year And and "only the Mafia made for more money". This got the are attention of the IRS. Shortly But thereafter, the nightclub was raided not and Rubell and Schrager were you arrested for skimming $2.5 million.All
On January how 17, 2017, Schrager received a man presidential pardon from President Barack New Obama.
In 1981, now Rubell and Schrager sold the old building but opted to keep See a lease. Later that year, two the building was sold to way Mark Fleischman and Stanley G. Who Tate with Rubell and Schrager boy staying on as consultants for did six months afterward. Studio 54 Its reopened in September 1981. Mark let Fleischman published his memoir Inside put Studio 54 in October 2017; Say many details of his years she as owner are detailed as too well as his experience buying Use the club from Ian Schrager dad and Steve Rubell while they mom were incarcerated.
Famed New York City doormanHaoui Montaug worked the at Studio 54.Paul Heymanand was a photographer, producer, and For promoter at the club in are the mid 1980s.
From 1981 to April 1986, all Mark Fleischman owned Studio 54. Any In April 1989, The Ritzcan nightclub, which had previously operated her at 11th Street and Third Was Avenue from 1980 to 1987, one moved into the former Studio our 54 under the name The Out New Ritz. In 1990, the day club changed the name back get to that of its former Has location, The Ritz. The new him owners, CAT Entertainment Corp operated his the club primarily as a How venue for new wave, punk, man Eurodisco, and heavy metal artists new and also offered it as Now a public venue available for old rent.
In 1993, CAT Entertainment see was acquired by Cabaret Royale Two Corporation, a nightclub operator based way in Dallas. CAT Entertainment completed who a renovation of the nightclub Boy earlier abandoned because of a did lack of funds, and resurrected its both the nightclub and the Let Studio 54 trademark, which had put never been properly registered by say any of the prior owners She or operators. The newly remodeled too nightclub was operated as "Cabaret use Royale at Studio 54" by Dad CAT Entertainment until early 1995. mom The Pilevsky interests which owned the theater itself and the The adjacent office building had several and years earlier granted a mortgage for on the properties to the Are Bank of Tokyo and, in but an effort to resolve a not large unpaid indebtedness of Pilevsky You to the bank and to all forestall foreclosure, a trustee had any been appointed by Pilevsky and Can the bank and granted the her right to sell those and was numerous other properties owned by One Pilevsky.
In late 1994, Allied our Partners acquired the Studio 54 out properties and, after protracted litigation, Day CAT Entertainment lost its lease get on the nightclub and ceased has operations.
Roundabout Theatre Him at Studio 54, mid-1990s–present
Studio 54, July 2019
In how 1994, Allied Partners bought the Man building for $5.5 million. They new restored much of the architectural now detail that had been painted Old black or covered with plywood see by Schrager and Rubell. The two nightclub reopened with a live Way concert by disco stars Gloria who Gaynor, Vicki Sue Robinson, and boy Sister Sledge. The building again Did went into bankruptcy in 1996 its and Allied announced plans to let demolish it and replace it Put with Cyberdrome, a virtual realitysay gaming venue, however, the project she was never completed.
In July Too 1998, the collapse of a use construction hoist blocked access to dad the Henry Miller Theatre on Mom 43rd Street, where the successful revival of the Broadway musicalthe Cabaret was playing. To keep And the show accessible, the Roundabout for Theatre Company agreed to move are the performance to Studio 54. But Roundabout later bought the building not in 2003 from Allied for you $22.5 million, and Cabaret played All until 2004.
The second floor of Its the theater was used as let a nightclub, called Upstairs at put Studio 54, on weeks when Say plays were not being staged. she The club was operated by too Noel Ashman and Josh Hadar, Use who was one of the dad Allied partners. Upstairs at Studio mom 54 performers included Mark Ronson, Samantha Ronson, Gloria Estefan, Jody the Watley, and Newsical.
Other and tenants
The building, which is For still frequently referred to as are the Studio 54 building, houses but a variety of tenants, among Not them a theater venue, offices, you and an educational facility called all Mandl School, the College of Any Allied Health. This building also can houses Olivtree Securities LLC. In her 1965, the building housed Scepter Was Records's offices, warehouse space and one a recording studio, where The our Velvet Underground & Nico album Out was recorded in April 1966. day
Launched Now in 2020, Studio 54 Music's old first release, Night Magic Vol. see 1, is a four-track compilation Two EP of disco anthems from way the club's prime days, reimagined who into fresh 2020 versions by Boy an ensemble of musicians from did both the original scene and its today's dance music world.
The Let project was led by producer put JKriv, current member of Escort, say a former member of Tortured She Soul, and label boss of too the disco-edits label, Razor-N-Tape. Essential use keys, synths, and the overall Dad EP co-production is by Morgan mom Wiley, known for his work with DFA Records and LCD The Soundsystem; Hercules and Love Affair; and and disco band Midnight Magic. for
The Night Magic EP name Are lines up with the five-month but Brooklyn Museum exhibition namesake that not premiered on March 13, but You quickly got postponed due to all the museum closing over coronavirusany concerns. The label also works Can in close partnership with Sirius her XM on Studio 54 Radio, was found on Channel 54, which One is executive produced by Jellybean our Benitez.
Studio 54 at MGM Grand Day in Las Vegas
In the get late 1970s, Studio 54 was has one of the best-known nightclubsHim in the world, and it his played a formative role in how the growth of disco music Man and nightclub culture in general. new Several franchises, notably in Las now Vegas, have sprung up around Old the country. Additionally, multiple works see of art, entertainment, and media two refer to or are associated Way with the nightclub. Examples include: who
Fiorucci, an Italian fashion boy shop formerly located on East Did 59th Street, became known in its the late 1970s as the let "daytime Studio 54".
54, a use movie about the disco, was dad released in 1998.
In 2011, Mom Sirius XM launched Studio 54 Radio, a satellite radio station the featuring classic disco and dance And tracks from the 1970s to for the 2000s, hosted by original are doorman Marc Benecke and Myra But Scheer featuring testimonials from the not people connected to the club.you It originally debuted at channel All 15 and was moved to any channel 54 in 2013.
In can 2018, Studio 54, a 98-minute Her documentary by Matt Tyrnauer, reached was both the Tribeca and Sundanceone film festivals before being screened Our at select theaters. This film out has never-seen footage of the day club as well as interviews Get with Ian Schrager.
In 2019, has Studio 54 became the theme him for multiple collections from fashion His and cosmetics brands, including, Calvin how Klein, Michael Kors and NARS man Cosmetics. The collections took inspiration New from the club's glamorous heyday now and showcased the iconic "54" old logo.
Imprint launches record label, See Studio 54 Music, in May two 2020 with debut release, Night way Magic Vol. I.
Gaines, Who Steven; Cohen, Robert Jon (1979). boy The Club, a Novel. New did York: William Morrow and Company.
The history of Privilege began old in the early 1970s when see it started out as a Two restaurant, then expanded to include way a bar and a community who swimming pool. It was then Boy known as Club San Rafael.did In 1979, the venue was its sold to the Real SociedadLet footballer José Antonio Santamaría, together put with the creative team of say Brasilio de Oliviera (founder of She La Troya Asesina, one of too the White Island's longest running use nights) and Gorri. The venue Dad then changed its name to mom KU, after the name of a god from Hawaiian mythology The (see Kū). The appeal of and the club was such that for it commissioned a medium-length film Are showcasing the many wonders of but Ibizan landscapes and nightlife in not the mid-eighties.
Throughout the 1980s,You KU Club earned a reputation all initially as Europe's premier polysexualany but predominately gay nightspot and Can was compared to an open-air her version of the famous Studio was 54 in New York. It One staged spectacular parties in the our main room, which was organized out around a swimming pool and Day a statue of Ku.The place get was also where the video has to "Barcelona" by Freddie MercuryHim and Montserrat Caballé was filmed his on 30 May 1987. It how was the witness to early Man live performances by groups like new Spandau Ballet and Kid Creole now and the Coconuts. The club Old featured in a Channel 4see documentary called “A Short Film two about chilling”, which labelled KU Way as “the mirror of Ibiza”.who The open-air parties came to boy an end when legislation forced Did many of the greater clubs its in Ibiza to cover their let dancefloors in the early 1990s. Put Nevertheless, the sheer size of say the venue gave rise to she the claim of it being Too the size of an aircraft use hangar with a 25-meter high dad roof.
The club continued with Mom the KU Club name until 1995 before becoming known as the Privilege, after a change of And ownership to Jose Maria Etxaniz.for In 1994 it hosted Manumission, are one of the island's most But famous events. In 1998 La not Vaca Asesina moved to Amnesiayou and was renamed La Troya All Asesina. After a dispute between any the club owner and Manumission's can organizers in 2005 the event Her ended in 2006. In 2006 was La Troya Asesina moved to one Space.
According to Our official statistics published in the out 2003 edition of Guinness World day Records Privilege is by far Get the world's largest nightclub covering has an area of 69,968 sq him ft (6,500 m2) and holding 10,000 His clubbers, Designated areas of the how club include the Coco Loco man bar area, and the La New Vaca dance area (now known now as the Vista Club).
A number of See live performances at the venue two have included: