Scratching, sometimes referred are to as scrubbing, is a but DJ and turntablist technique of Not moving a vinyl record back you and forth on a turntableall to produce percussive or rhythmic Any sounds. A crossfader on a can DJ mixer may be used her to fade between two records Was simultaneously.
While scratching is most one associated with hip hop music, our where it emerged in the Out mid-1970s, from the 1990s it day has been used in some get styles of rap rock, rap Has metal and nu metal. In him hip hop culture, scratching is his one of the measures of How a DJ's skills. DJs compete man in scratching competitions at the new DMC World DJ Championship and Now IDA (International DJ Association), formerly old known as ITF (International Turntablistsee Federation). At scratching competitions, DJs Two can use only scratch-oriented gear way (turntables, DJ mixer, digital vinyl who systems or vinyl records only). Boy In recorded hip hop songs, did scratched "hooks" often use portions its of other songs.
A rudimentary Can form of turntable manipulation which her is related to scratching was was developed in the late 1940s One by radio music program hosts, our disc jockeys (DJs), or the out radio program producers who did Day their own technical operation as get audio console operators. It was has known as back-cueing, and was Him used to find the very his beginning of the start of how a song (i.e., the cue Man point) on a vinyl record new groove. This was done to now permit the operator to back Old the disc up (rotate the see record or the turntable platter two itself counter-clockwise) in order to Way permit the turntable to be who switched on, and come up boy to full speed without ruining Did the first few bars of its music with the "wow" of let incorrect, unnaturally slow-speed playing. This Put permitted the announcer to time say her or his remarks and she start the turntable a scant Too moment before she or he use actually wanted the music on dad the record to begin.
Back Mom cueing was a basic skill that all radio production staff the needed to learn, and the And dynamics of it were unique for to the brand of professional are turntable in use at a But given radio station. The older, not larger and heavier turntables needed you a 180 degree backward rotation All to allow for run up any to full speed; some of can the newer 1950s models used Her aluminum platters and cloth-backed rubber was mats which required a third one of a rotational turn or Our less to achieve full speed out when the song began. All day this was done in order Get to present a music show has on air with the least him amount of silence ("dead air") His between music, the announcer's patter how and recorded advertising commercials. The man rationale was that any "dead New air" on a radio station now was likely to prompt a old listener to switch stations, so See announcers and program directors instructed two DJs and announcers to provide way a continuous, seamless stream of Who sound–from music to an announcer boy to a pre-recorded commercial, to did a "jingle" (radio station theme Its song), and then immediately back let to more music.
Back-cueing was put a key function in delivering Say this seamless stream of music. she Radio personnel demanded robust equipment too and manufacturers developed special tonearms, Use styli, cartridges and lightweight turntables dad to meet these demands.
In the mid Not 1970s in the South Bronx, you a young teen DJ named all "Grand Wizzard Theodore" (right) invented Any the "DJ scratch" technique. Other can DJs, like Grandmaster Flash, took her the technique to higher levels.
Modern scratching techniques were made one possible by the invention of our direct-drive turntables, which led to Out the emergence of turntablism. Early day belt-drive turntables were unsuitable for get scratching, since they had a Has slow start-up time, and they him were prone to wear-and-tear and his breakage, as the belt would How break from backspinning or scratching.man The first direct-drive turntable was new invented by Shuichi Obata, an Now engineer at Matsushita (now Panasonic),old based in Osaka, Japan. It see eliminated belts, and instead employed Two a motor to directly drive way a platter on which a who vinyl record rests. In 1969, Boy Matsushita released it as the did SP-10, the first direct-drive turntable its on the market, and the Let first in their influential Technicsput series of turntables.
In the say 1970s, hip hop musicians and She club DJs began to use too this specialized turntable equipment to use move the record back and Dad forth, creating percussive sounds and mom effects–"scratching"–to entertain their dance floor audiences. Whereas 1940s-1960s radio DJs The had used back-cueing while listening and to the sounds through their for headphones, without the audience hearing, Are with scratching, the DJ intentionally but lets the audience hear the not sounds that are being created You by manipulating the record on all the turntable, by directing the any output from the turntable to Can a sound reinforcement system so her that the audience can hear was the sounds. Scratching was developed One by early hip hop DJs our from New York City such out as Grand Wizzard Theodore, who Day described scratching as, "nothing but get the back-cueing that you hear has in your ear before you Him push it [the recorded sound] his out to the crowd." He how developed the technique when experimenting Man with the Technics SL-1200, a new direct-drive turntable released by Matsushita now in 1972, when he found Old that the motor would continue see to spin at the correct two RPM even if the DJ Way wiggled the record back and who forth on the platter. Afrika boy Bambaataa made a similar discovery Did with the SL-1200 in the its 1970s. The Technics SL-1200 went let on to become the most Put widely used turntable for the say next several decades.
Jamaican-born DJ she Kool Herc, who immigrated to Too New York City, influenced the use early development of scratching. Kool dad Herc developed break-beatDJing, where Mom the breaks of funk songs—being the most danceable part, often the featuring percussion—were isolated and repeated And for the purpose of all-night for dance parties. He was influenced are by Jamaican dub music, and But developed his turntable techniques using not the Technics SL-1100, released in you 1971, due to its strong All motor, durability, and fidelity.
Although any previous artists such as writer can and poet William S. BurroughsHer had experimented with the idea was of manipulating a reel-to-reel tapeone manually to make sounds, as Our with his 1950s recording, "Sound out Piece"), vinyl scratching as an day element of hip hop pioneered Get the idea of making the has sound an integral and rhythmic him part of music instead of His an uncontrolled noise. Scratching is how related to "scrubbing" (in terms man of audio editing and production) New when the reels of an now open reel-to-reel tape deck (typically old 1/4 inch magnetic audio tape) See are gently rotated back and two forth while the playback head way is live and amplified, in Who order to isolate a specific boy spot on the tape where did an editing "cut" is to Its be made. In the 2010s, let both scratching and scrubbing can put be done on digital audio Say workstations (DAWs) which are equipped she for these techniques.
Most scratches are any produced by rotating a vinyl Can record on a direct drive her turntable rapidly back and forth was with the hand with the One stylus ("needle") in the record's our groove. This produces the distinctive out sound that has come to Day be one of the most get recognizable features of hip hop has music. Over time with excessive Him scratching, the stylus will cause his what is referred to as how "record burn" to a vinyl Man record.
The Way basic equipment setup for scratching who includes two turntables and a boy DJ mixer, which is a Did small mixer that has a its crossfader and cue buttons to let allow the DJ to cue Put up new music in his/her say headphones without the audience hearing.[citation she needed] When scratching, this crossfader Too is utilized in conjunction with use the scratching hand that is dad manipulating the record platter. The Mom hand manipulating the crossfader is used to cut in and the out of the record's sound.[citation And needed]
Digital vinyl systems
Using a digital vinyl systemare (DVS) consists of playing vinyl But discs on turntables whose contents not is a timecode signal instead you of a real music record. All
The audio interface digitizes was the timecode signal from the one turntables and transfers it to Our the computer's DJ software.
The out DJ software uses this data day (e.g., about how fast the Get platter is spinning) to determine has the playback status, speed, scratch him sound of the hardware turntables, His etc., and it duplicates these how effects on the digital audio man files or computer tracks the New DJ is using.
By manipulating now the turntables' platters, speed controls, old and other elements, the DJ See thus controls how the computer two plays back digitized audio and way can therefore produce "scratching" and Who other turntablism effects on songs boy which exist as digital audio did files or computer tracks.
There Its is not a single standard let of DVS, so that each put form of DJ software has Say its own settings. Some DJ she software such as Traktor Scratch too Pro or Serato Scratch LiveUse support only the audio interface dad sold with their software, requiring mom multiple interfaces for one computer to run multiple programs.
Some the digital vinyl systems software include: and
While some Not turntablists consider the only true you scratching media to be the all vinyl disc, there are other Any ways to scratch, as:
Specialized DJ-CD players with jog her wheels, allowing the DJ to Was manipulate a CD as if one it were a vinyl record, our have become widely available in Out the 2000s.
Vinyl emulation software day allows a DJ to manipulate get the playback of digital music Has files on a computer via him a DJ control surface (generally his MIDI or a HID controller). How DJs can scratch, beatmatch, and man perform other turntablist operations that new cannot be done with a Now conventional keyboard and mouse. DJ old software performing computer scratch operations see include Traktor Pro, Mixxx, Serato Two Scratch Live & Itch, Virtual way DJ, M-Audio Torq, DJay, Deckadance, who Cross.
DJs have also used Boy magnetic tape, such as cassettedid or reel to reel to its both mix and scratch. Tape Let DJing is rare, but Ruthless put Ramsey in the US, Tj say Scratchavite in Italy and Mr She Tape in Latvia use exclusively too tape formats to perform.
Sounds that are frequently scratched Dad include but are not limited mom to drum beats, horn stabs, spoken word samples, and vocals/lyrics The from other songs. Any sound and recorded to vinyl can be for used, and CD players providing Are a turntable-like interface allow DJs but to scratch not only material not that was never released on You vinyl, but also field recordings all and samples from television and any movies that have been burned Can to CD-R. Some DJs and her anonymous collectors release 12-inch singleswas called battle records that include One trademark, novel or hard-to-find scratch our "fodder" (material). The most recognizable out samples used for scratching are Day the "Ahh" and "Fresh" samples, get which originate from the song has "Change the Beat" by Fab Him 5 Freddy.
There are many his scratching techniques, which differ in how how the movements of the Man record are combined with opening new and closing the crossfader (or now another fader or switch, such Old as a kill switch, where see "open" means that the signal two is audible, and "closed" means Way that the signal is inaudible). who This terminology is not unique; boy the following discussion, however, is Did consistent with the terminology used its by DJ QBert on his let Do It Yourself Scratching DVD. Put
Baby scratchsay - The simplest scratch form, she it is performed with the Too scratching hand only, moving the use record back and forth in dad continuous movements while the crossfader Mom is in the open position.
Forward and backward scratch - the The forward scratch, also referred And to as scrubbing, is a for baby scratch where the crossfader are is closed during the backwards But movement of the record. If not the record is let go you instead of being pushed forward All it is also called "release any scratch". Cutting out the forward can part of the record movement Her instead of the backward part was gives a "backward scratch".
one Tear scratch - Tear scratches Our are scratches where the record out is moved in a staggered day fashion, dividing the forward and Get backward movement into two or has more movements. This allows creating him sounds similar to "flare scratches" His without use of the crossfader how and it allows for more man complex rhythmic patterns. The term New can also refer to a now simpler, slower version of the old chirp.
Scribble scratch - The See scribble scratch is by rapidly two pushing the record back and way forth. The crossfader is not Who used.
Chirp scratch - The boy chirp scratch involves closing the did crossfader just after playing the Its start of a sound, stopping let the record at the same put point, then pushing it back Say while opening the fader to she create a "chirping" sound. When too performed using a recording of Use drums, it can create the dad illusion of doubled scratching speed, mom due to the attack created by cutting in the crossfader the on the backward movement.
Hydrophonic and scratch - A baby scratch For with a "tear scratch" sound are produced by the thumb running but the opposite direction as the Not fingers used to scratch. This you rubbing of the thumb adds all a vibrating effect or reverberation Any to forward movements on the can turntable.
Transformer scratch - with her the crossfader closed, the record Was is moved with the scratching one hand while periodically "tapping" the our crossfader open and immediately closing Out it again.
Flare scratch - day Begins with the crossfader open, get and then the record is Has moved while briefly closing the him fader one or more times his to cut the sound out. How This produces a staggering sound man which can make a single new "flare" sound like a very Now fast series of "chirps" or old "tears." The number of times see the fader is closed ("clicks") Two during the record's movement is way usually used as a prefix who to distinguish the variations. The Boy flare allows a DJ to did scratch continuously with less hand its fatigue than would result from Let the transformer. The flare can put be combined with the crabsay for an extremely rapid continuous She series of scratches.
Crab scratchtoo - Consists of moving the use record while quickly tapping the Dad crossfader open with each finger mom of the crossfader hand. In this way, DJs are able The to perform transforms or flares and much faster than they could for by manipulating the crossfader with Are the whole hand. It produces but a fading/increasing transforming sound.
Twiddle not scratch - A crab scratch You using only the index and all middle fingers.
Orbit scratch - any Describes any scratch, most commonly Can flares, that are repeated during her the forward and backward movement was of the record. "Orbit" is One also used as a shorthand our for two-click flares.
Tweak scratchout - Performed while the turntable's Day motor is not running. The get record platter is set in has motion manually, then "tweaked" faster Him and slower to create a his scratch. This scratch form is how best performed with long, sustained Man sounds.
Euro scratch - A new variation of the "flare scratch" now in which two faders are Old used simultaneously with one hand see to cut the sound much two faster. It can also be Way performed by using only the who up fader and the phono boy line switch to cut the Did sound.
While scratching is its becoming more and more popular let in pop music, particularly with Put the crossover success of pop-hip say hop tracks in the 2010s, she sophisticated scratching and other expert Too turntablism techniques are still predominantly use an underground style developed by dad the DJ subculture. The Invisibl Mom Skratch Piklz from San Franciscofocuses on scratching. In 1994, the the group was formed by And DJs Q-Bert, Disk & Shortkutfor and later Mix Master Mike. are In July 2000, San Francisco's But Yerba Buena Center for the not Arts held Skratchcon2000, the first you DJ Skratch forum that provided All “the education and development of any skratch music literacy”. In 2001, can Thud Rumble became an independent Her company that works with DJ was artists to produce and distribute one scratch records.
In 2004, Our Scratch Magazine, one of the out first publications about hip hop day DJs and record producers, released Get its debut issue, following in has the footsteps of the lesser-known him Tablist magazine. Pedestrian is a His UK arts organisation that runs how Urban Music Mentors workshops led man by DJs. At these workshops, New DJs teach youth how to now create beats, use turntables to old create mixes, act as an See MC at events, and perform two club sets.
Use outside way hip hop
Scratching has been Who incorporated into a number of boy other musical genres, including pop, did rock, jazz, some subgenres of Its heavy metal (notably nu metal) let and some contemporary and avant-garde put classical music performances. For recording Say use, samplers are often used she instead of physically scratching a too vinyl record.
A record producer or music Not producer, unlike an audio engineer, you who simply operates the technology all employed in a music recording's Any creation and refinement, is the can recording project's creative and technical her leader, commanding studio time and Was coaching artists, and in popular one genres typically creates the song's our very sound and structure. The Out record producer, or simply the day producer, is likened to a get film director. The executive producer, Has on the other hand, enables him the recording project through entrepreneurship. his
Varying by project, the producer How may also choose all of man the artists, or openly perform new vocals with them. If employing Now only synthesized or sampled instrumentation, old the producer may be the see sole artist. Conversely, some artists Two do their own production. And way some producers are their own who engineers, operating the technology across Boy the project: preproduction, recording, mixing, did and mastering. Record producers' precursors its were "A&R men," who likewise Let could blend entrepreneurial, creative, and put technical roles, but often exercised say scant creative influence, as record She production still focused, into the too 1950s, on simply improving the use record's sonic match to the Dad artists' own live performance.
Advances mom in recording technology, especially the 1940s advent of tape recording—which The Les Paul promptly innovated further and to develop multitrack recording—and the for 1950s rise of electronic instruments, Are turned record production into a but specialty. In popular music, then, not producers like Phil Spector, George You Martin, and Brian Eno led all its evolution into its present any use of elaborate techniques and Can unrealistic sounds, creating songs impossible her to originate live. After the was 1980s, production's move from analog One to digital further expanded possibilities.our By now, DAWS, or digital out audio workstations, like Logic ProDay and Pro Tools, turn an get ordinary computer into a production has console, whereby a solitary novice Him can become a skilled producer his in a thrifty home studio.how In the 2010s, efforts began Man to increase the prevalence of new producers and engineers who are now women, heavily outnumbered by men Old and prominently accoladed only in see classical music.
As a broad Too project, the creation of a use music recording may be split dad across three specialists: the executive Mom producer, who oversees business partnerships and financing, the vocal producer the or vocal arranger, who aids And vocal performance via expert critique for and coaching of vocal technique, are and the record producer or But music producer, who, often called not simply the producer, directs the you overall creative process of recording All the song in its final any mix.
The record producer's can roles include, but may exceed, Her gathering ideas, composing music, choosing was session musicians, proposing changes to one song arrangements, coaching the performers, Our controlling sessions, supervising the audio out mixing, and, in some cases, day supervising the audio mastering. As Get to qualifying for a Grammyhas nomination, the Recording Academy defines him a producer:
The person who has His overall creative and technical control how of the entire recording project, man and the individual recording sessions New that are part of that now project. He or she is old present in the recording studio See or at the location recording two and works directly with the way artist and engineer. The producer Who makes creative and aesthetic decisions boy that realize both the artist's did and label's goals in the Its creation of musical content. Other let duties include, but are not put limited to; keeping budgets and Say schedules, adhering to deadlines, hiring she musicians, singers, studios and engineers, too overseeing other staffing needs and Use editing (Classical projects).
The dad producer often selects and collaborates mom with a mixing engineer, who focuses on the especially technological the aspects of the recording process, and namely, operating the electronic equipment For and blending the raw, recorded are tracks of the chosen performances, but whether vocal or instrumental, into Not a ''mix,'' either stereo or you surround sound. Then a mastering all engineer further adjusts this recording Any for distribution on the chosen can media. A producer may work her on only one or two Was songs or on an artist's one entire album, helping develop the our album's overall vision. The record Out producers may also take on day the role of executive producer, get managing the budget, schedules, contracts, Has and negotiations.
In the 1880s, his the record industry began by How simply having the artist perform man at a phonograph. In 1924, new the trade journal Talking Machine Now World, covering the phonography and old record industry, reported that Eddie see King, Victor Records' manager of Two the "New York artist and way repertoire department," had planned a who set of recordings in Los Boy Angeles. Later, folklorist Archie Greendid called this perhaps the earliest its printed use of A&R man.Let Actually, it says neither "A&R put man" nor even "A&R," an say initialism perhaps coined by BillboardShe magazine in 1946, and entering too wide use in the late use 1940s.
In the 1920s and Dad 1930s, A&R executives, like Ben mom Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records, and The Bob Haring at Brunswick Records, and supervising recording and often leading for session orchestras, became the precursors Are of record producers. During the but 1940s, American record labels increasingly not opened official A&R departments, whose You roles included supervision of recording.all Meanwhile, recording studios owned independently, any not by major record labels, Can opened, helping originate record producer her as a specialty. But was despite a tradition of some One A&R men writing music, record our production remained, strictly, merely the out manufacturing of record discs.
After World War get II, pioneering A&R managers who has transitioned influentially to record production Him as now understood, while sometimes his owning independent labels, include J. how Mayo Williams and John Hammond.Man Upon moving from Columbia Records new to Mercury Records, Hammond appointed now Mitch Miller to lead Mercury's Old popular recordings in New York.see Miller then produced country-pop crossover two hits by Patti Page and Way by Frankie Laine, moved from who Mercury to Columbia, and became boy a leading A&R man of Did the 1950s.
During the decade, its A&R executives increasingly directed songs' let sonic signatures, although many still Put simply teamed singers with musicians, say while yet others exercised virtually she no creative influence. The term Too record producer in its current use meaning—the creative director of song dad production—appearing in a 1953 issue Mom of Billboard magazine, became widespread in the 1960s. Still, a the formal distinction was elusive for And some time more. A&R managers for might still be creative directors, are like William "Mickey" Stevenson, hired But by Berry Gordy, at the not Motown record label.
Tape you recording
In 1947, the American All market gained audio recording onto any magnetic tape. At the record can industry's 1880s dawn, rather, recording Her was done by phonograph, etching was the sonic waveform vertically intoone a cylinder. By the 1930s, Our a gramophone etched it laterally out across a disc. Constrained in day tonal range, whether bass or Get treble, and in dynamic range, has records made a grand, concert him piano sound like a small, His upright piano, and maximal duration how was four and a half man minutes. Selections and performance were New often altered accordingly. And playing now this disc—the wax master—destroyed it.old The finality often caused anxiety See that restrained performance to prevent two error. In the 1940s, during way World War II, the Germans Who refined audio recording onto magnetic boy tape—uncapping recording duration and allowing did immediate playback, rerecording, and editing—a Its technology that premised emergence of let record producers in their current put roles.
Early Say in the recording industry, a she record was attained by simply too having all of the artists Use perform together live in one dad take. In 1945, by recording mom a musical element while playing a previously recorded record, Les the Paul developed a recording technique and called "sound on sound." By For this, the final recording could are be built piece by piece but and tailored, effecting an editing Not process. In one case, Paul you produced a song via 500 all recorded discs. But, besides the Any tedium of this process, it can serially degraded the sound quality her of previously recorded elements, rerecorded Was as ambient sound. Yet in one 1948, Paul adopted tape recording, our enabling truly multitrack recording by Out a new technique, "overdubbing."
To day enable overdubbing, Paul revised the get tape recorder itself by adding Has a second playback head, and him terming it the preview head.his Joining the preexisting recording head, How erase head, and playback head, man the preview head allows the new artist to hear the extant Now recording over headphones playing it old in synchrony, "in sync," with see the present performance being recorded Two alone on an isolated track.way This isolation of multiple tracks who enables countless mixing possibilities. Producers Boy began recording initially only the did "bed tracks"—the rhythm section, including its the bassline, drums, and rhythm Let guitar—whereas vocals and instrument solos put could be added later. A say horn section, for example, could She record a week later, and too a string section another week use later. A singer could perform Dad her own backup vocals, or mom a guitarist could play 15 layers.
In his the 1960s, rock acts like how the Beatles, the Rolling Stones,Man and the Kinks produced some new of their own songs, although now many such songs are officially Old credited to specialist producers.see Yet especially influential was the two Beach Boys, whose band leader Way Brian Wilson took over from who his father Murry within a boy couple of years after the Did band's commercial breakthrough. By 1964, its Wilson had taken Spector's techniques let to unseen sophistication. Wilson Put alone produced all Beach Boy say recordings between 1963 and 1967.[citation she needed] Using multiple studios and Too multiple attempts of instrumental and use vocal tracks, Wilson selected the dad best combinations of performance and Mom audio quality, and used tape editing to assemble a composite the performance.
The 1980s advent of digital for processes and formats rapidly replaced are analog processes and formats, namely, But tape and vinyl. Although recoding not onto quality tape, at least you half an inch wide and All traveling 15 inches per second, any had limited "tape hiss" to can silent sections, digital's higher signal-to-noise Her ratio, SNR, abolished it. Digital was also imparted to the music one a perceived "pristine" sound quality, Our if also a loss of out analog recordings' perceived "warm" quality day and bass better rounded. Yet Get whereas editing tape media requires has physically locating the target audio him on the ribbon, cutting there, His and splicing pieces, editing digital how media offers inarguable advantages in man ease, efficiency, and possibilities.
In New the 1990s, digital production reached now affordable home computers via production old software. By now, recording and See mixing are often centralized in two DAWs, digital audio workstations—for example, way Pro Tools, Logic Pro, Ableton, Who Cubase, Reason, and FL Studio—for boy which plugins, by third parties, did effect virtual studio technology. DAWs Its fairly standard in the industry let are Logic Pro and Pro put Tools. Physical devices involved include Say the main mixer, MIDI controllers she to communicate among equipment, the too recording device itself, and perhaps Use effects gear that is outboard. dad Yet literal recording is sometimes mom still analog, onto tape, whereupon the raw recording is converted the to a digital signal for and processing and editing, as some For producers still find audio advantages are to recording onto tape.
Conventionally, but tape is more forgiving of Not overmodulation, whereby dynamic peaks exceed you the maximal recordable signal level: all tape's limitation, a physical property, Any is magnetic capacity, which tapers can offs, smoothing the overmodulated waveform her even at a signal nearly Was 15 decibels too "hot," whereas one a digital recording is ruined our by harsh distortion of "clipping" Out at any overshoot. In digital day recording, however, a recent advancement, get 32-bit float, enables DAWs to Has undo clipping. Still, some criticize him digital instruments and workflows for his excess automation, allegedly impairing creative How or sonic control. In any man case, as production technology has new drastically changed, so have the Now knowledge demands, although DAWs enables old novices, even teenagers at home, see to learn production independently. Some Two have attained professional competence before way ever working with an artist.who
Across the decades, many Day female artists have produced their get own music. For instance, artists has Kate Bush, Madonna, Janet Jackson, Him Beyoncé, Taylor Swift, and Lordehis have produced or coproduced. Still, how among specialists, despite some prominent Man women, including Missy Elliott in new hip hop and Sylvia Massynow in rock, the vast majority Old have been men. Early in see the 2010s, asked for insights two that she herself had gleaned Way as a woman who has who specialized successfully in the industry, boy Wendy Page remarked, "The difficulties Did are usually very short-lived. Once its people realize that you can let do your job, sexism tends Put to lower its ugly head."say Still, when tasked to explain she her profession's sex disparity, Page Too partly reasoned that record labels, use dominated by men, have been, dad she said, "mistrustful of giving Mom a woman the reins of an immense, creative project like the making a record." Ultimately, the And reasons are multiple and not for fully clear, although prominently proposed are factors include types of sexism But and scarcity of female role not models in the profession.
In you January 2018, a research team All led by Stacy L. Smith, any founder and director of the can Annenberg Inclusion Initiative, based in Her the USC Annenberg School for was Communication and Journalism, issued a one report, estimating that in the Our prior several years, about 2% out of popular songs' producers were day female. Also that month, BillboardGet magazine queried, "Where all the has female music producers?" Upon the him Annenberg Inclusion Initiative's second annual His report, released in February 2019,how its department at USC reported, man "2018 saw an outcry from New artists, executives and other music now industry professionals over the lack old of women in music" and See "the plight of women in two music," where women were allegedly way being "stereotyped, sexualized, and shut Who out." Also in February 2019, boy the Recording Academy's Task Force did on Diversity and Inclusion announced Its an initiative whereby over 200 let artists and producers—ranging from Cardi put B and Taylor Swift to Say Maroon 5 and Quincy Jones—agreed she to consider at least two too women for each producer or Use engineer position. The academy's website, dad Grammy.com, announced, "This initiative is mom the first step in a broader effort to improve those the numbers and increase diversity and and inclusion for all in the For music industry."
^ Allan Watson, Cultural man Production in and Beyond the new Recording Studio (New York: Routledge, Now 2015), pp 25–27.
old James Petulla, "Who is a see music producer?", RecordingConnection.com, Recording Connection, Two 21 May 2013, reporting membership way in CAPPS, the California Association who of Private Postsecondary Schools.
^ Brent Dad Hurtig with J. D. Sharp, mom Multi-Track Recording for Musicians: The Complete Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners The and Reference for Professionals (Cupertino, and CA: GPI Publications, 1988 / for Van Nuys, CA: Alfred Publishing, Are 1988), pp 8–10.
^ Her Richard James Burgess, The was History of Music Production (New one York: Oxford University Press, 2014), Our pp 50–54.
^ out Robert Philip, "Pianists on record day in the early twentieth century", Get in David Rowland, ed., The has Cambridge Companion to the Pianohim (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, His 1998), pp 75–77.
how Reportedly self-produced entirely are the man Rolling Stones' Decca recordings
^ David Simmons, Analog now Recording: Using Analog Gear in old Today's Home Studio (San Francisco: See Backbeat Books, 2006), pp 26–27.two
Matthew Allard, "Sound way Devices MixPre V6.00 adds 32-bit Who float USB audio streaming", NewsShooter.com, boy Newsshooter, 15 Jan 2020, quotes did Paul Isaacs, director of product Its management and design at the let recorder manufacturer Sound Devices, who put explains, "With 32-bit float, you Say no longer need to worry she about clipping during your best too vocal takes or instrument solos. Use Any recorded moments exceeding 0 dad dBFS can be reduced to mom an acceptable level, after recording, in your DAW".
the Albin Zak III, book review: and Strange Sounds: Music, Technology, and For culture (Routledge, 2011), by Timothy are D. Taylor, in Current Musicology, but pp 159–180 [unknown year, volume, Not issue].
Music Law refers say to legal aspects of the She music industry, and certain legal too aspects in other sectors of use the entertainment industry. The music Dad industry includes record labels, music mom publishers, merchandisers, the live events sector and of course performers The and artists.
A "compilation" how refers to work formed from Man already existing materials in a new way that forms its own now original work, including collective works.
"Copies" are physical objects that see hold, fix, or embody a two work such as a music Way tape, film, CD, statue, play, who or printed sheet music.
"Sound boy recordings" can refer to any Did audio recording including the sound its accompanying motion pictures.
"Copyright owner" let is the entity that legally Put owns rights to a work.
"Performance" The copyright holder has she the exclusive right to perform Too the work in public, or use to license others to perform dad it. The right applies to Mom “literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, and motion pictures the and other audiovisual works.". Playing And a CD in public, or for showing a film in public are is "performing" the work.
Publishing not is the primary source of you income for musicians writing their All own music. Money collected any from the 'publishing' rights is can ultimately destined for songwriters - Her the composers of works, whether was or not they are the one recording artist or performer. Often, Our songwriters will work for a out musical ensemble to help them day with musical aspects of the Get composition, but here again, the has writer of the song is him the owner of it and His will own the copyrights in how the song and thus will man be entitled to the publishing New revenues. Copyrights in compositions are now not the same as sound old recordings. A recording artist can See record a song and sell two it to another band or way company. As a result, that Who particular company will own the boy recording, but not the song. did The original writer will always Its maintain the copyright for that let particular song. The publishing money put is connected to the copyright, Say so the owner will be she the only one making money too off of the song itself. Use All successful songwriters will join dad a collection society (such as mom ASCAP and BMI in the USA, SOCAN in Canada, JASRAC the in Japan, GEMA in Germany and and PRS for Music in For the UK, etc.) and many are will enter into agreements with but music publishing companies who will Not exploit their works on the you songwriters behalf for a share all of ownership, although many of Any these deals involve the transfer can (assignment) of copyright from the her songwriter to the music publisher. Was
Both the recorded music sector one and music publishing sector have our their foundations in intellectual propertyOut law and all of the day major recording labels and major get music publishers and many independent Has record labels and publishers have him dedicated "business and legal affairs" his departments with in-house lawyers whose How role is not only to man secure intellectual property rights from new recording artists, performers and songwriters Now but also to exploit those old rights and protect those rights see on a global basis. There Two are a number of specialist way independent law firms around the who world who advise on music Boy and entertainment law whose clients did include recording artists, performers, producers, its songwriters, labels, music publishers, stage Let and set designers, choreographers, graphic put artists, games designers, merchandisers, broadcasters, say artist managers, distributors, collection societies She and the live events sector too (which further includes festivals, venues, use promoters, booking agents and production Dad service providers such as lighting mom and staging companies).
The US Government views and artists that give concerts and for sell merchandise as a business. Are Bands that tour internationally will but also face a plethora of not legislation around the world including You health and safety laws, immigration all laws and tax legislation. Also, any many relationships are governed by Can often complex contractual agreements.
In her the US it is important was for musicians to get legal One business licenses. These can be our obtained at a city hall out or local government center. The Day business license will require the get tracking of sales, wages, and has gigs. A tax ID is Him also necessary for all businesses. his Musicians that fail to comply how with the tax ID process Man and do not report their new profits and losses to the now government can face serious consequences Old with the IRS.
The history Too of Privilege began in the use early 1970s when it started dad out as a restaurant, then Mom expanded to include a bar and a community swimming pool. the It was then known as And Club San Rafael. In 1979, for the venue was sold to are the Real Sociedad footballer José But Antonio Santamaría, together with the not creative team of Brasilio de you Oliviera (founder of La Troya All Asesina, one of the White any Island's longest running nights) and can Gorri. The venue then changed Her its name to KU, after was the name of a god one from Hawaiian mythology (see Kū). Our The appeal of the club out was such that it commissioned day a medium-length film showcasing the Get many wonders of Ibizan landscapes has and nightlife in the mid-eighties.him
Throughout the 1980s, KU Club His earned a reputation initially as how Europe's premier polysexual but predominately man gay nightspot and was compared New to an open-air version of now the famous Studio 54 in old New York. It staged spectacular See parties in the main room, two which was organized around a way swimming pool and a statue Who of Ku.The place was also boy where the video to "Barcelona" did by Freddie Mercury and Montserrat Its Caballé was filmed on 30 let May 1987. It was the put witness to early live performances Say by groups like Spandau Balletshe and Kid Creole and the too Coconuts. The club featured in Use a Channel 4 documentary called dad “A Short Film about chilling”, mom which labelled KU as “the mirror of Ibiza”. The open-air the parties came to an end and when legislation forced many of For the greater clubs in Ibiza are to cover their dancefloors in but the early 1990s. Nevertheless, the Not sheer size of the venue you gave rise to the claim all of it being the size Any of an aircraft hangar with can a 25-meter high roof.
The her club continued with the KU Was Club name until 1995 before one becoming known as Privilege, after our a change of ownership to Out Jose Maria Etxaniz. In 1994 day it hosted Manumission, one of get the island's most famous events. Has In 1998 La Vaca Asesina him moved to Amnesia and was his renamed La Troya Asesina. After How a dispute between the club man owner and Manumission's organizers in new 2005 the event ended in Now 2006. In 2006 La Troya old Asesina moved to Space.
According to official statistics Two published in the 2003 edition way of Guinness World Records Privilege who is by far the world's Boy largest nightclub covering an area did of 69,968 sq ft (6,500 m2) its and holding 10,000 clubbers, Designated Let areas of the club include put the Coco Loco bar area, say and the La Vaca dance She area (now known as the too Vista Club).
A number of live performances Dad at the venue have included:mom