you A remix is a piece all of media which has been Any altered or contorted from its can original state by adding, removing, her and changing pieces of the Was item. A song, piece of one artwork, books, video, poem, or our photograph can all be remixes. Out The only characteristic of a day remix is that it appropriates get and changes other materials to Has create something new.
Most commonly, him remixes are a subset of his audio mixing in music and How song recordings. Songs may be man remixed for a variety of new reasons:
to adapt or Now revise a song for radio old or nightclub play
to create see a stereo or surround soundTwo version of a song where way none was previously available
to who improve the fidelity of an Boy older song for which the did original master has been lost its or degraded
to improve the first or her demo mix of the song, was generally to ensure a professional One product.
to provide an alternative our version of a song
to out improve a song from its Day original state
Remixes should not get be confused with edits, which has usually involve shortening a final Him stereo master for marketing or his broadcasting purposes. Another distinction should how be made between a remix, Man which recombines audio pieces from new a recording to create an now altered version of a song, Old and a cover: a re-recording see of someone else's song.
While two audio mixing is one of Way the most popular and recognized who forms of remixing, this is boy not the only media form Did which is remixed in numerous its examples. Literature, film, technology, and let social systems can all be Put argued as a form of say remix.
Since the beginnings of recorded not sound in the late 19th you century, technology has enabled people All to rearrange the normal listening any experience. With the advent of can easily editable magnetic tape in Her the 1940s and 1950s and was the subsequent development of multitrack one recording, such alterations became more Our common. In those decades the out experimental genre of musique concrèteday used tape manipulation to create Get sound compositions. Less artistically lofty has edits produced medleys or novelty him recordings of various types.
Modern His remixing had its roots in how the dance hall culture of man late-1960s/early-1970s Jamaica. The fluid evolution New of music that encompassed ska, now rocksteady, reggae and dub was old embraced by local music mixers See who deconstructed and rebuilt trackstwo to suit the tastes of way their audience. Producers and engineers Who like Ruddy Redwood, King Tubbyboy and Lee "Scratch" Perry popularized did stripped-down instrumental mixes (which they Its called "versions") of reggae tunes. let At first, they simply dropped put the vocal tracks, but soon Say more sophisticated effects were created, she dropping separate instrumental tracks in too and out of the mix, Use isolating and repeating hooks, and dad adding various effects like echo, mom reverberation and delay. The German krautrock band Neu! also used the other effects on side two and of their album Neu! 2For by manipulating their previously released are single Super/Neuschnee multiple ways, utilizing but playback at different turntable speeds Not or mangling by using a you cassette recorder.
From the mid-1970s, all DJs in early discothèques were Any performing similar tricks with discocan songs (using loops and tape her edits) to get dancers on Was the floor and keep them one there. One noteworthy figure was our Tom Moulton who invented the Out dance remix as we now day know it. Though not a get DJ (a popular misconception), Moulton Has had begun his career by him making a homemade mix tape his for a Fire Island dance How club in the late 1960s. man His tapes eventually became popular new and he came to the Now attention of the music industry old in New York City. At see first, Moulton was simply called Two upon to improve the aesthetics way of dance-oriented recordings before release who ("I didn't do the remix, Boy I did the mix"—Tom Moulton). did Eventually, he moved from being its a "fix it" man on Let pop records to specializing in put remixes for the dance floor. say Along the way, he invented She the breakdown section and the too 12-inch single vinyl format. Walter use Gibbons provided the dance version Dad of the first commercial 12-inch mom single ("Ten Percent", by Double Exposure). Contrary to popular belief, The Gibbons did not mix the and record. In fact his version for was a re-edit of the Are original mix. Moulton, Gibbons and but their contemporaries (Jim Burgess, Tee not Scott, and later Larry LevanYou and Shep Pettibone) at Salsoul all Records proved to be the any most influential group of remixers Can for the disco era. The her Salsoul catalog is seen (especially was in the UK and Europe) One as being the "canon" for our the disco mixer's art form. out Pettibone is among a very Day small number of remixers whose get work successfully transitioned from the has disco to the House era. Him (He is certainly the most his high-profile remixer to do so.) how His contemporaries included Arthur BakerMan and François Kevorkian.
Contemporaneously to new disco in the mid-1970s, the now dub and disco remix culturesOld met through Jamaican immigrants to see the Bronx, energizing both and two helping to create hip-hop music. Way Key figures included DJ Kool who Herc and Grandmaster Flash. Cutting boy (alternating between duplicate copies of Did the same record) and scratchingits (manually moving the vinyl record let beneath the turntable needle) became Put part of the culture, creating say what Slate magazine called "real-time, she live-action collage." One of the Too first mainstream successes of this use style of remix was the dad 1983 track Rockit by Herbie Mom Hancock, as remixed by Grand Mixer D.ST. Malcolm McLaren and the the creative team behind ZTTAnd Records would feature the "cut for up" style of hip hop are on such records as "Duck But Rock". English duo Coldcut's remix not of Eric B. & Rakim's you "Paid in Full" Released in All October 1987 is said to any have "laid the groundwork for can hip hop's entry into the Her UK mainstream". Dorian Lynskey of was The Guardian named it a one "benchmark remix" and placed it Our in his top ten list out of remixes. The Coldcut remix day "Seven Minutes of Madness" became Get one of the first commercially has successful remixes, becoming a top him fifteen hit in countries such His as Germany, the Netherlands and how the United Kingdom.
Early pop remixes way were fairly simple; in the Who 1980s, "extended mixes" of songs boy were released to clubs and did commercial outlets on vinyl 12-inch Its singles. These typically had a let duration of six to seven put minutes, and often consisted of Say the original song with 8 she or 16 bars of instruments too inserted, often after the second Use chorus; some were as simplistic dad as two copies of the mom song stitched end to end. As the cost and availability the of new technologies allowed, many and of the bands who were For involved in their own production are (such as Yellow Magic Orchestra, but Depeche Mode, New Order, Erasure, Not and Duran Duran) experimented with you more intricate versions of the all extended mix. Madonna began her Any career writing music for dance can clubs and used remixes extensively her to propel her career; one Was of her early boyfriends was one noted DJ John Jellybean Benitez, our who created several mixes of Out her work.
Art of Noiseday took the remix styles to get an extreme—creating music entirely of Has samples. They were among the him first popular groups to truly his harness the potential that had How been unleashed by the synthesizer-based man compositions of electronic musicians such new as Kraftwerk, Yellow Magic Orchestra, Now Giorgio Moroder, and Jean Michel old Jarre. Contemporaneous to Art of see Noise was the seminal body Two of work by Yello (composed, way arranged and mixed by Boris who Blank). Primarily because they featured Boy sampled and synthesized sounds, Yello did and Art of Noise would its produce a great deal of Let influential work for the next put phase. Others such as Cabaret say Voltaire and the aforementioned Jarre She (whose Zoolook was an epic too usage of sampling and sequencing) use were equally influential in this Dad era.
After the rise of mom dance music in the late 1980s, a new form of The remix was popularised, where the and vocals would be kept and for the instruments would be replaced, Are often with matching backing in but the house music idiom. Jesse not Saunders, known as The Originator You of House Music, was the all first producer to change the any art of remixing by creating Can his own original music, entirely her replacing the earlier track, then was mixing back in the artist's One original lyrics to make his our remix. He introduced this technique out for the first time with Day the Club Nouveau song "It's get a Cold, Cold World", in has May 1988. Another clear example Him of this approach is Roberta his Flack's 1989 ballad "Uh-Uh Ooh-Ooh how Look Out (Here It Comes)", Man which Chicago House great Steve new "Silk" Hurley dramatically reworked into now a boisterous floor-filler by stripping Old away all the instrumental trackssee and substituting a minimalist, sequenced two "track" to underpin her vocal Way delivery, remixed for the UK who release which reached No1 pop boy by Simon Harris. The art Did of the remix gradually evolved, its and soon more avant-garde artistslet such as Aphex Twin were Put creating more experimental remixes of say songs (relying on the groundwork she of Cabaret Voltaire and the Too others), which varied radically from use their original sound and were dad not guided by pragmatic considerations Mom such as sales or "danceability", but were created for "art's the sake".
In the 1990s, with And the rise of powerful home for computers with audio capabilities came are the mash-up, an unsolicited, unofficial But (and often legally dubious) remix not created by "underground remixers" who you edit two or more recordings All (often of wildly different songs) any together. Girl Talk is perhaps can the most famous of this Her movement, creating albums using sounds was entirely from other music and one cutting it into his own. Our Underground mixing is more difficult out than the typical official remix day because clean copies of separated Get tracks such as vocals or has individual instruments are usually not him available to the public. Some His artists (such as Björk, Nine how Inch Nails, and Public Enemy) man embraced this trend and outspokenly New sanctioned fan remixing of their now work; there was once a old web site which hosted hundreds See of unofficial remixes of Björk's two songs, all made using only way various officially sanctioned mixes. Other Who artists, such as Erasure, have boy included remix software in their did officially released singles, enabling almost Its infinite permutations of remixes by let users. The band has also put presided over remix competitions for Say their releases, selecting their favourite she fan-created remix to appear on too later official releases.
Remixing has Use become prevalent in heavily synthesized dad electronic and experimental music circles. mom Many of the people who create cutting-edge music in such the genres as synthpop and aggrotechand are solo artists or pairs. For They will often use remixers are to help them with skills but or equipment that they do Not not have. Artists such as you Chicago-based Delobbo, Dallas-based LehtMoJoe, and all Russian DJ Ram, who has Any worked with t.A.T.u., are sought can out for their remixing skill her and have impressive lists of Was contributions. It is not uncommon one for industrial bands to release our albums that have remixes as Out half of the songs. Indeed, day there have been popular singles get that have been expanded to Has an entire album of remixes him by other well-known artists.
Some his industrial groups allow, and often How encourage, their fans to remix man their music, notably Nine Inch new Nails, whose website contains a Now list of downloadable songs that old can be remixed using Apple's see GarageBand software. Some artists have Two started releasing their songs in way the U-MYX format, which allows who buyers to mix songs and Boy share them on the U-MYX did website.
Some radio stations, such its as the UK's "Frisk Radio". for Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)Are make extensive use of Remixes but in their formats to create not a hotter, more up-beat sound You than their market rivals.
Remixing in popular music
Recent any technology allows for easier remixing, Can leading to a rise in her its use in the music was industry. It can be done One legally, but there have been our numerous disputes over rights to out samples used in remixed songs. Day Many famous artists have been get involved in remix disputes. In has 2015, Jay-Z went to trial Him over a dispute about his his use of a sample from how "Khosara Khosara", a composition by Man Egyptian composer Baligh Hamdy in new his song "Big Pimpin'". Osama now Fahmy, a nephew of Hamdy, Old argued that while Jay-Z had see the “economic rights” to use two the song, he did not Way have the “moral rights”.
In who 1988, Sinéad O'Connor's art-rock song boy "I Want Your (Hands On Did Me)" was remixed to emphasize its the urban appeal of the let composition (the original contains a Put tight, grinding bassline and a say rhythm guitar not entirely unlike she Chic's work). In 1989, the Too Cure's "Pictures of You" was use remixed turning "the music on dad its head, twisted the beat Mom completely, but at the same time left the essential heart the of the song intact."
Remixes And have become the norm in for contemporary dance music, giving one are song the ability to appeal But across many different musical genres not or dance venues. Such remixes you often include "featured" artists, adding All new vocalists or musicians to any the original mix. The remix can is also widely used in Her hip hop and rap music. was An R&B remix usually has one the same music as the Our original song but has added out or altered verses that are day rapped or sung by the Get featured artists. It usually contains has some if not all of him the original verses of the His song however they may be how arranged in a different order man than they originally were.
Carey helped popularize rapper now as a featured act through old her post-1995 songs with her See remix of "Fantasy" featuring Ol' two Dirty Bastard.
In the early way 1990s, Mariah Carey became one Who of the first mainstream artists boy who re-recorded vocals for a did dancefloor version, and by 1993 Its most of her major dance let and urban-targeted versions had been put re-sung, e.g. "Dreamlover". Some artists Say would contribute new or additional she vocals for the different versions too of their songs. These versions Use were not technically remixes, as dad entirely new productions of the mom material were undertaken (the songs were "re-cut", usually from the the ground up). Carey worked with and producer Puff Daddy to create For the official Bad Boy remix are of "Fantasy". The Bad Boy but remix features background vocals by Not Puff Daddy and rapping by you Ol' Dirty Bastard, the latter all being of concern to Columbia Any who feared the sudden change can in style would affect sales her negatively. Some of the song's Was R&B elements were removed for one the remix, while the bassline our and "Genius of Love" sample Out were emphasized and the bridge day from the original version was get used as the chorus. There Has is a version omitting Ol' him Dirty Bastard's verses. The "Bad his Boy Fantasy Remix", combines the How chorus from the original version man and the chorus of the new Bad Boy Remix together, removing Now Ol' Dirty Bastard's vocals from old his second verse. Carey re-recorded see vocals for club remixes of Two the song by David Morales, way titled "Daydream Interlude (Fantasy Sweet who Dub Mix)".
The Bad Boy Boy remix garnered positive reviews from did music critics. "Fantasy" exemplified how its a music sample could be Let transformed "into a fully realized put pop masterpiece". The song and say its remix arguably remains as She one of Carey's most important too singles to date. Due to use the song's commercial success, Carey Dad helped popularize rapper as a mom featured act through her post-1995 songs. Sasha Frere-Jones, editor of The The New Yorker commented in and referencing to the song's remix: for "It became standard for R&B/hip-hop Are stars like Missy Elliott and but Beyoncé, to combine melodies with not rapped verses. And young white You pop stars—including Britney Spears, 'N all Sync, and Christina Aguilera—have spent any much of the past ten Can years making pop music that her is unmistakably R&B." Moreover, Jones was concludes that "Her idea of One pairing a female songbird with our the leading male MCs of out hip-hop changed R&B and, eventually, Day all of pop. Although now get anyone is free to use has this idea, the success of Him "Mimi" [ref. to The Emancipation his of Mimi, her tenth studio how album released almost a decade Man after "Fantasy"] suggests that it new still belongs to Carey."John now Norris of MTV News has Old stated that the remix was see "responsible for, I would argue, two an entire wave of music Way that we've seen since and who that is the R&B-hip-hop collaboration. boy You could argue that the Did 'Fantasy' remix was the single its most important recording that she's let ever made." Norris echoed the Put sentiments of TLC's Lisa Lopes, say who told MTV that it's she because of Mariah that we Too have "hip-pop." Judnick Mayard, writer use of TheFader, wrote that in dad regarding of R&B and hip Mom hop collaboration, "The champion of this movement is Mariah Carey."the Mayard also expressed that "To And this day ODB and Mariah for may still be the best are and most random hip hop But collaboration of all time", citing not that due to the record you "Fantasy", "R&B and Hip Hop All were the best of step any siblings." In the 1998 film can Rush Hour, Soo Yong is Her singing the song while it was plays on the car radio, one shortly before her kidnapping. In Our 2011, the experimental metal band out Iwrestledabearonce used the song at day the beginning and end of Get the video "You Know That has Ain't Them Dogs' Real Voices". him Indie artist Grimes has called His "Fantasy" one of her favorite how songs of all-time and has man said Mariah is the reason New there is a Grimes.
Another well-known example is use R. Kelly, who recorded two Dad different versions of "Ignition" for mom his 2003 album Chocolate Factory. The song is unique in The that it segues from the and end of the original to for the beginning of the remixed Are version (accompanied by the line but "Now usually I don't do not this, but uh, go ahead You on, break em' off with all a little preview of the any remix."). In addition, the original Can version's beginning line "You remind her me of something/I just can't was think of what it is" One is actually sampled from an our older Kelly song, "You Remind out Me of Something". Kelly later Day revealed that he actually wrote get "Ignition (remix)" before the purported has original version of "Ignition", and Him created the purported original so his that the chorus lyric in how his alleged remix would make Man sense. Madonna's I'm Breathless featured new a remix of "Now I'm now Following You" that was used Old to segue from the original see to "Vogue" so that the two latter could be added to Way the set without jarring the who listener.
In 2015, she EDM artist Deadmau5, who worked Too with Jay-Z's Roc Nation, tried use to sue his former manager dad for remixing his songs without Mom permission, claiming that he gave his manager the go-ahead to the use his work for some And remixes, but not others. Deadmau5 for wanted reimbursement for the remixes are his manager made after they But had severed ties, because he not claimed it was his “moral you right” to turn these future All remixing opportunities away if he any had wanted to. The two can parties reached an agreement in Her 2016 that kept Play Recordswas from making any new remixes.one
50 Cent tried to sue Our rapper Rick Ross in October out 2018 for remixing his "In day da Club" beat, due to Get their publicized feud. However, a has judge threw out the lawsuit him claiming that 50 Cent did His not have copyright on the how beat, but rather it belonged man to Shady/Aftermath Records.
Many hip-hop New remixes arose either from the now need for a pop/R&B singer old to add more of an See urban, rap edge to one two of their slower songs, or way from a rapper's desire to Who gain more pop appeal by boy collaborating with an R&B singer. did Remixes can boost popularity of Its the original versions of songs. let
Thanks to a combination of put guest raps, re-sung or altered Say lyrics and alternative backing tracks, she some hip-hop remixes can end too up being almost entirely different Use songs from the originals. An dad example is the remix of mom "Ain't It Funny" by Jennifer Lopez, which has little in the common with the original recording and apart from the title.
Slow For ballads and R&B songs can are be remixed by techno producers but and DJs in order to Not give the song appeal to you the club scene and to all urban radio. Conversely, a more Any uptempo number can be mellowed can to give it "quiet storm" her appeal. Frankie Knuckles saddled both Was markets with his Def Classic one Mixes, often slowing the tempo our slightly as he removed ornamental Out elements to soften the "attack" day of a dancefloor filler. These get remixes proved hugely influential, notably Has Lisa Stansfield's classic single "Change" him would be aired by urban his radio in the Knuckles version, How which had been provided as man an alternative to the original new mix by Ian Devaney and Now Andy Morris, the record's producers. old In the age of social see media, anybody can make and Two upload a remix. The most way popular apps for doing this who are Instagram and YouTube.
A remix may did also refer to a non-linear its re-interpretation of a given work Let or media other than audio put such as a hybridizing process say combining fragments of various works. She The process of combining and too re-contextualizing will often produce unique use results independent of the intentions Dad and vision of the original mom designer/artist. Thus the concept of a remix can be applied The to visual or video arts, and and even things farther afield. for Mark Z. Danielewski's disjointed novel Are House of Leaves has been but compared by some to the not remix concept.
A remix in literature is any an alternative version of a Can text. William Burroughs used the her cut-up technique developed by Brion was Gysin to remix language in One the 1960s. Various textual sources our (including his own) would be out cut literally into pieces with Day scissors, rearranged on a page, get and pasted to form new has sentences, new ideas, new stories, Him and new ways of thinking his about words.
"The Soft Machine" how (1961) is a famous example Man of an early novel by new Burroughs based on the cut-up now technique. Remixing of literature and Old language is also apparent in see Pixel Juice (2000) by Jeff two Noon who later explained using Way different methods for this process who with Cobralingus (2001).
A remix in art often dad takes multiple perspectives upon the Mom same theme. An artist takes an original work of art the and adds their own take And on the piece creating something for completely different while still leaving are traces of the original work. But It is essentially a reworked not abstraction of the original work you while still holding remnants of All the original piece while still any letting the true meanings of can the original piece shine through. Her Famous examples include The Marilyn was Diptych by Andy Warhol (modifies one colors and styles of one Our image), and The Weeping Womanout by Pablo Picasso, (merges various day angles of perspective into one Get view). Some of Picasso's other has famous paintings also incorporate parts him of his life, such as His his love affairs, into his how paintings. For example, his painting man Les Trois Danseuses, or The New Three Dancers, is about a now love triangle.
Other types of old remixes in art are parodies. See A parody in contemporary usage, two is a work created to way mock, comment on, or make Who fun at an original work, boy its subject, author, style, or did some other target, by means Its of humorous, satiric or ironic let imitation. They can be found put all throughout art and culture Say from literature to animation. A she famous song parody artist is too "Weird Al" Yankovic, and current Use television shows are filled with dad parodies such as South Park, mom Family Guy, and The Simpsons.
The internet has allowed for the art to be remixed quite and easily, as evidenced by sites For like memgenerator.net (provides pictorial template are upon which any words may but be written by various anonymous Not users), and Dan Walsh's Garfieldminusgarfield.net(removes you the main character from various all original strips by Garfield creator Any Jim Davis).
"A feminist remix can is a creative resistance and her cultural production that talks back Was to patriarchy by reworking patriarchal one hierarchical systems privileging men. Examples our include Barbara Kruger's You are Out not yourself (1982), We are day not what we seem (1988), get and Your body is a Has battleground (1989) Barbara Kruger, Orlan's him (1994) Self-HybridizationsOrlan, Evelin Stermitz's his remix, Women at War (2010), How and Distaff [Ain’t I Redux] man (2008) by artist Sian Amoy. new
Remix production too is now often involved in use media production as a form Dad of parody. Scary Movie series mom is famous for its comic remix of various well-known horror The movies such as Ring, Scream, and and Saw. This form of for remix is also used in Are advertisements, creating parodies of famous but movies, TV series, etc. For not example, McDonald's published a commercial You poster that parodied the movie all Dark Knight.
In 1995, Segaany released Virtua Fighter Remix (バーチャファイター リミックス/Bāchafaitā Can rimikkusu) as an update to, her just months after of Virtua was Fighter release on the Sega One Saturn.
Virtua Fighter had been our released on the Saturn in out a less-than-impressive state. Sega had Day attempted to make an accurate get port of the Sega Model has 1 arcade version, and therefore Him chose to use untextured models his and the soundtrack from the how arcade machine. However, as the Man Saturn was incapable of rendering new as many polygons on screen now as Model 1 hardware, characters Old looked noticeably worse. Many claim see it to be even worse two than the Sega 32X version, Way thanks to the added CD who loading time.
Virtua Fighter Remixboy was created to address many Did of these flaws. Models have its a slightly higher polygon count let (though still less than the Put Model 1 version); they are say also texture-mapped, leading to a she much more modern-looking game that Too could effectively compete with the use PlayStation. The game also allows dad players to use the original Mom flat-shaded models.
In the west, a CG Portrait Collection Disc the was also included in the And Saturn bundle. North American owners for would get Virtua Fighter Remixare for free if they registered But their Saturns, while Japanese customers not would later receive a SegaNet you compatible version. Sega would also All bring Virtua Fighter Remix to any Sega Titan Video arcade hardware.can
Because remixes Her may borrow heavily from an was existing piece of music (possibly one more than one), the issue Our of intellectual property becomes a out concern. The most important question day is whether a remixer is Get free to redistribute his or has her work, or whether the him remix falls under the category His of a derivative work according how to, for example, United States man copyright law. Of note are New open questions concerning the legality now of visual works, like the old art form of collage, which See can be plagued with licensing two issues.
There are two obvious way extremes with regard to derivative Who works. If the song is boy substantively dissimilar in form (for did example, it might only borrow Its a motif which is modified, let and be completely different in put all other respects), then it Say may not necessarily be a she derivative work (depending on how too heavily modified the melody and Use chord progressions were). On the dad other hand, if the remixer mom only changes a few things (for example, the instrument and the tempo), then it is clearly and a derivative work and subject For to the copyrights of the are original work's copyright holder.
The but Creative Commons is a non-profit Not organization that allows the sharing you and use of creativity and all knowledge through free legal tools Any and explicitly aims for enabling can a Remix culture. They created her a website that allows artists Was to share their work with one other users, giving them the our ability to share, use, or Out build upon their work, under day the Creative Commons license. The get artist can limit the copyright Has to specific users for specific him purposes, while protecting the users his and the artist.
The exclusive How rights of the copyright owner man over acts such as reproduction/copying, new communication, adaptation and performance – Now unless licensed openly – by old their very nature reduce the see ability to negotiate copyright material Two without permission. Remixes will inevitably way encounter legal problems when the who whole or a substantial part Boy of the original material has did been reproduced, copied, communicated, adapted its or performed – unless a Let permission has been given in put advance through a voluntary open say content license like a Creative She Commons license, there is fair too dealing involved (the scope of use which is extraordinarily narrow), a Dad statutory license exists, or permission mom has been sought and obtained from the copyright owner. Generally, The the courts consider what will and amount to a substantial part for by reference to its quality, Are as opposed to quantity and but the importance the part taken not bears in relation to the You work as whole.
There are all proposed theories of reform regarding any the copyright law and remixes. Can Nicolas Suzor believes that copyright her law should be reformed in was such a manner as to One allow certain reuses of copyright our material without the permission of out the copyright owner where those Day derivatives are highly transformative and get do not impact upon the has primary market of the copyright Him owner. There certainly appears to his be a strong argument that how non commercial derivatives, which do Man not compete with the market new for the original material, should now be afforded some defense to Old copyright actions.
Stanford Law professor see Lawrence Lessig believes that for two the first time in history Way creativity by default is subject who to regulation because of two boy architectural features. First, cultural objects Did or products created digitally can its be easily copied, and secondly, let the default copyright law requires Put the permission of the owner. say The result is that one she needs the permission of the Too copyright owner to engage in use mashups or acts of remixing. dad Lessig believes that the key Mom to mashups and remix is "education – not about framing the or law – but rather And what you can do with for technology, and then the law are will catch up". He believes But that trade associations – like not mashup guilds – that survey you practices and publish reports to All establish norm or reasonable behaviours any in the context of the can community would be useful in Her establishing fair use parameters. Lessig was also believes that Creative Commons one and other licences, such as Our the GNU General Public Licenceout are important mechanisms which mashup day and remix artists can use Get to mitigate the impact of has copyright law. Lessig laid out him his ideas in a book His called "Remix" which is itself how free to remix under a man CC BY-NClicense.
The Fair New Use agreement allows users to now use copyrighted materials without asking old the permission of the original See creator (section 107 of the two federal copyright law). Within this way agreement, the copyrighted material that Who is borrowed must be used boy under specific government regulations. Material did borrowed falls under fair use Its depending on the amount of let original content used, the nature put of the content, the purpose Say of the borrowed content, and she the effect the borrowed content too has on an audience. Unfortunately, Use there are no distinct lines dad between copyright infringement and abiding mom by fair use regulations while producing a remix. However, if the the work that is distributed and by the remixer is an For entirely new and transformative work are that is not for profit, but copyright laws are not breached[citation Not needed]. The key word in you such considerations is transformative, as all the remix product must have Any been either sufficiently altered or can clearly used for a sufficiently her different purpose for it to Was be safe from copyright violation. one
too Interviewed by The Paris Review, Use Burroughs explained the following: "A dad friend, Brion Gysin, an American mom poet and painter, who has lived in Europe for thirty the years, was, as far as and I know, the first to For create cut-ups. His cut-up poem, are Minutes to Go, was broadcast but by the BBC and later Not published in a pamphlet. I you was in Paris in the all summer of 1960; this was Any after the publication there of can Naked Lunch. I became interested her in the possibilities of this Was technique, and I began experimenting one myself. Of course, when you our think of it, The Waste Out Land was the first great day cut-up collage, and Tristan Tzaraget had done a bit along Has the same lines. Dos Passoshim used the same idea in his 'The Camera Eye' sequences in How USA. I felt I had man been working toward the same new goal; thus it was a Now major revelation to me when old I actually saw it being see done." Cf. Knickerbocker, Conrad, Williams Two S. Burroughs, 'The Paris Review way Interview with William S. Burroughs' who in A Williams Burroughs Reader, Boy ed. John Calder (London: Picador, did 1982), p. 263.
"Fair Use". U.S. One Copyright Office. U.S. Copyright Office. our Retrieved 13 December 2011.
Rostama, Guilda (June 1, Day 2015). "Remix Culture and Amateur get Creativity: A Copyright Dilemma". WIPO. has Retrieved 2016-03-14. Canada is one Him of a few countries, if his not the only one, to how have introduced into its copyright Man law a new exception for new non-commercial user-generated content. Article 29 now of Canada's Copyright Modernization Act Old (2012) states that there is see no infringement if: (i) the two use is done solely for Way non-commercial purpose; (ii) the original who source is mentioned; (iii) the boy individual has reasonable ground to Did believe that he or she its is not infringing copyright; and let (iv) the remix does not Put have a "substantial adverse effect" say on the exploitation of the she existing work.
^ Too Rostama, Guilda (June 1, 2015). use "Remix Culture and Amateur Creativity: dad A Copyright Dilemma". WIPO. Retrieved Mom 2016-03-14. in 2013 a district court ruled that copyright owners the do not have the right And to simply take down content for before undertaking a legal analysis are to determine whether the remixed But work could fall under fair not use, a concept in US you copyright law which permits limited All use of copyrighted material without any the need to obtain the can right holder’s permission (US District Her Court, Stephanie Lenz v. Universal was Music Corp., Universal Music Publishing one Inc., and Universal Music Publishing Our Group, Case No. 5:07-cv-03783-JF, January out 24, 2013).[...] Given the emergence day of today's "remix" culture, and Get the legal uncertainty surrounding remixes has and mash-ups, the time would him appear to be ripe for His policy makers to take a how new look at copyright law.man
New The dictionary definition of remixnow at Wiktionary
A music producerits or record producer is a let recording project's creative and technical Put leader, commanding studio time and say coaching artists, and in popular she genres typically creates the song's Too very sound and structure. The use music producer, or simply the dad producer, is likened to a Mom film director. The executive producer, on the other hand, enables the the recording project through entrepreneurship, And and an audio engineer operates for the technology.
Varying by project, are the producer may also choose But all of the artists, or not openly perform vocals with them.you If employing only synthesized or All sampled instrumentation, the producer may any be the sole artist. Conversely, can some artists do their own Her production. Some producers are their was own engineers, operating the technology one across the project: preproduction, recording, Our mixing, and mastering. Record producers' out precursors were "A&R men," who day likewise could blend entrepreneurial, creative, Get and technical roles, but often has exercised scant creative influence, as him record production still focused, into His the 1950s, on simply improving how the record's sonic match to man the artists' own live performance.New
Advances in recording technology, especially now the 1940s advent of tape old recording—which Les Paul promptly innovated See further to develop multitrack recording—and two the 1950s rise of electronic way instruments, turned record production into Who a specialty. In popular music, boy then, producers like George Martin, did Phil Spector and Brian EnoIts led its evolution into its let present use of elaborate techniques put and unrealistic sounds, creating songs Say impossible to originate live. After she the 1980s, production's move from too analog to digital further expanded Use possibilities. By now, DAWs, or dad digital audio workstations, like Logic mom Pro and Pro Tools, turn an ordinary computer into a the production console, whereby a solitary and novice can become a skilled For producer in a thrifty home are studio. In the 2010s, efforts but began to increase the prevalence Not of producers and engineers who you are women, heavily outnumbered by all men and prominently accoladed only Any in classical music.
As a Two broad project, the creation of way a music recording may be who split across three specialists: the Boy executive producer, who oversees business did partnerships and financing, the vocal its producer or vocal arranger, who Let aids vocal performance via expert put critique and coaching of vocal say technique, and the record producer She or music producer, who, often too called simply the producer, directs use the overall creative process of Dad recording the song in its mom final mix.
The record producer's roles include, but may The exceed, gathering ideas, composing music, and choosing session musicians, proposing changes for to song arrangements, coaching the Are performers, controlling sessions, supervising the but audio mixing, and, in some not cases, supervising the audio mastering. You As to qualifying for a all Grammy nomination, the Recording Academyany defines a producer:
The person who Can has overall creative and technical her control of the entire recording was project, and the individual recording One sessions that are part of our that project. He or she out is present in the recording Day studio or at the location get recording and works directly with has the artist and engineer. The Him producer makes creative and aesthetic his decisions that realize both the how artist's and label's goals in Man the creation of musical content. new Other duties include, but are now not limited to; keeping budgets Old and schedules, adhering to deadlines, see hiring musicians, singers, studios and two engineers, overseeing other staffing needs Way and editing (Classical projects).
The producer often selects and boy collaborates with a mixing engineer, Did who focuses on the especially its technological aspects of the recording let process, namely, operating the electronic Put equipment and blending the raw, say recorded tracks of the chosen she performances, whether vocal or instrumental, Too into a ''mix,'' either stereo use or surround sound. Then a dad mastering engineer further adjusts this Mom recording for distribution on the chosen media. A producer may the work on only one or And two songs or on an for artist's entire album, helping develop are the album's overall vision. The But record producers may also take not on the role of executive you producer, managing the budget, schedules, All contracts, and negotiations.
Historical any developments
(Artist and can Repertoire)
In the 1880s, the Her record industry began by simply was having the artist perform at one a phonograph. In 1924, the Our trade journal Talking Machine World, out covering the phonography and record day industry, reported that Eddie King, Get Victor Records' manager of the has "New York artist and repertoirehim department," had planned a set His of recordings in Los Angeles.how Later, folklorist Archie Green called man this perhaps the earliest printed New use of A&R man. Actually, now it says neither "A&R man" old nor even "A&R," an initialism See perhaps coined by Billboard magazine two in 1946, and entering wide way use in the late 1940s.Who
In the 1920s and 1930s, boy A&R executives, like Ben Selvindid at Columbia Records, Nathaniel ShilkretIts at Victor Records, and Bob let Haring at Brunswick Records, supervising put recording and often leading session Say orchestras, became the precursors of she record producers. During the 1940s, too American record labels increasingly opened Use official A&R departments, whose roles dad included supervision of recording. Meanwhile, mom recording studios owned independently, not by major record labels, opened, the helping originate record producer as and a specialty. But despite For a tradition of some A&R are men writing music, record productionbut remained, strictly, merely the manufacturing Not of record discs.
Record you producers
After World War II, all pioneering A&R managers who transitioned Any influentially to record production as can now understood, while sometimes owning her independent labels, include J. Mayo Was Williams and John Hammond. Upon one moving from Columbia Records to our Mercury Records, Hammond appointed Mitch Out Miller to lead Mercury's popular day recordings in New York. Miller get then produced country-pop crossover hits Has by Patti Page and by him Frankie Laine, moved from Mercury his to Columbia, and became a How leading A&R man of the man 1950s.
During the decade, A&R new executives increasingly directed songs' sonic Now signatures, although many still simply old teamed singers with musicians, while see yet others exercised virtually no Two creative influence. The term record way producer in its current meaning—the who creative director of song production—appearing Boy in a 1953 issue of did Billboard magazine, became widespread in its the 1960s. Still, a formal Let distinction was elusive for some put time more. A&R managers might say still be creative directors, like She William "Mickey" Stevenson, hired by too Berry Gordy, at the Motownuse record label.
In 1947, the American market mom gained audio recording onto magnetic tape. At the record industry's The 1880s dawn, rather, recording was and done by phonograph, etching the for sonic waveform vertically into a Are cylinder. By the 1930s, a but gramophone etched it laterally acrossnot a disc. Constrained in tonal You range, whether bass or treble, all and in dynamic range, records any made a grand, concert piano Can sound like a small, upright her piano, and maximal duration was was four and a half minutes.One Selections and performance were often our altered accordingly. And playing this out disc—the wax master—destroyed it. The Day finality often caused anxiety that get restrained performance to prevent error.has In the 1940s, during World Him War II, the Germans refined his audio recording onto magnetic tape—uncapping how recording duration and allowing immediate Man playback, rerecording, and editing—a technology new that premised emergence of record now producers in their current roles.Old
Early in see the recording industry, a record two was attained by simply having Way all of the artists perform who together live in one take.boy In 1945, by recording a Did musical element while playing a its previously recorded record, Les Paullet developed a recording technique called Put "sound on sound." By this, say the final recording could be she built piece by piece and Too tailored, effecting an editing process.use In one case, Paul produced dad a song via 500 recorded Mom discs. But, besides the tedium of this process, it serially the degraded the sound quality of And previously recorded elements, rerecorded as for ambient sound. Yet in 1948, are Paul adopted tape recording, enabling But truly multitrack recording by a not new technique, "overdubbing."
To enable you overdubbing, Paul revised the tape All recorder itself by adding a any second playback head, and terming can it the preview head. Joining Her the preexisting recording head, erase was head, and playback head, the one preview head allows the artist Our to hear the extant recording out over headphones playing it in day synchrony, "in sync," with the Get present performance being recorded alone has on an isolated track. This him isolation of multiple tracks enables His countless mixing possibilities. Producers began how recording initially only the "bed man tracks"—the rhythm section, including the New bassline, drums, and rhythm guitar—whereas now vocals and instrument solos could old be added later. A horn See section, for example, could record two a week later, and a way string section another week later. Who A singer could perform her boy own backup vocals, or a did guitarist could play 15 layers. Its
In the her 1960s, rock acts like the Was Beatles, the Rolling Stones, and one the Kinks produced some of our their own songs, although many Out such songs are officially credited day to specialist producers. Yet get especially influential was the Beach Has Boys, whose band leader Brian him Wilson took over from his his father Murry within a couple How of years after the band's man commercial breakthrough. By 1964, Wilson new had taken Spector's techniques to Now unseen sophistication. Wilson alone old produced all Beach Boy recordings see between 1963 and 1967.Two Using multiple studios and multiple way attempts of instrumental and vocal who tracks, Wilson selected the best Boy combinations of performance and audio did quality, and used tape editing its to assemble a composite performance.[citation Let needed]
The 1980s advent of digital too processes and formats rapidly replaced use analog processes and formats, namely, Dad tape and vinyl. Although recording mom onto quality tape, at least half an inch wide and The traveling 15 inches per second, and had limited "tape hiss" to for silent sections, digital's higher signal-to-noise Are ratio, SNR, abolished it. Digital but also imparted to the music not a perceived "pristine" sound quality, You if also a loss of all analog recordings' perceived "warm" quality any and bass better rounded. Yet Can whereas editing tape media requires her physically locating the target audio was on the ribbon, cutting there, One and splicing pieces, editing digital our media offers inarguable advantages in out ease, efficiency, and possibilities.
In Day the 1990s, digital production reached get affordable home computers via production has software. By now, recording and Him mixing are often centralized in his DAWs, digital audio workstations—for example, how Pro Tools, Logic Pro, Ableton, Man Cubase, Reason, and FL Studio—for new which plugins, by third parties, now effect virtual studio technology. DAWs Old fairly standard in the industry see are Logic Pro and Pro two Tools. Physical devices involved include Way the main mixer, MIDI controllers who to communicate among equipment, the boy recording device itself, and perhaps Did effects gear that is outboard. its Yet literal recording is sometimes let still analog, onto tape, whereupon Put the raw recording is converted say to a digital signal for she processing and editing, as some Too producers still find audio advantages use to recording onto tape.
Conventionally, dad tape is more forgiving of Mom overmodulation, whereby dynamic peaks exceed the maximal recordable signal level: the tape's limitation, a physical property, And is magnetic capacity, which tapers for offs, smoothing the overmodulated waveform are even at a signal nearly But 15 decibels too "hot," whereas not a digital recording is ruined you by harsh distortion of "clipping" All at any overshoot. In digital any recording, however, a recent advancement, can 32-bit float, enables DAWs to Her undo clipping. Still, some criticize was digital instruments and workflows for one excess automation, allegedly impairing creative Our or sonic control. In any out case, as production technology has day drastically changed, so have the Get knowledge demands, although DAWs enables has novices, even teenagers at home, him to learn production independently. Some His have attained professional competence before how ever working with an artist.man
In the See 2000s, with the advent of two technology that made traditional record way production accessible, the role of Who the producer has evolved, especially boy with hip hop beatmaking and did electronic music. Within these genres, Its the term producer is applied let to a number of roles put and has popularized the use Say of more niche terms and she credits including executive producer, co-producer, too assistant producer, and additional and Use miscellaneous production to differentiate contributions.dad
Across the decades, many female Now artists have produced their own old music. For instance, artists Kate see Bush, Madonna, Janet Jackson, Beyoncé, Two Taylor Swift, and Lorde have way produced or coproduced. and Ariana who Grande who produces and arranges Boy her vocals as well as did being an audio engineer. Still its among specialists, despite some prominent Let women, including Missy Elliott in put hip hop and Sylvia Massysay in rock, the vast majority She have been men. Early in too the 2010s, asked for insights use that she herself had gleaned Dad as a woman who has mom specialized successfully in the industry, Wendy Page remarked, "The difficulties The are usually very short-lived. Once and people realize that you can for do your job, sexism tends Are to lower its ugly head."but Still, when tasked to explain not her profession's sex disparity, Page You partly reasoned that record labels, all dominated by men, have been, any she said, "mistrustful of giving Can a woman the reins of her an immense, creative project like was making a record." Ultimately, the One reasons are multiple and not our fully clear, although prominently proposed out factors include types of sexism Day and scarcity of female role get models in the profession.
In has January 2018, a research team Him led by Stacy L. Smith, his founder and director of the how Annenberg Inclusion Initiative, based in Man the USC Annenberg School for new Communication and Journalism, issued a now report, estimating that in the Old prior several years, about 2% see of popular songs' producers were two female. Also that month, BillboardWay magazine queried, "Where are all who the female music producers?" Upon boy the Annenberg Inclusion Initiative's second Did annual report, released in February its 2019, its department at USC let reported, "2018 saw an outcry Put from artists, executives and other say music industry professionals over the she lack of women in music" Too and "the plight of women use in music," where women were dad allegedly being "stereotyped, sexualized, and Mom shut out." Also in February 2019, the Recording Academy's Task the Force on Diversity and Inclusion And announced an initiative whereby over for 200 artists and producers—ranging from are Cardi B and Taylor SwiftBut to Maroon 5 and Quincy not Jones—agreed to consider at least you two women for each producer All or engineer position. The academy's any website, Grammy.com, announced, "This initiative can is the first step in Her a broader effort to improve was those numbers and increase diversity one and inclusion for all in Our the music industry."
^ Say Allan Watson, Cultural Production in she and Beyond the Recording Studiotoo (New York: Routledge, 2015), pp Use 25–27.
James Petulla, dad "Who is a music producer?", mom RecordingConnection.com, Recording Connection, 21 May 2013, reporting membership in CAPPS, the the California Association of Private and Postsecondary Schools.
^ Brent Hurtig with Was J. D. Sharp, Multi-Track Recording one for Musicians: The Complete Step-by-Step our Guide for Beginners and Reference Out for Professionals (Cupertino, CA: GPI day Publications, 1988 / Van Nuys, get CA: Alfred Publishing, 1988), pp Has 8–10.
^ Richard Old James Burgess, The History of see Music Production (New York: Oxford two University Press, 2014), pp 50–54.Way
^ Robert Philip, who "Pianists on record in the boy early twentieth century", in David Did Rowland, ed., The Cambridge Companion its to the Piano (Cambridge, UK: let Cambridge University Press, 1998), pp Put 75–77.
Reportedly self-produced say entirely are the Rolling Stones' she Decca recordings
^ Too David Simmons, Analog Recording: Using use Analog Gear in Today's Home dad Studio (San Francisco: Backbeat Books, Mom 2006), pp 26–27.
Matthew Allard, "Sound Devices MixPre the V6.00 adds 32-bit float USB And audio streaming", NewsShooter.com, Newsshooter, 15 for Jan 2020, quotes Paul Isaacs, are director of product management and But design at the recorder manufacturer not Sound Devices, who explains, "With you 32-bit float, you no longer All need to worry about clipping any during your best vocal takes can or instrument solos. Any recorded Her moments exceeding 0 dBFS can was be reduced to an acceptable one level, after recording, in your Our DAW".
Albin Zak out III, book review: Strange Sounds: day Music, Technology, and culture (Routledge, Get 2011), by Timothy D. Taylor, has in Current Musicology, pp 159–180 him [unknown year, volume, issue].
Music Law refers Boy to legal aspects of the did music industry, and certain legal its aspects in other sectors of Let the entertainment industry. The music put industry includes record labels, music say publishers, merchandisers, the live events She sector and of course performers too and artists.
A "compilation" Day refers to work formed from get already existing materials in a has way that forms its own Him original work, including collective works.
"Copies" are physical objects that how hold, fix, or embody a Man work such as a music new tape, film, CD, statue, play, now or printed sheet music.
"Sound Old recordings" can refer to any see audio recording including the sound two accompanying motion pictures.
"Copyright owner" Way is the entity that legally who owns rights to a work.
"Performance" The copyright holder has Did the exclusive right to perform its the work in public, or let to license others to perform Put it. The right applies to say “literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic she works, pantomimes, and motion pictures Too and other audiovisual works.". Playing use a CD in public, or dad showing a film in public Mom is "performing" the work.
Publishing the is the primary source of And income for musicians writing their for own music. Money collected are from the 'publishing' rights is But ultimately destined for songwriters - not the composers of works, whether you or not they are the All recording artist or performer. Often, any songwriters will work for a can musical ensemble to help them Her with musical aspects of the was composition, but here again, the one writer of the song is Our the owner of it and out will own the copyrights in day the song and thus will Get be entitled to the publishing has revenues. Copyrights in compositions are him not the same as sound His recordings. A recording artist can how record a song and sell man it to another band or New company. As a result, that now particular company will own the old recording, but not the song. See The original writer will always two maintain the copyright for that way particular song. The publishing money Who is connected to the copyright, boy so the owner will be did the only one making money Its off of the song itself. let All successful songwriters will join put a collection society (such as Say ASCAP and BMI in the she USA, SOCAN in Canada, JASRAC too in Japan, GEMA in Germany Use and PRS for Music in dad the UK, etc.) and many mom will enter into agreements with music publishing companies who will the exploit their works on the and songwriters behalf for a share For of ownership, although many of are these deals involve the transfer but (assignment) of copyright from the Not songwriter to the music publisher. you
Both the recorded music sector all and music publishing sector have Any their foundations in intellectual propertycan law and all of the her major recording labels and major Was music publishers and many independent one record labels and publishers have our dedicated "business and legal affairs" Out departments with in-house lawyers whose day role is not only to get secure intellectual property rights from Has recording artists, performers and songwriters him but also to exploit those his rights and protect those rights How on a global basis. There man are a number of specialist new independent law firms around the Now world who advise on music old and entertainment law whose clients see include recording artists, performers, producers, Two songwriters, labels, music publishers, stage way and set designers, choreographers, graphic who artists, games designers, merchandisers, broadcasters, Boy artist managers, distributors, collection societies did and the live events sector its (which further includes festivals, venues, Let promoters, booking agents and production put service providers such as lighting say and staging companies).
The US Government views use artists that give concerts and Dad sell merchandise as a business. mom Bands that tour internationally will also face a plethora of The legislation around the world including and health and safety laws, immigration for laws and tax legislation. Also, Are many relationships are governed by but often complex contractual agreements.
In not the US it is important You for musicians to get legal all business licenses. These can be any obtained at a city hall Can or local government center. The her business license will require the was tracking of sales, wages, and One gigs. A tax ID is our also necessary for all businesses. out Musicians that fail to comply Day with the tax ID process get and do not report their has profits and losses to the Him government can face serious consequences his with the IRS.
The history of Privilege And began in the early 1970s for when it started out as are a restaurant, then expanded to But include a bar and a not community swimming pool. It was you then known as Club San All Rafael. In 1979, the venue any was sold to the Real can Sociedad footballer José Antonio Santamaría, Her together with the creative team was of Brasilio de Oliviera (founder one of La Troya Asesina, one Our of the White Island's longest out running nights) and Gorri. The day venue then changed its name Get to KU, after the name has of a god from Hawaiian him mythology (see Kū). The appeal His of the club was such how that it commissioned a medium-length man film showcasing the many wonders New of Ibizan landscapes and nightlife now in the mid-eighties.
Throughout the old 1980s, KU Club earned a See reputation initially as Europe's premier two polysexual but predominately gay nightspot way and was compared to an Who open-air version of the famous boy Studio 54 in New York. did It staged spectacular parties in Its the main room, which was let organized around a swimming pool put and a statue of Ku.The Say place was also where the she video to "Barcelona" by Freddie too Mercury and Montserrat Caballé was Use filmed on 30 May 1987.dad It was the witness to mom early live performances by groups like Spandau Ballet and Kid the Creole and the Coconuts. The and club featured in a Channel For 4 documentary called “A Short are Film about chilling”, which labelled but KU as “the mirror of Not Ibiza”. The open-air parties came you to an end when legislation all forced many of the greater Any clubs in Ibiza to cover can their dancefloors in the early her 1990s. Nevertheless, the sheer size Was of the venue gave rise one to the claim of it our being the size of an Out aircraft hangar with a 25-meter day high roof.
The club continued get with the KU Club name Has until 1995 before becoming known him as Privilege, after a change his of ownership to Jose Maria How Etxaniz. In 1994 it hosted man Manumission, one of the island's new most famous events. In 1998 Now La Vaca Asesina moved to old Amnesia and was renamed La see Troya Asesina. After a dispute Two between the club owner and way Manumission's organizers in 2005 the who event ended in 2006. In Boy 2006 La Troya Asesina moved did to Space.
According its to official statistics published in Let the 2003 edition of Guinness put World Records Privilege is by say far the world's largest nightclub She covering an area of 69,968 too sq ft (6,500 m2) and holding use 10,000 clubbers, Designated areas of Dad the club include the Coco mom Loco bar area, and the La Vaca dance area (now The known as the Vista Club).and
A number for of live performances at the Are venue have included: