Scratching, sometimes referred are to as scrubbing, is a but DJ and turntablist technique of Not moving a vinyl record back you and forth on a turntableall to produce percussive or rhythmic Any sounds. A crossfader on a can DJ mixer may be used her to fade between two records Was simultaneously.
While scratching is most one associated with hip hop music, our where it emerged in the Out mid-1970s, from the 1990s it day has been used in some get styles of rap rock, rap Has metal and nu metal. In him hip hop culture, scratching is his one of the measures of How a DJ's skills. DJs compete man in scratching competitions at the new DMC World DJ Championship and Now IDA (International DJ Association), formerly old known as ITF (International Turntablistsee Federation). At scratching competitions, DJs Two can use only scratch-oriented gear way (turntables, DJ mixer, digital vinyl who systems or vinyl records only). Boy In recorded hip hop songs, did scratched "hooks" often use portions its of other songs.
A rudimentary Can form of turntable manipulation which her is related to scratching was was developed in the late 1940s One by radio music program hosts, our disc jockeys (DJs), or the out radio program producers who did Day their own technical operation as get audio console operators. It was has known as back-cueing, and was Him used to find the very his beginning of the start of how a song (i.e., the cue Man point) on a vinyl record new groove. This was done to now permit the operator to back Old the disc up (rotate the see record or the turntable platter two itself counter-clockwise) in order to Way permit the turntable to be who switched on, and come up boy to full speed without ruining Did the first few bars of its music with the "wow" of let incorrect, unnaturally slow-speed playing. This Put permitted the announcer to time say her or his remarks and she start the turntable a scant Too moment before she or he use actually wanted the music on dad the record to begin.
Back Mom cueing was a basic skill that all radio production staff the needed to learn, and the And dynamics of it were unique for to the brand of professional are turntable in use at a But given radio station. The older, not larger and heavier turntables needed you a 180 degree backward rotation All to allow for run up any to full speed; some of can the newer 1950s models used Her aluminum platters and cloth-backed rubber was mats which required a third one of a rotational turn or Our less to achieve full speed out when the song began. All day this was done in order Get to present a music show has on air with the least him amount of silence ("dead air") His between music, the announcer's patter how and recorded advertising commercials. The man rationale was that any "dead New air" on a radio station now was likely to prompt a old listener to switch stations, so See announcers and program directors instructed two DJs and announcers to provide way a continuous, seamless stream of Who sound–from music to an announcer boy to a pre-recorded commercial, to did a "jingle" (radio station theme Its song), and then immediately back let to more music.
Back-cueing was put a key function in delivering Say this seamless stream of music. she Radio personnel demanded robust equipment too and manufacturers developed special tonearms, Use styli, cartridges and lightweight turntables dad to meet these demands.
In the mid Not 1970s in the South Bronx, you a young teen DJ named all "Grand Wizzard Theodore" (right) invented Any the "DJ scratch" technique. Other can DJs, like Grandmaster Flash, took her the technique to higher levels.
Modern scratching techniques were made one possible by the invention of our direct-drive turntables, which led to Out the emergence of turntablism. Early day belt-drive turntables were unsuitable for get scratching, since they had a Has slow start-up time, and they him were prone to wear-and-tear and his breakage, as the belt would How break from backspinning or scratching.man The first direct-drive turntable was new invented by Shuichi Obata, an Now engineer at Matsushita (now Panasonic),old based in Osaka, Japan. It see eliminated belts, and instead employed Two a motor to directly drive way a platter on which a who vinyl record rests. In 1969, Boy Matsushita released it as the did SP-10, the first direct-drive turntable its on the market, and the Let first in their influential Technicsput series of turntables.
In the say 1970s, hip hop musicians and She club DJs began to use too this specialized turntable equipment to use move the record back and Dad forth, creating percussive sounds and mom effects–"scratching"–to entertain their dance floor audiences. Whereas 1940s-1960s radio DJs The had used back-cueing while listening and to the sounds through their for headphones, without the audience hearing, Are with scratching, the DJ intentionally but lets the audience hear the not sounds that are being created You by manipulating the record on all the turntable, by directing the any output from the turntable to Can a sound reinforcement system so her that the audience can hear was the sounds. Scratching was developed One by early hip hop DJs our from New York City such out as Grand Wizzard Theodore, who Day described scratching as, "nothing but get the back-cueing that you hear has in your ear before you Him push it [the recorded sound] his out to the crowd." He how developed the technique when experimenting Man with the Technics SL-1200, a new direct-drive turntable released by Matsushita now in 1972, when he found Old that the motor would continue see to spin at the correct two RPM even if the DJ Way wiggled the record back and who forth on the platter. Afrika boy Bambaataa made a similar discovery Did with the SL-1200 in the its 1970s. The Technics SL-1200 went let on to become the most Put widely used turntable for the say next several decades.
Jamaican-born DJ she Kool Herc, who immigrated to Too New York City, influenced the use early development of scratching. Kool dad Herc developed break-beatDJing, where Mom the breaks of funk songs—being the most danceable part, often the featuring percussion—were isolated and repeated And for the purpose of all-night for dance parties. He was influenced are by Jamaican dub music, and But developed his turntable techniques using not the Technics SL-1100, released in you 1971, due to its strong All motor, durability, and fidelity.
Although any previous artists such as writer can and poet William S. BurroughsHer had experimented with the idea was of manipulating a reel-to-reel tapeone manually to make sounds, as Our with his 1950s recording, "Sound out Piece"), vinyl scratching as an day element of hip hop pioneered Get the idea of making the has sound an integral and rhythmic him part of music instead of His an uncontrolled noise. Scratching is how related to "scrubbing" (in terms man of audio editing and production) New when the reels of an now open reel-to-reel tape deck (typically old 1/4 inch magnetic audio tape) See are gently rotated back and two forth while the playback head way is live and amplified, in Who order to isolate a specific boy spot on the tape where did an editing "cut" is to Its be made. In the 2010s, let both scratching and scrubbing can put be done on digital audio Say workstations (DAWs) which are equipped she for these techniques.
Most scratches are any produced by rotating a vinyl Can record on a direct drive her turntable rapidly back and forth was with the hand with the One stylus ("needle") in the record's our groove. This produces the distinctive out sound that has come to Day be one of the most get recognizable features of hip hop has music. Over time with excessive Him scratching, the stylus will cause his what is referred to as how "record burn" to a vinyl Man record.
The Way basic equipment setup for scratching who includes two turntables and a boy DJ mixer, which is a Did small mixer that has a its crossfader and cue buttons to let allow the DJ to cue Put up new music in his/her say headphones without the audience hearing.[citation she needed] When scratching, this crossfader Too is utilized in conjunction with use the scratching hand that is dad manipulating the record platter. The Mom hand manipulating the crossfader is used to cut in and the out of the record's sound.[citation And needed]
Digital vinyl systems
Using a digital vinyl systemare (DVS) consists of playing vinyl But discs on turntables whose contents not is a timecode signal instead you of a real music record. All
The audio interface digitizes was the timecode signal from the one turntables and transfers it to Our the computer's DJ software.
The out DJ software uses this data day (e.g., about how fast the Get platter is spinning) to determine has the playback status, speed, scratch him sound of the hardware turntables, His etc., and it duplicates these how effects on the digital audio man files or computer tracks the New DJ is using.
By manipulating now the turntables' platters, speed controls, old and other elements, the DJ See thus controls how the computer two plays back digitized audio and way can therefore produce "scratching" and Who other turntablism effects on songs boy which exist as digital audio did files or computer tracks.
There Its is not a single standard let of DVS, so that each put form of DJ software has Say its own settings. Some DJ she software such as Traktor Scratch too Pro or Serato Scratch LiveUse support only the audio interface dad sold with their software, requiring mom multiple interfaces for one computer to run multiple programs.
Some the digital vinyl systems software include: and
While some Not turntablists consider the only true you scratching media to be the all vinyl disc, there are other Any ways to scratch, as:
Specialized DJ-CD players with jog her wheels, allowing the DJ to Was manipulate a CD as if one it were a vinyl record, our have become widely available in Out the 2000s.
Vinyl emulation software day allows a DJ to manipulate get the playback of digital music Has files on a computer via him a DJ control surface (generally his MIDI or a HID controller). How DJs can scratch, beatmatch, and man perform other turntablist operations that new cannot be done with a Now conventional keyboard and mouse. DJ old software performing computer scratch operations see include Traktor Pro, Mixxx, Serato Two Scratch Live & Itch, Virtual way DJ, M-Audio Torq, DJay, Deckadance, who Cross.
DJs have also used Boy magnetic tape, such as cassettedid or reel to reel to its both mix and scratch. Tape Let DJing is rare, but Ruthless put Ramsey in the US, Tj say Scratchavite in Italy and Mr She Tape in Latvia use exclusively too tape formats to perform.
Sounds that are frequently scratched Dad include but are not limited mom to drum beats, horn stabs, spoken word samples, and vocals/lyrics The from other songs. Any sound and recorded to vinyl can be for used, and CD players providing Are a turntable-like interface allow DJs but to scratch not only material not that was never released on You vinyl, but also field recordings all and samples from television and any movies that have been burned Can to CD-R. Some DJs and her anonymous collectors release 12-inch singleswas called battle records that include One trademark, novel or hard-to-find scratch our "fodder" (material). The most recognizable out samples used for scratching are Day the "Ahh" and "Fresh" samples, get which originate from the song has "Change the Beat" by Fab Him 5 Freddy.
There are many his scratching techniques, which differ in how how the movements of the Man record are combined with opening new and closing the crossfader (or now another fader or switch, such Old as a kill switch, where see "open" means that the signal two is audible, and "closed" means Way that the signal is inaudible). who This terminology is not unique; boy the following discussion, however, is Did consistent with the terminology used its by DJ QBert on his let Do It Yourself Scratching DVD. Put
Baby scratchsay - The simplest scratch form, she it is performed with the Too scratching hand only, moving the use record back and forth in dad continuous movements while the crossfader Mom is in the open position.
Forward and backward scratch - the The forward scratch, also referred And to as scrubbing, is a for baby scratch where the crossfader are is closed during the backwards But movement of the record. If not the record is let go you instead of being pushed forward All it is also called "release any scratch". Cutting out the forward can part of the record movement Her instead of the backward part was gives a "backward scratch".
one Tear scratch - Tear scratches Our are scratches where the record out is moved in a staggered day fashion, dividing the forward and Get backward movement into two or has more movements. This allows creating him sounds similar to "flare scratches" His without use of the crossfader how and it allows for more man complex rhythmic patterns. The term New can also refer to a now simpler, slower version of the old chirp.
Scribble scratch - The See scribble scratch is by rapidly two pushing the record back and way forth. The crossfader is not Who used.
Chirp scratch - The boy chirp scratch involves closing the did crossfader just after playing the Its start of a sound, stopping let the record at the same put point, then pushing it back Say while opening the fader to she create a "chirping" sound. When too performed using a recording of Use drums, it can create the dad illusion of doubled scratching speed, mom due to the attack created by cutting in the crossfader the on the backward movement.
Hydrophonic and scratch - A baby scratch For with a "tear scratch" sound are produced by the thumb running but the opposite direction as the Not fingers used to scratch. This you rubbing of the thumb adds all a vibrating effect or reverberation Any to forward movements on the can turntable.
Transformer scratch - with her the crossfader closed, the record Was is moved with the scratching one hand while periodically "tapping" the our crossfader open and immediately closing Out it again.
Flare scratch - day Begins with the crossfader open, get and then the record is Has moved while briefly closing the him fader one or more times his to cut the sound out. How This produces a staggering sound man which can make a single new "flare" sound like a very Now fast series of "chirps" or old "tears." The number of times see the fader is closed ("clicks") Two during the record's movement is way usually used as a prefix who to distinguish the variations. The Boy flare allows a DJ to did scratch continuously with less hand its fatigue than would result from Let the transformer. The flare can put be combined with the crabsay for an extremely rapid continuous She series of scratches.
Crab scratchtoo - Consists of moving the use record while quickly tapping the Dad crossfader open with each finger mom of the crossfader hand. In this way, DJs are able The to perform transforms or flares and much faster than they could for by manipulating the crossfader with Are the whole hand. It produces but a fading/increasing transforming sound.
Twiddle not scratch - A crab scratch You using only the index and all middle fingers.
Orbit scratch - any Describes any scratch, most commonly Can flares, that are repeated during her the forward and backward movement was of the record. "Orbit" is One also used as a shorthand our for two-click flares.
Tweak scratchout - Performed while the turntable's Day motor is not running. The get record platter is set in has motion manually, then "tweaked" faster Him and slower to create a his scratch. This scratch form is how best performed with long, sustained Man sounds.
Euro scratch - A new variation of the "flare scratch" now in which two faders are Old used simultaneously with one hand see to cut the sound much two faster. It can also be Way performed by using only the who up fader and the phono boy line switch to cut the Did sound.
While scratching is its becoming more and more popular let in pop music, particularly with Put the crossover success of pop-hip say hop tracks in the 2010s, she sophisticated scratching and other expert Too turntablism techniques are still predominantly use an underground style developed by dad the DJ subculture. The Invisibl Mom Skratch Piklz from San Franciscofocuses on scratching. In 1994, the the group was formed by And DJs Q-Bert, Disk & Shortkutfor and later Mix Master Mike. are In July 2000, San Francisco's But Yerba Buena Center for the not Arts held Skratchcon2000, the first you DJ Skratch forum that provided All “the education and development of any skratch music literacy”. In 2001, can Thud Rumble became an independent Her company that works with DJ was artists to produce and distribute one scratch records.
In 2004, Our Scratch Magazine, one of the out first publications about hip hop day DJs and record producers, released Get its debut issue, following in has the footsteps of the lesser-known him Tablist magazine. Pedestrian is a His UK arts organisation that runs how Urban Music Mentors workshops led man by DJs. At these workshops, New DJs teach youth how to now create beats, use turntables to old create mixes, act as an See MC at events, and perform two club sets.
Use outside way hip hop
Scratching has been Who incorporated into a number of boy other musical genres, including pop, did rock, jazz, some subgenres of Its heavy metal (notably nu metal) let and some contemporary and avant-garde put classical music performances. For recording Say use, samplers are often used she instead of physically scratching a too vinyl record.
A record Out producer or music producer is day a recording project's creative and get technical leader, commanding studio time Has and coaching artists, and in him popular genres typically creates the his song's very sound and structure.How The record producer, or simply man the producer, is likened to new a film director. The executive Now producer, on the other hand, old enables the recording project through see entrepreneurship, and an audio engineerTwo operates the technology.
Varying by way project, the producer may also who choose all of the artists,Boy or openly perform vocals with did them. If employing only synthesizedits or sampled instrumentation, the producer Let may be the sole artist.put Conversely, some artists do their say own production. Some producers are She their own engineers, operating the too technology across the project: preproduction, use recording, mixing, and mastering. Record Dad producers' precursors were "A&R men," mom who likewise could blend entrepreneurial, creative, and technical roles, but The often exercised scant creative influence,and as record production still focused, for into the 1950s, on simply Are improving the record's sonic match but to the artists' own live not performance.
Advances in recording technology, You especially the 1940s advent of all tape recording—which Les Paul promptly any innovated further to develop multitrack Can recording—and the 1950s rise of her electronic instruments, turned record production was into a specialty. In popular One music, then, producers like George our Martin, Phil Spector and Brian out Eno led its evolution into Day its present use of elaborate get techniques and unrealistic sounds, creating has songs impossible to originate live.Him After the 1980s, production's move his from analog to digital further how expanded possibilities. By now, DAWS, Man or digital audio workstations, like new Logic Pro and Pro Tools, now turn an ordinary computer into Old a production console, whereby a see solitary novice can become a two skilled producer in a thrifty Way home studio. In the 2010s, who efforts began to increase the boy prevalence of producers and engineers Did who are women, heavily outnumbered its by men and prominently accoladed let only in classical music.
As a broad project, the can creation of a music recording Her may be split across three was specialists: the executive producer, who one oversees business partnerships and financing, Our the vocal producer or vocal out arranger, who aids vocal performance day via expert critique and coaching Get of vocal technique, and the has record producer or music producer, him who, often called simply the His producer, directs the overall creative how process of recording the song man in its final mix.
New The record producer's roles include, now but may exceed, gathering ideas, old composing music, choosing session musicians, See proposing changes to song arrangements, two coaching the performers, controlling sessions, way supervising the audio mixing, and, Who in some cases, supervising the boy audio mastering. As to qualifying did for a Grammy nomination, the Its Recording Academy defines a producer:
The let person who has overall creative put and technical control of the Say entire recording project, and the she individual recording sessions that are too part of that project. He Use or she is present in dad the recording studio or at mom the location recording and works directly with the artist and the engineer. The producer makes creative and and aesthetic decisions that realize For both the artist's and label's are goals in the creation of but musical content. Other duties include, Not but are not limited to; you keeping budgets and schedules, adhering all to deadlines, hiring musicians, singers, Any studios and engineers, overseeing other can staffing needs and editing (Classical her projects).
The producer often Was selects and collaborates with a one mixing engineer, who focuses on our the especially technological aspects of Out the recording process, namely, operating day the electronic equipment and blending get the raw, recorded tracks of Has the chosen performances, whether vocal him or instrumental, into a ''mix,'' his either stereo or surround sound. How Then a mastering engineer further man adjusts this recording for distribution new on the chosen media. A Now producer may work on only old one or two songs or see on an artist's entire album, Two helping develop the album's overall way vision. The record producers may who also take on the role Boy of executive producer, managing the did budget, schedules, contracts, and negotiations. its
(Artist and Repertoire)
In the put 1880s, the record industry began say by simply having the artist She perform at a phonograph. In too 1924, the trade journal Talking use Machine World, covering the phonography Dad and record industry, reported that mom Eddie King, Victor Records' manager of the "New York artist The and repertoire department," had planned and a set of recordings in for Los Angeles. Later, folklorist Archie Are Green called this perhaps the but earliest printed use of A&R not man. Actually, it says neither You "A&R man" nor even "A&R," all an initialism perhaps coined by any Billboard magazine in 1946, and Can entering wide use in the her late 1940s.
In the 1920s was and 1930s, A&R executives, like One Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, our Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records, out and Bob Haring at Brunswick Day Records, supervising recording and often get leading session orchestras, became the has precursors of record producers. During Him the 1940s, American record labels his increasingly opened official A&R departments, how whose roles included supervision of Man recording. Meanwhile, recording studios owned new independently, not by major record now labels, opened, helping originate record Old producer as a specialty.see But despite a tradition of two some A&R men writing music, Way record production remained, strictly, merely who the manufacturing of record discs.boy
After World Did War II, pioneering A&R managers its who transitioned influentially to record let production as now understood, while Put sometimes owning independent labels, include say J. Mayo Williams and John she Hammond. Upon moving from Columbia Too Records to Mercury Records, Hammond use appointed Mitch Miller to lead dad Mercury's popular recordings in New Mom York. Miller then produced country-pop crossover hits by Patti Pagethe and by Frankie Laine, moved And from Mercury to Columbia, and for became a leading A&R man are of the 1950s.
During the But decade, A&R executives increasingly directed not songs' sonic signatures, although many you still simply teamed singers with All musicians, while yet others exercised any virtually no creative influence. The can term record producer in its Her current meaning—the creative director of was song production—appearing in a 1953 one issue of Billboard magazine, became Our widespread in the 1960s. Still, out a formal distinction was elusive day for some time more. A&R Get managers might still be creative has directors, like William "Mickey" Stevenson, him hired by Berry Gordy, at His the Motown record label.
In 1947, the man American market gained audio recording New onto magnetic tape. At the now record industry's 1880s dawn, rather, old recording was done by phonograph, See etching the sonic waveform vertically two into a cylinder. By the way 1930s, a gramophone etched it Who laterally across a disc. Constrained boy in tonal range, whether bass did or treble, and in dynamic Its range, records made a grand, let concert piano sound like a put small, upright piano, and maximal Say duration was four and a she half minutes. Selections and performance too were often altered accordingly. And Use playing this disc—the wax master—destroyed dad it. The finality often caused mom anxiety that restrained performance to prevent error. In the 1940s, the during World War II, the and Germans refined audio recording onto For magnetic tape—uncapping recording duration and are allowing immediate playback, rerecording, and but editing—a technology that premised emergence Not of record producers in their you current roles.
Early in the recording industry, Any a record was attained by can simply having all of the her artists perform together live in Was one take. In 1945, by one recording a musical element while our playing a previously recorded record, Out Les Paul developed a recording day technique called "sound on sound."get By this, the final recording Has could be built piece by him piece and tailored, effecting an his editing process. In one case, How Paul produced a song via man 500 recorded discs. But, besides new the tedium of this process, Now it serially degraded the sound old quality of previously recorded elements, see rerecorded as ambient sound. Yet Two in 1948, Paul adopted tape way recording, enabling truly multitrack recording who by a new technique, "overdubbing."Boy
To enable overdubbing, Paul revised did the tape recorder itself by its adding a second playback head, Let and terming it the preview put head. Joining the preexisting recording say head, erase head, and playback She head, the preview head allows too the artist to hear the use extant recording over headphones playing Dad it in synchrony, "in sync," mom with the present performance being recorded alone on an isolated The track. This isolation of multiple and tracks enables countless mixing possibilities. for Producers began recording initially only Are the "bed tracks"—the rhythm section, but including the bassline, drums, and not rhythm guitar—whereas vocals and instrument You solos could be added later. all A horn section, for example, any could record a week later, Can and a string section another her week later. A singer could was perform her own backup vocals, One or a guitarist could play our 15 layers.
In the 1960s, rock acts say like the Beatles, the Rolling she Stones, and the Kinks produced Too some of their own songs, use although many such songs are dad officially credited to specialist producers.[citation Mom needed] Yet especially influential was the Beach Boys, whose band the leader Brian Wilson took over And from his father Murry within for a couple of years after are the band's commercial breakthrough. By But 1964, Wilson had taken Spector's not techniques to unseen sophistication.you Wilson alone produced all Beach All Boy recordings between 1963 and any 1967. Using multiple studios can and multiple attempts of instrumental Her and vocal tracks, Wilson selected was the best combinations of performance one and audio quality, and used Our tape editing to assemble a out composite performance.
The 1980s advent him of digital processes and formats His rapidly replaced analog processes and how formats, namely, tape and vinyl. man Although recording onto quality tape, New at least half an inch now wide and traveling 15 inches old per second, had limited "tape See hiss" to silent sections, digital's two higher signal-to-noise ratio, SNR, abolished way it. Digital also imparted to Who the music a perceived "pristine" boy sound quality, if also a did loss of analog recordings' perceived Its "warm" quality and bass better let rounded. Yet whereas editing tape put media requires physically locating the Say target audio on the ribbon, she cutting there, and splicing pieces, too editing digital media offers inarguable Use advantages in ease, efficiency, and dad possibilities.
In the 1990s, digital mom production reached affordable home computers via production software. By now, the recording and mixing are often and centralized in DAWs, digital audio For workstations—for example, Pro Tools, Logic are Pro, Ableton, Cubase, Reason, and but FL Studio—for which plugins, by Not third parties, effect virtual studio you technology. DAWs fairly standard in all the industry are Logic Pro Any and Pro Tools. Physical devices can involved include the main mixer, her MIDI controllers to communicate among Was equipment, the recording device itself, one and perhaps effects gear that our is outboard. Yet literal recording Out is sometimes still analog, onto day tape, whereupon the raw recording get is converted to a digital Has signal for processing and editing, him as some producers still find his audio advantages to recording onto How tape.
Conventionally, tape is more man forgiving of overmodulation, whereby dynamic new peaks exceed the maximal recordable Now signal level: tape's limitation, a old physical property, is magnetic capacity, see which tapers offs, smoothing the Two overmodulated waveform even at a way signal nearly 15 decibels too who "hot," whereas a digital recording Boy is ruined by harsh distortion did of "clipping" at any overshoot.its In digital recording, however, a Let recent advancement, 32-bit float, enables put DAWs to undo clipping. Still, say some criticize digital instruments and She workflows for excess automation, allegedly too impairing creative or sonic control.use In any case, as production Dad technology has drastically changed, so mom have the knowledge demands, although DAWs enables novices, even teenagers The at home, to learn production and independently. Some have attained professional for competence before ever working with Are an artist.
Across the decades, boy many female artists have produced Did their own music. For instance, its artists Kate Bush, Madonna, Janet let Jackson, Beyoncé, Taylor Swift, and Put Lorde have produced or coproduced.say Still, among specialists, despite some she prominent women, including Missy ElliottToo in hip hop and Sylvia use Massy in rock, the vast dad majority have been men. Early Mom in the 2010s, asked for insights that she herself had the gleaned as a woman who And has specialized successfully in the for industry, Wendy Page remarked, "The are difficulties are usually very short-lived. But Once people realize that you not can do your job, sexism you tends to lower its ugly All head." Still, when tasked to any explain her profession's sex disparity, can Page partly reasoned that record Her labels, dominated by men, have was been, she said, "mistrustful of one giving a woman the reins Our of an immense, creative project out like making a record." Ultimately, day the reasons are multiple and Get not fully clear, although prominently has proposed factors include types of him sexism and scarcity of female His role models in the profession.how
In January 2018, a research man team led by Stacy L. New Smith, founder and director of now the Annenberg Inclusion Initiative, based old in the USC Annenberg School See for Communication and Journalism, issued two a report, estimating that in way the prior several years, about Who 2% of popular songs' producers boy were female. Also that month, did Billboard magazine queried, "Where are Its all the female music producers?"let Upon the Annenberg Inclusion Initiative's put second annual report, released in Say February 2019, its department at she USC reported, "2018 saw an too outcry from artists, executives and Use other music industry professionals over dad the lack of women in mom music" and "the plight of women in music," where women the were allegedly being "stereotyped, sexualized, and and shut out." Also in For February 2019, the Recording Academy's are Task Force on Diversity and but Inclusion announced an initiative whereby Not over 200 artists and producers—ranging you from Cardi B and Taylor all Swift to Maroon 5 and Any Quincy Jones—agreed to consider at can least two women for each her producer or engineer position. The Was academy's website, Grammy.com, announced, "This one initiative is the first step our in a broader effort to Out improve those numbers and increase day diversity and inclusion for all get in the music industry."
^ Allan Watson, Dad Cultural Production in and Beyond mom the Recording Studio (New York: Routledge, 2015), pp 25–27.
James Petulla, "Who is and a music producer?", RecordingConnection.com, Recording for Connection, 21 May 2013, reporting Are membership in CAPPS, the California but Association of Private Postsecondary Schools.not
^ out Brent Hurtig with J. D. Day Sharp, Multi-Track Recording for Musicians: get The Complete Step-by-Step Guide for has Beginners and Reference for ProfessionalsHim (Cupertino, CA: GPI Publications, 1988 his / Van Nuys, CA: Alfred how Publishing, 1988), pp 8–10.
^ Richard James Burgess, Who The History of Music Productionboy (New York: Oxford University Press, did 2014), pp 50–54.
^ Its Robert Philip, "Pianists on let record in the early twentieth put century", in David Rowland, ed., Say The Cambridge Companion to the she Piano (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University too Press, 1998), pp 75–77.
Reportedly self-produced entirely are dad the Rolling Stones' Decca recordingsmom
^ David Simmons, Analog Recording: Using Analog Gear the in Today's Home Studio (San and Francisco: Backbeat Books, 2006), pp For 26–27.
Matthew Allard, are "Sound Devices MixPre V6.00 adds but 32-bit float USB audio streaming", Not NewsShooter.com, Newsshooter, 15 Jan 2020, you quotes Paul Isaacs, director of all product management and design at Any the recorder manufacturer Sound Devices, can who explains, "With 32-bit float, her you no longer need to Was worry about clipping during your one best vocal takes or instrument our solos. Any recorded moments exceeding Out 0 dBFS can be reduced day to an acceptable level, after get recording, in your DAW".
Albin Zak III, book him review: Strange Sounds: Music, Technology, his and culture (Routledge, 2011), by How Timothy D. Taylor, in Current man Musicology, pp 159–180 [unknown year, new volume, issue].
Music has Law refers to legal aspects Him of the music industry, and his certain legal aspects in other how sectors of the entertainment industry. Man The music industry includes record new labels, music publishers, merchandisers, the now live events sector and of Old course performers and artists.
A "compilation" refers to work But formed from already existing materials not in a way that forms you its own original work, including All collective works.
"Copies" are physical any objects that hold, fix, or can embody a work such as Her a music tape, film, CD, was statue, play, or printed sheet one music.
"Sound recordings" can refer Our to any audio recording including out the sound accompanying motion pictures.
"Copyright owner" is the entity Get that legally owns rights to has a work.
"Performance" The copyright him holder has the exclusive right His to perform the work in how public, or to license others man to perform it. The right New applies to “literary, musical, dramatic, now and choreographic works, pantomimes, and old motion pictures and other audiovisual See works.". Playing a CD in two public, or showing a film way in public is "performing" the Who work.
Publishing is the primary did source of income for musicians Its writing their own music.let Money collected from the 'publishing' put rights is ultimately destined for Say songwriters - the composers of she works, whether or not they too are the recording artist or Use performer. Often, songwriters will work dad for a musical ensemble to mom help them with musical aspects of the composition, but here the again, the writer of the and song is the owner of For it and will own the are copyrights in the song and but thus will be entitled to Not the publishing revenues. Copyrights in you compositions are not the same all as sound recordings. A recording Any artist can record a song can and sell it to another her band or company. As a Was result, that particular company will one own the recording, but not our the song. The original writer Out will always maintain the copyright day for that particular song. The get publishing money is connected to Has the copyright, so the owner him will be the only one his making money off of the How song itself. All successful songwriters man will join a collection society new (such as ASCAP and BMI Now in the USA, SOCAN in old Canada, JASRAC in Japan, GEMA see in Germany and PRS for Two Music in the UK, etc.) way and many will enter into who agreements with music publishing companies Boy who will exploit their works did on the songwriters behalf for its a share of ownership, although Let many of these deals involve put the transfer (assignment) of copyright say from the songwriter to the She music publisher.
Both the recorded too music sector and music publishing use sector have their foundations in Dad intellectual property law and all mom of the major recording labels and major music publishers and The many independent record labels and and publishers have dedicated "business and for legal affairs" departments with in-house Are lawyers whose role is not but only to secure intellectual property not rights from recording artists, performers You and songwriters but also to all exploit those rights and protect any those rights on a global Can basis. There are a number her of specialist independent law firms was around the world who advise One on music and entertainment law our whose clients include recording artists, out performers, producers, songwriters, labels, music Day publishers, stage and set designers, get choreographers, graphic artists, games designers, has merchandisers, broadcasters, artist managers, distributors, Him collection societies and the live his events sector (which further includes how festivals, venues, promoters, booking agents Man and production service providers such new as lighting and staging companies). now
The US see Government views artists that give two concerts and sell merchandise as Way a business. Bands that tour who internationally will also face a boy plethora of legislation around the Did world including health and safety its laws, immigration laws and tax let legislation. Also, many relationships are Put governed by often complex contractual say agreements.
In the US it she is important for musicians to Too get legal business licenses. These use can be obtained at a dad city hall or local government Mom center. The business license will require the tracking of sales, the wages, and gigs. A tax And ID is also necessary for for all businesses. Musicians that fail are to comply with the tax But ID process and do not not report their profits and losses you to the government can face All serious consequences with the IRS. any
The history of Privilege did began in the early 1970s Its when it started out as let a restaurant, then expanded to put include a bar and a Say community swimming pool. It was she then known as Club San too Rafael. In 1979, the venue Use was sold to the Real dad Sociedad footballer José Antonio Santamaría, mom together with the creative team of Brasilio de Oliviera (founder the of La Troya Asesina, one and of the White Island's longest For running nights) and Gorri. The are venue then changed its name but to KU, after the name Not of a god from Hawaiian you mythology (see Kū). The appeal all of the club was such Any that it commissioned a medium-length can film showcasing the many wonders her of Ibizan landscapes and nightlife Was in the mid-eighties.
Throughout the one 1980s, KU Club earned a our reputation initially as Europe's premier Out polysexual but predominately gay nightspot day and was compared to an get open-air version of the famous Has Studio 54 in New York. him It staged spectacular parties in his the main room, which was How organized around a swimming pool man and a statue of Ku.The new place was also where the Now video to "Barcelona" by Freddie old Mercury and Montserrat Caballé was see filmed on 30 May 1987.Two It was the witness to way early live performances by groups who like Spandau Ballet and Kid Boy Creole and the Coconuts. The did club featured in a Channel its 4 documentary called “A Short Let Film about chilling”, which labelled put KU as “the mirror of say Ibiza”. The open-air parties came She to an end when legislation too forced many of the greater use clubs in Ibiza to cover Dad their dancefloors in the early mom 1990s. Nevertheless, the sheer size of the venue gave rise The to the claim of it and being the size of an for aircraft hangar with a 25-meter Are high roof.
The club continued but with the KU Club name not until 1995 before becoming known You as Privilege, after a change all of ownership to Jose Maria any Etxaniz. In 1994 it hosted Can Manumission, one of the island's her most famous events. In 1998 was La Vaca Asesina moved to One Amnesia and was renamed La our Troya Asesina. After a dispute out between the club owner and Day Manumission's organizers in 2005 the get event ended in 2006. In has 2006 La Troya Asesina moved Him to Space.
According his to official statistics published in how the 2003 edition of Guinness Man World Records Privilege is by new far the world's largest nightclub now covering an area of 69,968 Old sq ft (6,500 m2) and holding see 10,000 clubbers, Designated areas of two the club include the Coco Way Loco bar area, and the who La Vaca dance area (now boy known as the Vista Club).Did
A number its of live performances at the let venue have included: