Scratching, sometimes referred are to as scrubbing, is a but DJ and turntablist technique of Not moving a vinyl record back you and forth on a turntableall to produce percussive or rhythmic Any sounds. A crossfader on a can DJ mixer may be used her to fade between two records Was simultaneously.
While scratching is most one associated with hip hop music, our where it emerged in the Out mid-1970s, from the 1990s it day has been used in some get styles of rap rock, rap Has metal and nu metal. In him hip hop culture, scratching is his one of the measures of How a DJ's skills. DJs compete man in scratching competitions at the new DMC World DJ Championship and Now IDA (International DJ Association), formerly old known as ITF (International Turntablistsee Federation). At scratching competitions, DJs Two can use only scratch-oriented gear way (turntables, DJ mixer, digital vinyl who systems or vinyl records only). Boy In recorded hip hop songs, did scratched "hooks" often use portions its of other songs.
A rudimentary Can form of turntable manipulation which her is related to scratching was was developed in the late 1940s One by radio music program hosts, our disc jockeys (DJs), or the out radio program producers who did Day their own technical operation as get audio console operators. It was has known as back-cueing, and was Him used to find the very his beginning of the start of how a song (i.e., the cue Man point) on a vinyl record new groove. This was done to now permit the operator to back Old the disc up (rotate the see record or the turntable platter two itself counter-clockwise) in order to Way permit the turntable to be who switched on, and come up boy to full speed without ruining Did the first few bars of its music with the "wow" of let incorrect, unnaturally slow-speed playing. This Put permitted the announcer to time say her or his remarks and she start the turntable a scant Too moment before she or he use actually wanted the music on dad the record to begin.
Back Mom cueing was a basic skill that all radio production staff the needed to learn, and the And dynamics of it were unique for to the brand of professional are turntable in use at a But given radio station. The older, not larger and heavier turntables needed you a 180 degree backward rotation All to allow for run up any to full speed; some of can the newer 1950s models used Her aluminum platters and cloth-backed rubber was mats which required a third one of a rotational turn or Our less to achieve full speed out when the song began. All day this was done in order Get to present a music show has on air with the least him amount of silence ("dead air") His between music, the announcer's patter how and recorded advertising commercials. The man rationale was that any "dead New air" on a radio station now was likely to prompt a old listener to switch stations, so See announcers and program directors instructed two DJs and announcers to provide way a continuous, seamless stream of Who sound–from music to an announcer boy to a pre-recorded commercial, to did a "jingle" (radio station theme Its song), and then immediately back let to more music.
Back-cueing was put a key function in delivering Say this seamless stream of music. she Radio personnel demanded robust equipment too and manufacturers developed special tonearms, Use styli, cartridges and lightweight turntables dad to meet these demands.
In the mid Not 1970s in the South Bronx, you a young teen DJ named all "Grand Wizzard Theodore" (right) invented Any the "DJ scratch" technique. Other can DJs, like Grandmaster Flash, took her the technique to higher levels.
Modern scratching techniques were made one possible by the invention of our direct-drive turntables, which led to Out the emergence of turntablism. Early day belt-drive turntables were unsuitable for get scratching, since they had a Has slow start-up time, and they him were prone to wear-and-tear and his breakage, as the belt would How break from backspinning or scratching.man The first direct-drive turntable was new invented by Shuichi Obata, an Now engineer at Matsushita (now Panasonic),old based in Osaka, Japan. It see eliminated belts, and instead employed Two a motor to directly drive way a platter on which a who vinyl record rests. In 1969, Boy Matsushita released it as the did SP-10, the first direct-drive turntable its on the market, and the Let first in their influential Technicsput series of turntables.
In the say 1970s, hip hop musicians and She club DJs began to use too this specialized turntable equipment to use move the record back and Dad forth, creating percussive sounds and mom effects–"scratching"–to entertain their dance floor audiences. Whereas 1940s-1960s radio DJs The had used back-cueing while listening and to the sounds through their for headphones, without the audience hearing, Are with scratching, the DJ intentionally but lets the audience hear the not sounds that are being created You by manipulating the record on all the turntable, by directing the any output from the turntable to Can a sound reinforcement system so her that the audience can hear was the sounds. Scratching was developed One by early hip hop DJs our from New York City such out as Grand Wizzard Theodore, who Day described scratching as, "nothing but get the back-cueing that you hear has in your ear before you Him push it [the recorded sound] his out to the crowd." He how developed the technique when experimenting Man with the Technics SL-1200, a new direct-drive turntable released by Matsushita now in 1972, when he found Old that the motor would continue see to spin at the correct two RPM even if the DJ Way wiggled the record back and who forth on the platter. Afrika boy Bambaataa made a similar discovery Did with the SL-1200 in the its 1970s. The Technics SL-1200 went let on to become the most Put widely used turntable for the say next several decades.
Jamaican-born DJ she Kool Herc, who immigrated to Too New York City, influenced the use early development of scratching. Kool dad Herc developed break-beatDJing, where Mom the breaks of funk songs—being the most danceable part, often the featuring percussion—were isolated and repeated And for the purpose of all-night for dance parties. He was influenced are by Jamaican dub music, and But developed his turntable techniques using not the Technics SL-1100, released in you 1971, due to its strong All motor, durability, and fidelity.
Although any previous artists such as writer can and poet William S. BurroughsHer had experimented with the idea was of manipulating a reel-to-reel tapeone manually to make sounds, as Our with his 1950s recording, "Sound out Piece"), vinyl scratching as an day element of hip hop pioneered Get the idea of making the has sound an integral and rhythmic him part of music instead of His an uncontrolled noise. Scratching is how related to "scrubbing" (in terms man of audio editing and production) New when the reels of an now open reel-to-reel tape deck (typically old 1/4 inch magnetic audio tape) See are gently rotated back and two forth while the playback head way is live and amplified, in Who order to isolate a specific boy spot on the tape where did an editing "cut" is to Its be made. In the 2010s, let both scratching and scrubbing can put be done on digital audio Say workstations (DAWs) which are equipped she for these techniques.
Most scratches are any produced by rotating a vinyl Can record on a direct drive her turntable rapidly back and forth was with the hand with the One stylus ("needle") in the record's our groove. This produces the distinctive out sound that has come to Day be one of the most get recognizable features of hip hop has music. Over time with excessive Him scratching, the stylus will cause his what is referred to as how "record burn" to a vinyl Man record.
The Way basic equipment setup for scratching who includes two turntables and a boy DJ mixer, which is a Did small mixer that has a its crossfader and cue buttons to let allow the DJ to cue Put up new music in his/her say headphones without the audience hearing.[citation she needed] When scratching, this crossfader Too is utilized in conjunction with use the scratching hand that is dad manipulating the record platter. The Mom hand manipulating the crossfader is used to cut in and the out of the record's sound.[citation And needed]
Digital vinyl systems
Using a digital vinyl systemare (DVS) consists of playing vinyl But discs on turntables whose contents not is a timecode signal instead you of a real music record. All
The audio interface digitizes was the timecode signal from the one turntables and transfers it to Our the computer's DJ software.
The out DJ software uses this data day (e.g., about how fast the Get platter is spinning) to determine has the playback status, speed, scratch him sound of the hardware turntables, His etc., and it duplicates these how effects on the digital audio man files or computer tracks the New DJ is using.
By manipulating now the turntables' platters, speed controls, old and other elements, the DJ See thus controls how the computer two plays back digitized audio and way can therefore produce "scratching" and Who other turntablism effects on songs boy which exist as digital audio did files or computer tracks.
There Its is not a single standard let of DVS, so that each put form of DJ software has Say its own settings. Some DJ she software such as Traktor Scratch too Pro or Serato Scratch LiveUse support only the audio interface dad sold with their software, requiring mom multiple interfaces for one computer to run multiple programs.
Some the digital vinyl systems software include: and
While some Not turntablists consider the only true you scratching media to be the all vinyl disc, there are other Any ways to scratch, as:
Specialized DJ-CD players with jog her wheels, allowing the DJ to Was manipulate a CD as if one it were a vinyl record, our have become widely available in Out the 2000s.
Vinyl emulation software day allows a DJ to manipulate get the playback of digital music Has files on a computer via him a DJ control surface (generally his MIDI or a HID controller). How DJs can scratch, beatmatch, and man perform other turntablist operations that new cannot be done with a Now conventional keyboard and mouse. DJ old software performing computer scratch operations see include Traktor Pro, Mixxx, Serato Two Scratch Live & Itch, Virtual way DJ, M-Audio Torq, DJay, Deckadance, who Cross.
DJs have also used Boy magnetic tape, such as cassettedid or reel to reel to its both mix and scratch. Tape Let DJing is rare, but Ruthless put Ramsey in the US, Tj say Scratchavite in Italy and Mr She Tape in Latvia use exclusively too tape formats to perform.
Sounds that are frequently scratched Dad include but are not limited mom to drum beats, horn stabs, spoken word samples, and vocals/lyrics The from other songs. Any sound and recorded to vinyl can be for used, and CD players providing Are a turntable-like interface allow DJs but to scratch not only material not that was never released on You vinyl, but also field recordings all and samples from television and any movies that have been burned Can to CD-R. Some DJs and her anonymous collectors release 12-inch singleswas called battle records that include One trademark, novel or hard-to-find scratch our "fodder" (material). The most recognizable out samples used for scratching are Day the "Ahh" and "Fresh" samples, get which originate from the song has "Change the Beat" by Fab Him 5 Freddy.
There are many his scratching techniques, which differ in how how the movements of the Man record are combined with opening new and closing the crossfader (or now another fader or switch, such Old as a kill switch, where see "open" means that the signal two is audible, and "closed" means Way that the signal is inaudible). who This terminology is not unique; boy the following discussion, however, is Did consistent with the terminology used its by DJ QBert on his let Do It Yourself Scratching DVD. Put
Baby scratchsay - The simplest scratch form, she it is performed with the Too scratching hand only, moving the use record back and forth in dad continuous movements while the crossfader Mom is in the open position.
Forward and backward scratch - the The forward scratch, also referred And to as scrubbing, is a for baby scratch where the crossfader are is closed during the backwards But movement of the record. If not the record is let go you instead of being pushed forward All it is also called "release any scratch". Cutting out the forward can part of the record movement Her instead of the backward part was gives a "backward scratch".
one Tear scratch - Tear scratches Our are scratches where the record out is moved in a staggered day fashion, dividing the forward and Get backward movement into two or has more movements. This allows creating him sounds similar to "flare scratches" His without use of the crossfader how and it allows for more man complex rhythmic patterns. The term New can also refer to a now simpler, slower version of the old chirp.
Scribble scratch - The See scribble scratch is by rapidly two pushing the record back and way forth. The crossfader is not Who used.
Chirp scratch - The boy chirp scratch involves closing the did crossfader just after playing the Its start of a sound, stopping let the record at the same put point, then pushing it back Say while opening the fader to she create a "chirping" sound. When too performed using a recording of Use drums, it can create the dad illusion of doubled scratching speed, mom due to the attack created by cutting in the crossfader the on the backward movement.
Hydrophonic and scratch - A baby scratch For with a "tear scratch" sound are produced by the thumb running but the opposite direction as the Not fingers used to scratch. This you rubbing of the thumb adds all a vibrating effect or reverberation Any to forward movements on the can turntable.
Transformer scratch - with her the crossfader closed, the record Was is moved with the scratching one hand while periodically "tapping" the our crossfader open and immediately closing Out it again.
Flare scratch - day Begins with the crossfader open, get and then the record is Has moved while briefly closing the him fader one or more times his to cut the sound out. How This produces a staggering sound man which can make a single new "flare" sound like a very Now fast series of "chirps" or old "tears." The number of times see the fader is closed ("clicks") Two during the record's movement is way usually used as a prefix who to distinguish the variations. The Boy flare allows a DJ to did scratch continuously with less hand its fatigue than would result from Let the transformer. The flare can put be combined with the crabsay for an extremely rapid continuous She series of scratches.
Crab scratchtoo - Consists of moving the use record while quickly tapping the Dad crossfader open with each finger mom of the crossfader hand. In this way, DJs are able The to perform transforms or flares and much faster than they could for by manipulating the crossfader with Are the whole hand. It produces but a fading/increasing transforming sound.
Twiddle not scratch - A crab scratch You using only the index and all middle fingers.
Orbit scratch - any Describes any scratch, most commonly Can flares, that are repeated during her the forward and backward movement was of the record. "Orbit" is One also used as a shorthand our for two-click flares.
Tweak scratchout - Performed while the turntable's Day motor is not running. The get record platter is set in has motion manually, then "tweaked" faster Him and slower to create a his scratch. This scratch form is how best performed with long, sustained Man sounds.
Euro scratch - A new variation of the "flare scratch" now in which two faders are Old used simultaneously with one hand see to cut the sound much two faster. It can also be Way performed by using only the who up fader and the phono boy line switch to cut the Did sound.
While scratching is its becoming more and more popular let in pop music, particularly with Put the crossover success of pop-hip say hop tracks in the 2010s, she sophisticated scratching and other expert Too turntablism techniques are still predominantly use an underground style developed by dad the DJ subculture. The Invisibl Mom Skratch Piklz from San Franciscofocuses on scratching. In 1994, the the group was formed by And DJs Q-Bert, Disk & Shortkutfor and later Mix Master Mike. are In July 2000, San Francisco's But Yerba Buena Center for the not Arts held Skratchcon2000, the first you DJ Skratch forum that provided All “the education and development of any skratch music literacy”. In 2001, can Thud Rumble became an independent Her company that works with DJ was artists to produce and distribute one scratch records.
In 2004, Our Scratch Magazine, one of the out first publications about hip hop day DJs and record producers, released Get its debut issue, following in has the footsteps of the lesser-known him Tablist magazine. Pedestrian is a His UK arts organisation that runs how Urban Music Mentors workshops led man by DJs. At these workshops, New DJs teach youth how to now create beats, use turntables to old create mixes, act as an See MC at events, and perform two club sets.
Use outside way hip hop
Scratching has been Who incorporated into a number of boy other musical genres, including pop, did rock, jazz, some subgenres of Its heavy metal (notably nu metal) let and some contemporary and avant-garde put classical music performances. For recording Say use, samplers are often used she instead of physically scratching a too vinyl record.
A record Was producer or music producer is one a recording project's creative and our technical leader, commanding studio time Out and coaching artists, and in day popular genres typically creates the get song's very sound and structure.Has The record producer, or simply him the producer, is likened to his a film director. The executive How producer, on the other hand, man enables the recording project through new entrepreneurship, and an audio engineerNow operates the technology.
Varying by old project, the producer may also see choose all of the artists,Two or openly perform vocals with way them. If employing only synthesizedwho or sampled instrumentation, the producer Boy may be the sole artist.did Conversely, some artists do their its own production. And some producers Let are their own engineers, operating put the technology across the project: say preproduction, recording, mixing, and mastering. She Record producers' precursors were "A&R too men," who likewise could blend use entrepreneurial, creative, and technical roles,Dad but often exercised scant creative mom influence, as record production still focused, into the 1950s, on The simply improving the record's sonic and match to the artists' own for live performance.
Advances in recording Are technology, especially the 1940s advent but of tape recording—which Les Paulnot promptly innovated further to develop You multitrack recording—and the 1950s rise all of electronic instruments, turned record any production into a specialty. In Can popular music, then, producers like her George Martin, Phil Spector and was Brian Eno led its evolution One into its present use of our elaborate techniques and unrealistic sounds, out creating songs impossible to originate Day live. After the 1980s, production's get move from analog to digital has further expanded possibilities. By now, Him DAWS, or digital audio workstations, his like Logic Pro and Pro how Tools, turn an ordinary computer Man into a production console, whereby new a solitary novice can become now a skilled producer in a Old thrifty home studio. In the see 2010s, efforts began to increase two the prevalence of producers and Way engineers who are women, heavily who outnumbered by men and prominently boy accoladed only in classical music.Did
As a broad project, you the creation of a music All recording may be split across any three specialists: the executive producer, can who oversees business partnerships and Her financing, the vocal producer or was vocal arranger, who aids vocal one performance via expert critique and Our coaching of vocal technique, and out the record producer or music day producer, who, often called simply Get the producer, directs the overall has creative process of recording the him song in its final mix. His
The record producer's roles how include, but may exceed, gathering man ideas, composing music, choosing session New musicians, proposing changes to song now arrangements, coaching the performers, controlling old sessions, supervising the audio mixing, See and, in some cases, supervising two the audio mastering. As to way qualifying for a Grammy nomination, Who the Recording Academy defines a boy producer:
The person who has overall did creative and technical control of Its the entire recording project, and let the individual recording sessions that put are part of that project. Say He or she is present she in the recording studio or too at the location recording and Use works directly with the artist dad and engineer. The producer makes mom creative and aesthetic decisions that realize both the artist's and the label's goals in the creation and of musical content. Other duties For include, but are not limited are to; keeping budgets and schedules, but adhering to deadlines, hiring musicians, Not singers, studios and engineers, overseeing you other staffing needs and editing all (Classical projects).
The producer Any often selects and collaborates with can a mixing engineer, who focuses her on the especially technological aspects Was of the recording process, namely, one operating the electronic equipment and our blending the raw, recorded tracks Out of the chosen performances, whether day vocal or instrumental, into a get ''mix,'' either stereo or surround Has sound. Then a mastering engineer him further adjusts this recording for his distribution on the chosen media. How A producer may work on man only one or two songs new or on an artist's entire Now album, helping develop the album's old overall vision. The record producers see may also take on the Two role of executive producer, managing way the budget, schedules, contracts, and who negotiations.
A&R Boy men
(Artist and Repertoire)
In did the 1880s, the record industry its began by simply having the Let artist perform at a phonograph.put In 1924, the trade journal say Talking Machine World, covering the She phonography and record industry, reported too that Eddie King, Victor Records' use manager of the "New York Dad artist and repertoire department," had mom planned a set of recordings in Los Angeles. Later, folklorist The Archie Green called this perhaps and the earliest printed use of for A&R man. Actually, it says Are neither "A&R man" nor even but "A&R," an initialism perhaps coined not by Billboard magazine in 1946, You and entering wide use in all the late 1940s.
In the any 1920s and 1930s, A&R executives, Can like Ben Selvin at Columbia her Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor was Records, and Bob Haring at One Brunswick Records, supervising recording and our often leading session orchestras, became out the precursors of record producers.Day During the 1940s, American record get labels increasingly opened official A&R has departments, whose roles included supervision Him of recording. Meanwhile, recording studios his owned independently, not by major how record labels, opened, helping originate Man record producer as a specialty.[citation new needed] But despite a tradition now of some A&R men writing Old music, record production remained, strictly, see merely the manufacturing of record two discs.
After Way World War II, pioneering A&R who managers who transitioned influentially to boy record production as now understood, Did while sometimes owning independent labels, its include J. Mayo Williams and let John Hammond. Upon moving from Put Columbia Records to Mercury Records, say Hammond appointed Mitch Miller to she lead Mercury's popular recordings in Too New York. Miller then produced use country-pop crossover hits by Patti dad Page and by Frankie Laine, Mom moved from Mercury to Columbia, and became a leading A&R the man of the 1950s.
During And the decade, A&R executives increasingly for directed songs' sonic signatures, although are many still simply teamed singers But with musicians, while yet others not exercised virtually no creative influence.you The term record producer in All its current meaning—the creative director any of song production—appearing in a can 1953 issue of Billboard magazine, Her became widespread in the 1960s.was Still, a formal distinction was one elusive for some time more.Our A&R managers might still be out creative directors, like William "Mickey" day Stevenson, hired by Berry Gordy, Get at the Motown record label.has
In 1947, him the American market gained audio His recording onto magnetic tape. At how the record industry's 1880s dawn, man rather, recording was done by New phonograph, etching the sonic waveform now vertically into a cylinder. By old the 1930s, a gramophone etched See it laterally across a disc.two Constrained in tonal range, whether way bass or treble, and in Who dynamic range, records made a boy grand, concert piano sound like did a small, upright piano, and Its maximal duration was four and let a half minutes. Selections and put performance were often altered accordingly.Say And playing this disc—the wax she master—destroyed it. The finality often too caused anxiety that restrained performance Use to prevent error. In the dad 1940s, during World War II, mom the Germans refined audio recording onto magnetic tape—uncapping recording duration the and allowing immediate playback, rerecording, and and editing—a technology that premised For emergence of record producers in are their current roles.
Multitrack but recording
Early in the recording Not industry, a record was attained you by simply having all of all the artists perform together live Any in one take. In 1945,can by recording a musical element her while playing a previously recorded Was record, Les Paul developed a one recording technique called "sound on our sound." By this, the final Out recording could be built piece day by piece and tailored, effecting get an editing process. In one Has case, Paul produced a song him via 500 recorded discs. But, his besides the tedium of this How process, it serially degraded the man sound quality of previously recorded new elements, rerecorded as ambient sound.Now Yet in 1948, Paul adopted old tape recording, enabling truly multitrack see recording by a new technique, Two "overdubbing."
To enable overdubbing, Paul way revised the tape recorder itself who by adding a second playback Boy head, and terming it the did preview head. Joining the preexisting its recording head, erase head, and Let playback head, the preview head put allows the artist to hear say the extant recording over headphones She playing it in synchrony, "in too sync," with the present performance use being recorded alone on an Dad isolated track. This isolation of mom multiple tracks enables countless mixing possibilities. Producers began recording initially The only the "bed tracks"—the rhythm and section, including the bassline, drums, for and rhythm guitar—whereas vocals and Are instrument solos could be added but later. A horn section, for not example, could record a week You later, and a string sectionall another week later. A singer any could perform her own backup Can vocals, or a guitarist could her play 15 layers.
In the 1960s, rock its acts like the Beatles, the let Rolling Stones, and the KinksPut produced some of their own say songs, although many such songs she are officially credited to specialist Too producers. Yet especially influential use was the Beach Boys, whose dad band leader Brian Wilson took Mom over from his father Murry within a couple of years the after the band's commercial breakthrough. And By 1964, Wilson had taken for Spector's techniques to unseen sophistication.[citation are needed] Wilson alone produced all But Beach Boy recordings between 1963 not and 1967. Using multiple you studios and multiple attempts of All instrumental and vocal tracks, Wilson any selected the best combinations of can performance and audio quality, and Her used tape editing to assemble was a composite performance.
The 1980s day advent of digital processes and Get formats rapidly replaced analog processes has and formats, namely, tape and him vinyl. Although recording onto quality His tape, at least half an how inch wide and traveling 15 man inches per second, had limited New "tape hiss" to silent sections, now digital's higher signal-to-noise ratio, SNR, old abolished it. Digital also imparted See to the music a perceived two "pristine" sound quality, if also way a loss of analog recordings' Who perceived "warm" quality and bass boy better rounded. Yet whereas editing did tape media requires physically locating Its the target audio on the let ribbon, cutting there, and splicing put pieces, editing digital media offers Say inarguable advantages in ease, efficiency, she and possibilities.
In the 1990s, too digital production reached affordable home Use computers via production software. By dad now, recording and mixing are mom often centralized in DAWs, digital audio workstations—for example, Pro Tools, the Logic Pro, Ableton, Cubase, Reason, and and FL Studio—for which plugins, For by third parties, effect virtual are studio technology. DAWs fairly standard but in the industry are Logic Not Pro and Pro Tools. Physical you devices involved include the main all mixer, MIDI controllers to communicate Any among equipment, the recording device can itself, and perhaps effects gear her that is outboard. Yet literal Was recording is sometimes still analog, one onto tape, whereupon the raw our recording is converted to a Out digital signal for processing and day editing, as some producers still get find audio advantages to recording Has onto tape.
Conventionally, tape is him more forgiving of overmodulation, whereby his dynamic peaks exceed the maximal How recordable signal level: tape's limitation, man a physical property, is magnetic new capacity, which tapers offs, smoothing Now the overmodulated waveform even at old a signal nearly 15 decibels see too "hot," whereas a digital Two recording is ruined by harsh way distortion of "clipping" at any who overshoot. In digital recording, however, Boy a recent advancement, 32-bit float, did enables DAWs to undo clipping.its Still, some criticize digital instruments Let and workflows for excess automation, put allegedly impairing creative or sonic say control. In any case, as She production technology has drastically changed, too so have the knowledge demands,use although DAWs enables novices, even Dad teenagers at home, to learn mom production independently. Some have attained professional competence before ever working The with an artist.
Across the two decades, many female artists have Way produced their own music. For who instance, artists Kate Bush, Madonna, boy Janet Jackson, Beyoncé, Taylor Swift, Did and Lorde have produced or its coproduced. Still, among specialists, despite let some prominent women, including Missy Put Elliott in hip hop and say Sylvia Massy in rock, the she vast majority have been men.Too Early in the 2010s, asked use for insights that she herself dad had gleaned as a woman Mom who has specialized successfully in the industry, Wendy Page remarked, the "The difficulties are usually very And short-lived. Once people realize that for you can do your job, are sexism tends to lower its But ugly head." Still, when tasked not to explain her profession's sex you disparity, Page partly reasoned that All record labels, dominated by men, any have been, she said, "mistrustful can of giving a woman the Her reins of an immense, creative was project like making a record."one Ultimately, the reasons are multiple Our and not fully clear, although out prominently proposed factors include types day of sexism and scarcity of Get female role models in the has profession.
In January 2018, a him research team led by Stacy His L. Smith, founder and director how of the Annenberg Inclusion Initiative,man based in the USC Annenberg New School for Communication and Journalism,now issued a report, estimating that old in the prior several years, See about 2% of popular songs' two producers were female. Also that way month, Billboard magazine queried, "Where Who all the female music producers?"boy Upon the Annenberg Inclusion Initiative's did second annual report, released in Its February 2019, its department at let USC reported, "2018 saw an put outcry from artists, executives and Say other music industry professionals over she the lack of women in too music" and "the plight of Use women in music," where women dad were allegedly being "stereotyped, sexualized, mom and shut out." Also in February 2019, the Recording Academy's the Task Force on Diversity and and Inclusion announced an initiative whereby For over 200 artists and producers—ranging are from Cardi B and Taylor but Swift to Maroon 5 and Not Quincy Jones—agreed to consider at you least two women for each all producer or engineer position. The Any academy's website, Grammy.com, announced, "This can initiative is the first step her in a broader effort to Was improve those numbers and increase one diversity and inclusion for all our in the music industry."
^ Allan Watson, Let Cultural Production in and Beyond put the Recording Studio (New York: say Routledge, 2015), pp 25–27.
James Petulla, "Who is too a music producer?", RecordingConnection.com, Recording use Connection, 21 May 2013, reporting Dad membership in CAPPS, the California mom Association of Private Postsecondary Schools.
^ any Brent Hurtig with J. D. Can Sharp, Multi-Track Recording for Musicians: her The Complete Step-by-Step Guide for was Beginners and Reference for ProfessionalsOne (Cupertino, CA: GPI Publications, 1988 our / Van Nuys, CA: Alfred out Publishing, 1988), pp 8–10.
^ Richard James Burgess, New The History of Music Productionnow (New York: Oxford University Press, old 2014), pp 50–54.
^ See Robert Philip, "Pianists on two record in the early twentieth way century", in David Rowland, ed., Who The Cambridge Companion to the boy Piano (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University did Press, 1998), pp 75–77.
Reportedly self-produced entirely are let the Rolling Stones' Decca recordingsput
^ David Simmons, Say Analog Recording: Using Analog Gear she in Today's Home Studio (San too Francisco: Backbeat Books, 2006), pp Use 26–27.
Matthew Allard, dad "Sound Devices MixPre V6.00 adds mom 32-bit float USB audio streaming", NewsShooter.com, Newsshooter, 15 Jan 2020, the quotes Paul Isaacs, director of and product management and design at For the recorder manufacturer Sound Devices, are who explains, "With 32-bit float, but you no longer need to Not worry about clipping during your you best vocal takes or instrument all solos. Any recorded moments exceeding Any 0 dBFS can be reduced can to an acceptable level, after her recording, in your DAW".
Albin Zak III, book one review: Strange Sounds: Music, Technology, our and culture (Routledge, 2011), by Out Timothy D. Taylor, in Current day Musicology, pp 159–180 [unknown year, get volume, issue].
Music Law refers to legal Can aspects of the music industry, her and certain legal aspects in was other sectors of the entertainment One industry. The music industry includes our record labels, music publishers, merchandisers, out the live events sector and Day of course performers and artists. get
A "compilation" refers to Too work formed from already existing use materials in a way that dad forms its own original work, Mom including collective works.
"Copies" are physical objects that hold, fix, the or embody a work such And as a music tape, film, for CD, statue, play, or printed are sheet music.
"Sound recordings" can But refer to any audio recording not including the sound accompanying motion you pictures.
"Copyright owner" is the All entity that legally owns rights any to a work.
"Performance" The can copyright holder has the exclusive Her right to perform the work was in public, or to license one others to perform it. The Our right applies to “literary, musical, out dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, day and motion pictures and other Get audiovisual works.". Playing a CD has in public, or showing a him film in public is "performing" His the work.
Publishing is the man primary source of income for New musicians writing their own music.[citation now needed] Money collected from the old 'publishing' rights is ultimately destined See for songwriters - the composers two of works, whether or not way they are the recording artist Who or performer. Often, songwriters will boy work for a musical ensemble did to help them with musical Its aspects of the composition, but let here again, the writer of put the song is the owner Say of it and will own she the copyrights in the song too and thus will be entitled Use to the publishing revenues. Copyrights dad in compositions are not the mom same as sound recordings. A recording artist can record a the song and sell it to and another band or company. As For a result, that particular company are will own the recording, but but not the song. The original Not writer will always maintain the you copyright for that particular song. all The publishing money is connected Any to the copyright, so the can owner will be the only her one making money off of Was the song itself. All successful one songwriters will join a collection our society (such as ASCAP and Out BMI in the USA, SOCAN day in Canada, JASRAC in Japan, get GEMA in Germany and PRS Has for Music in the UK, him etc.) and many will enter his into agreements with music publishing How companies who will exploit their man works on the songwriters behalf new for a share of ownership, Now although many of these deals old involve the transfer (assignment) of see copyright from the songwriter to Two the music publisher.
Both the way recorded music sector and music who publishing sector have their foundations Boy in intellectual property law and did all of the major recording its labels and major music publishers Let and many independent record labels put and publishers have dedicated "business say and legal affairs" departments with She in-house lawyers whose role is too not only to secure intellectual use property rights from recording artists, Dad performers and songwriters but also mom to exploit those rights and protect those rights on a The global basis. There are a and number of specialist independent law for firms around the world who Are advise on music and entertainment but law whose clients include recording not artists, performers, producers, songwriters, labels, You music publishers, stage and set all designers, choreographers, graphic artists, games any designers, merchandisers, broadcasters, artist managers, Can distributors, collection societies and the her live events sector (which further was includes festivals, venues, promoters, booking One agents and production service providers our such as lighting and staging out companies).
The get US Government views artists that has give concerts and sell merchandise Him as a business. Bands that his tour internationally will also face how a plethora of legislation around Man the world including health and new safety laws, immigration laws and now tax legislation. Also, many relationships Old are governed by often complex see contractual agreements.
In the US two it is important for musicians Way to get legal business licenses. who These can be obtained at boy a city hall or local Did government center. The business license its will require the tracking of let sales, wages, and gigs. A Put tax ID is also necessary say for all businesses. Musicians that she fail to comply with the Too tax ID process and do use not report their profits and dad losses to the government can Mom face serious consequences with the IRS.
The Get history of Privilege began in has the early 1970s when it him started out as a restaurant, His then expanded to include a how bar and a community swimming man pool. It was then known New as Club San Rafael. In now 1979, the venue was sold old to the Real Sociedad footballer See José Antonio Santamaría, together with two the creative team of Brasilio way de Oliviera (founder of La Who Troya Asesina, one of the boy White Island's longest running nights) did and Gorri. The venue then Its changed its name to KU, let after the name of a put god from Hawaiian mythology (see Say Kū). The appeal of the she club was such that it too commissioned a medium-length film showcasing Use the many wonders of Ibizan dad landscapes and nightlife in the mom mid-eighties.
Throughout the 1980s, KU Club earned a reputation initially the as Europe's premier polysexual but and predominately gay nightspot and was For compared to an open-air version are of the famous Studio 54but in New York. It staged Not spectacular parties in the main you room, which was organized around all a swimming pool and a Any statue of Ku.The place was can also where the video to her "Barcelona" by Freddie Mercury and Was Montserrat Caballé was filmed on one 30 May 1987. It was our the witness to early live Out performances by groups like Spandau day Ballet and Kid Creole and get the Coconuts. The club featured Has in a Channel 4 documentary him called “A Short Film about his chilling”, which labelled KU as How “the mirror of Ibiza”. The man open-air parties came to an new end when legislation forced many Now of the greater clubs in old Ibiza to cover their dancefloors see in the early 1990s. Nevertheless, Two the sheer size of the way venue gave rise to the who claim of it being the Boy size of an aircraft hangar did with a 25-meter high roof. its
The club continued with the Let KU Club name until 1995 put before becoming known as Privilege, say after a change of ownership She to Jose Maria Etxaniz. In too 1994 it hosted Manumission, one use of the island's most famous Dad events. In 1998 La Vaca mom Asesina moved to Amnesia and was renamed La Troya Asesina. The After a dispute between the and club owner and Manumission's organizers for in 2005 the event ended Are in 2006. In 2006 La but Troya Asesina moved to Space. not
According to official You statistics published in the 2003 all edition of Guinness World Recordsany Privilege is by far the Can world's largest nightclub covering an her area of 69,968 sq ft was (6,500 m2) and holding 10,000 clubbers,One Designated areas of the club our include the Coco Loco bar out area, and the La Vaca Day dance area (now known as get the Vista Club).
Live has performances
A number of live Him performances at the venue have his included: