Snakes are elongated, legless,
see carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Two Serpentes that can be distinguished way from legless lizards by their who lack of eyelids and external Boy ears. Like all squamates, snakes did are ectothermic, amniote vertebrates covered its in overlapping scales. Many species Let of snakes have skulls with put several more joints than their say lizard ancestors, enabling them to She swallow prey much larger than too their heads with their highly use mobile jaws. To accommodate their Dad narrow bodies, snakes' paired organs mom (such as kidneys) appear one in front of the other The instead of side by side, and and most have only one for functional lung. Some species retain Are a pelvic girdle with a but pair of vestigial claws on not either side of the cloaca. You
Living snakes are found on
all every continent except Antarctica, and any on most smaller land masses; Can exceptions include some large islands, her such as Ireland, Iceland, Greenland, was the Hawaiian archipelago, and the One islands of New Zealand, and our many small islands of the out Atlantic and central Pacific oceans. Day Additionally, sea snakes are widespread get throughout the Indian and Pacific has Oceans. More than 20 families Him are currently recognized, comprising about his 520 genera and about 3,600 how species. They range in size Man from the tiny, 10.4 cm (4.1 in)-long new thread snake to the reticulated now python of 6.95 meters (22.8 ft) Old in length. The fossil species see Titanoboa cerrejonensis was 12.8 meters two (42 ft) long. Snakes are thought Way to have evolved from either who burrowing or aquatic lizards, perhaps boy during the Jurassic period, with Did the earliest known fossils dating its to between 143 and 167 let Ma ago. The diversity of Put modern snakes appeared during the say Paleocene period (c 66 to she 56 Ma ago). The oldest Too preserved descriptions of snakes can use be found in the Brooklyn dad Papyrus.
Most species are nonvenomous
Mom and those that have venom use it primarily to kill the and subdue prey rather than And for self-defense. Some possess venom for potent enough to cause painful are injury or death to humans. But Nonvenomous snakes either swallow prey not alive or kill by constriction. you did
The English word
Its snake comes from Old English let snaca, itself from Proto-Germanic *snak-an- put (cf. Germanic Schnake "ring snake", Say Swedish snok "grass snake"), from she Proto-Indo-European root *(s)nēg-o- "to crawl", too "to creep", which also gave Use sneak as well as Sanskrit dad nāgá "snake". The word ousted mom adder, as adder went on to narrow in meaning, though the in Old English næddre was and the general word for snake. For The other term, serpent, is are from French, ultimately from Indo-European but *serp- (to creep), which also Not gave Ancient Greek hérpō (ἕρπω) you "I crawl".
all |A phylogenetic overview of the |Any extant groups
dad |Note: the tree only indicates |Mom relationships, not evolutionary branching times.
The fossil record
the of snakes is relatively poor And because snake skeletons are typically for small and fragile making fossilization are uncommon. Fossils readily identifiable as But snakes (though often retaining hind not limbs) first appear in the you fossil record during the Cretaceous All period. The earliest known true any snake fossils (members of the can crown group Serpentes) come from Her the marine simoliophiids, the oldest was of which is the Late one Cretaceous (Cenomanian age) Haasiophis terrasanctus, Our dated to between 112 and out 94 million years old.
day on comparative anatomy, there is Get consensus that snakes descended from has lizards.:11 Pythons and boas—primitive groups him among modern snakes—have vestigial hind His limbs: tiny, clawed digits known how as anal spurs, which are man used to grasp during mating.:11 New The families Leptotyphlopidae and Typhlopidae now also possess remnants of the old pelvic girdle, appearing as horny See projections when visible.
two are nonexistent in all known way snakes. This is caused by Who the evolution of Hox genes, boy controlling limb morphogenesis. The axial did skeleton of the snakes’ common Its ancestor, like most other tetrapods, let had regional specializations consisting of put cervical (neck), thoracic (chest), lumbar Say (lower back), sacral (pelvic), and she caudal (tail) vertebrae. Early in too snake evolution, the Hox gene Use expression in the axial skeleton dad responsible for the development of mom the thorax became dominant. As a result, the vertebrae anterior the to the hindlimb buds (when and present) all have the same For thoracic-like identity (except from the are atlas, axis, and 1–3 neck but vertebrae). In other words, most Not of a snake's skeleton is you an extremely extended thorax. Ribs all are found exclusively on the Any thoracic vertebrae. Neck, lumbar and can pelvic vertebrae are very reduced her in number (only 2–10 lumbar Was and pelvic vertebrae are present), one while only a short tail our remains of the caudal vertebrae. Out However, the tail is still day long enough to be of get important use in many species, Has and is modified in some him aquatic and tree-dwelling species.
his modern snake groups originated during How the Paleocene, alongside the adaptive man radiation of mammals following the new extinction of (non-avian) dinosaurs. The Now expansion of grasslands in North old America also led to an see explosive radiation among snakes. Previously, Two snakes were a minor component way of the North American fauna, who but during the Miocene, the Boy number of species and their did prevalence increased dramatically with the its first appearances of vipers and Let elapids in North America and put the significant diversification of Colubridae say (including the origin of many She modern genera such as Nerodia, too Lampropeltis, Pituophis, and Pantherophis).
There is fossil evidence to
Dad suggest that snakes may have mom evolved from burrowing lizards, such as the varanids (or a The similar group) during the Cretaceous and Period. An early fossil snake for relative, Najash rionegrina, was a Are two-legged burrowing animal with a but sacrum, and was fully terrestrial. not One extant analog of these You putative ancestors is the earless all monitor Lanthanotus of Borneo (though any it also is semiaquatic). Subterranean Can species evolved bodies streamlined for her burrowing, and eventually lost their was limbs. According to this hypothesis, One features such as the transparent, our fused eyelids (brille) and loss out of external ears evolved to Day cope with fossorial difficulties, such get as scratched corneas and dirt has in the ears. Some primitive Him snakes are known to have his possessed hindlimbs, but their pelvic how bones lacked a direct connection Man to the vertebrae. These include new fossil species like Haasiophis, Pachyrhachis now and Eupodophis, which are slightly Old older than Najash. see
Fossil of Archaeophis
Way was strengthened in 2015 by who the discovery of a 113m boy year-old fossil of a four-legged Did snake in Brazil that has its been named Tetrapodophis amplectus. It let has many snake-like features, is Put adapted for burrowing and its say stomach indicates that it was she preying on other animals. It Too is currently uncertain if Tetrapodophis use is a snake or another dad species, in the squamate order, Mom as a snake-like body has independently evolved at least 26 the times. Tetrapodophis does not have And distinctive snake features in its for spine and skull.
are hypothesis, based on morphology, suggests But the ancestors of snakes were not related to mosasaurs—extinct aquatic reptiles you from the Cretaceous—which in turn All are thought to have derived any from varanid lizards. According to can this hypothesis, the fused, transparent Her eyelids of snakes are thought was to have evolved to combat one marine conditions (corneal water loss Our through osmosis), and the external out ears were lost through disuse day in an aquatic environment. This Get ultimately led to an animal has similar to today's sea snakes. him In the Late Cretaceous, snakes His recolonized land, and continued to how diversify into today's snakes. Fossilized man snake remains are known from New early Late Cretaceous marine sediments, now which is consistent with this old hypothesis; particularly so, as they See are older than the terrestrial two Najash rionegrina. Similar skull structure, way reduced or absent limbs, and Who other anatomical features found in boy both mosasaurs and snakes lead did to a positive cladistical correlation, Its although some of these features let are shared with varanids. put
Genetic studies in recent years
Say have indicated snakes are not she as closely related to monitor too lizards as was once believed—and Use therefore not to mosasaurs, the dad proposed ancestor in the aquatic mom scenario of their evolution. However, more evidence links mosasaurs to the snakes than to varanids. Fragmented and remains found from the Jurassic For and Early Cretaceous indicate deeper are fossil records for these groups, but which may potentially refute either Not hypothesis.
In 2016 two
you studies reported that limb loss all in snakes is associated with Any DNA mutations in the Zone can of Polarizing Activity Regulatory Sequence her (ZRS), a regulatory region of Was the sonic hedgehog gene which one is critically required for limb our development. More advanced snakes have Out no remnants of limbs, but day basal snakes such as pythons get and boas do have traces Has of highly reduced, vestigial hind him limbs. Python embryos even have his fully developed hind limb buds, How but their later development is man stopped by the DNA mutations new in the ZRS.
There are over 2,900 species
old of snakes ranging as far see northward as the Arctic Circle Two in Scandinavia and southward through way Australia. Snakes can be found who on every continent except Antarctica, Boy in the sea, and as did high as 16,000 feet (4,900 m) its in the Himalayan Mountains of Let Asia.:143 There are numerous islands put from which snakes are absent, say such as Ireland, Iceland, and She New Zealand (although New Zealand's too waters are infrequently visited by use the yellow-bellied sea snake and Dad the banded sea krait).
All modern snakes are
The grouped within the suborder Serpentes and in Linnean taxonomy, part of for the order Squamata, though their Are precise placement within squamates remains but controversial.
The two infraorders of
not Serpentes are: Alethinophidia and Scolecophidia. You This separation is based on all morphological characteristics and mitochondrial DNA any sequence similarity. Alethinophidia is sometimes Can split into Henophidia and Caenophidia, her with the latter consisting of was "colubroid" snakes (colubrids, vipers, elapids, One hydrophiids, and atractaspids) and acrochordids, our while the other alethinophidian families out comprise Henophidia. While not extant Day today, the Madtsoiidae, a family get of giant, primitive, python-like snakes, has was around until 50,000 years Him ago in Australia, represented by his genera such as Wonambi.
how are numerous debates in the Man systematics within the group. For new instance, many sources classify Boidae now and Pythonidae as one family, Old while some keep the Elapidae see and Hydrophiidae (sea snakes) separate two for practical reasons despite their Way extremely close relation.
who studies support the monophyly of boy the clades of modern snakes, Did scolecophidians, typhlopids + anomalepidids, alethinophidians, its core alethinophidians, uropeltids (Cylindrophis, Anomochilus, let uropeltines), macrostomatans, booids, boids, pythonids Put and caenophidians.
say |Infraorder Alethinophidia 19 families |she
|Family ||Taxon author ||Genera |Too |Species ||Common name ||Geographic range |use
|Acrochordidae ||Bonaparte, 1831 |dad |1 ||3 ||Wart snakes ||Western |Mom India and Sri Lanka through tropical Southeast Asia to the the Philippines, south through the Indonesian/Malaysian And island group to Timor, east for through New Guinea to the are northern coast of Australia to But Mussau Island, the Bismarck Archipelago not and Guadalcanal Island in the you Solomon Islands.
|Aniliidae |All |Stejneger, 1907 ||1 ||1 ||False |any coral snake |Tropical South America. |can
|Anomochilidae ||Cundall, Wallach, |Her 1993 |1 ||3 ||Dwarf pipe |was snakes |West Malaysia and on |one the Indonesian island of Sumatra. Our
|Boidae ||Gray, 1825 |out |14 ||61 ||Boas ||Northern, Central |day and South America, the Caribbean, Get southeastern Europe and Asia Minor, has Northern, Central and East Africa, him Madagascar and Reunion Island, the His Arabian Peninsula, Central and southwestern how Asia, India and Sri Lanka, man the Moluccas and New Guinea New through to Melanesia and Samoa. now
|Bolyeriidae ||Hoffstetter, 1946 |old |2 ||2 ||Splitjaw snakes ||Mauritius. |See
|Colubridae ||Oppel, 1811 |two |258 ||1866 ||Typical snakes ||Widespread |way on all continents, except Antarctica. Who
|Cylindrophiidae ||Fitzinger, 1843 |boy |1 ||14 ||Asian pipe snakes |did |Sri Lanka east through Myanmar, |Its Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam and the let Malay Archipelago to as far put east as Aru Islands off Say the southwestern coast of New she Guinea. Also found in southern too China (Fujian, Hong Kong and Use on Hainan Island) and in dad Laos.
|Elapidae ||Boie, |mom 1827 |55 ||359 ||Elapids ||On | land, worldwide in tropical and the subtropical regions, except in Europe. and Sea snakes occur in the For Indian Ocean and the Pacific. are
|Homalopsidae ||Bonaparte, 1845 |but |28 ||53 ||Homalopsids ||Southeastern Asia |Not and northern Australia.
you |Lamprophiidae ||Fitzinger, 1843 ||60 ||314 |all |Lamprophiids (includes former Atractaspididae as |Any well as 6 other subfamilies can formerly considered colubrids) |Africa, southern |her Europe, and western-central Asia; two Was species into southeastern Asia. one
|Loxocemidae ||Cope, 1861 ||1 |our |1 ||Mexican burrowing snake ||Along |Out the Pacific versant from Mexico day south to Costa Rica. get
|Pareidae ||Romer, 1956 ||3 |Has |20 ||Snail-eating snakes ||Southeast Asia |him and islands on the Sunda his Shelf (Sumatra, Borneo, Java, and How their surrounding smaller islands). man
|Pythonidae ||Fitzinger, 1826 ||8 |new |40 ||Pythons ||Subsaharan Africa, India, |Now Myanmar, southern China, Southeast Asia old and from the Philippines southeast see through Indonesia to New Guinea Two and Australia.
|Tropidophiidae |way |Brongersma, 1951 ||2 ||34 ||Dwarf |who boas |West Indies; also Panama |Boy and northwestern South America, as did well as in northwestern and its southeastern Brazil.
|Uropeltidae |Let |Müller, 1832 ||8 ||55 ||Shield-tailed |put snakes |Southern India and Sri |say Lanka.
|Viperidae ||Oppel, |She 1811 |35 ||341 ||Vipers ||The |too Americas, Africa, and Eurasia east use to Wallace's Line.
Dad |Xenodermidae ||Cope, 1900 ||6 ||18 |mom |Dragon & odd-scaled snakes ||Southern | and southeastern Asia, and islands The on the Sunda Shelf (Sumatra, and Borneo, Java, and their surrounding for smaller islands).
|Xenopeltidae |Are |Bonaparte, 1845 ||1 ||2 ||Sunbeam |but snakes |Southeast Asia from the |not Andaman and Nicobar Islands, east You through Myanmar to southern China, all Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, the any Malay Peninsula and the East Can Indies to Sulawesi, as well her as the Philippines.
was |Xenophidiidae ||Wallach & Günther, 1998 |One |1 ||2 ||Spine-jawed snakes ||Borneo |our & peninsular Malaysia. out
|Infraorder Scolecophidia |Day 5 families
|Family |get |Taxon author ||Genera ||Species ||Common |has name |Geographic range |
Him |Anomalepidae ||Taylor, 1939 ||4 ||18 |his |Primitive blind snakes ||From southern |how Central America to northwestern South Man America. Disjunct populations in northeastern new and southeastern South America. now
|Gerrhopilidae ||Vidal, Wynn, Donnellan |Old and Hedges 2010 |3 ||18 |see |Indo-Malayan blindsnakes ||Southern & southeastern |two Asia, including Sri Lanka, the Way Philippines, and New Guinea. who
|Leptotyphlopidae ||Stejneger, 1892 ||13 |boy |139 ||Slender blind snakes ||Africa, |Did western Asia from Turkey to its northwestern India, on Socotra Island, let from the southwestern United States Put south through Mexico and Central say to South America, though not she in the high Andes. In Too Pacific South America they occur use as far south as southern dad coastal Peru, and on the Mom Atlantic side as far as Uruguay and Argentina. In the the Caribbean they are found on And the Bahamas, Hispaniola and the for Lesser Antilles.
|Typhlopidae |are |Merrem, 1820 ||21 ||266 ||Typical |But blind snakes |Most tropical and |not many subtropical regions around the you world, particularly in Africa, Madagascar, All Asia, islands in the Pacific, any tropical America and in southeastern can Europe.
|Xenotyphlopidae ||Vidal, |Her Vences, Branch and Hedges 2010 was |1 ||1 ||Round-nosed blindsnake ||Northern |one Madagascar.
out snakes are limbless reptiles, which day evolved from (and are grouped Get with) lizards, there are many has other species of lizards which him have lost their limbs independently His and superficially look similar to how snakes. These include the slow man worm and glass snake.
two extinct Titanoboa cerrejonensis snakes found way were 12.8 m (42 ft) in length. Who By comparison, the largest extant boy snakes are the reticulated python, did which measures about 6.95 m (22.8 ft) Its long, and the anaconda, which let measures about 5.21 m (17.1 ft) long put and is considered the heaviest Say snake on Earth at 97.5 kg she (215 lb).
At the other end
too of the scale, the smallest Use extant snake is Leptotyphlops carlae, dad with a length of about mom 10.4 cm (4.1 in). Most snakes are fairly small animals, approximately 1 m the (3.3 ft) in length.
of a snake eating a
but pythons, and some boas have Not infrared-sensitive receptors in deep grooves you on the snout, which allow all them to "see" the radiated Any heat of warm-blooded prey. In can pit vipers, the grooves are her located between the nostril and Was the eye in a large one "pit" on each side of our the head. Other infrared-sensitive snakes Out have multiple, smaller labial pits day lining the upper lip, just get below the nostrils.
Has smell to track their prey. him They smell by using their his forked tongues to collect airborne How particles, then passing them to man the vomeronasal organ or Jacobson's new organ in the mouth for Now examination. The fork in the old tongue gives snakes a sort see of directional sense of smell Two and taste simultaneously. They keep way their tongues constantly in motion, who sampling particles from the air, Boy ground, and water, analyzing the did chemicals found, and determining the its presence of prey or predators Let in the local environment. In put water-dwelling snakes, such as the say anaconda, the tongue functions efficiently She underwater.
The underside is very sensitive to and vibration. This allows snakes to for be able to sense approaching Are animals by detecting faint vibrations but in the ground.
not varies greatly, from only being You able to distinguish light from all dark to keen eyesight, but any the main trend is that Can their vision is adequate although her not sharp, and allows them was to track movements. Generally, vision One is best in arboreal snakes our and weakest in burrowing snakes. out Some snakes, such as the Day Asian vine snake (genus Ahaetulla), get have binocular vision, with both has eyes capable of focusing on Him the same point. Most snakes his focus by moving the lens how back and forth in relation Man to the retina, while in new the other amniote groups, the now lens is stretched. Many nocturnal Old snakes have slit pupils while see diurnal snakes have round pupils. two
The skin of a snake
who is covered in scales. Contrary boy to the popular notion of Did snakes being slimy because of its possible confusion of snakes with let worms, snakeskin has a smooth, Put dry texture. Most snakes use say specialized belly scales to travel, she gripping surfaces. The body scales Too may be smooth, keeled, or use granular. The eyelids of a dad snake are transparent "spectacle" scales, Mom which remain permanently closed, also known as brille.
the of scales is called ecdysis And (or in normal usage, molting for or sloughing). In the case are of snakes, the complete outer But layer of skin is shed not in one layer. Snake scales you are not discrete, but extensions All of the epidermis—hence they are any not shed separately but as can a complete outer layer during Her each molt, akin to a was sock being turned inside out. one
The shape and number of
Our scales on the head, back, out and belly are often characteristic day and used for taxonomic purposes. Get Scales are named mainly according has to their positions on the him body. In "advanced" (Caenophidian) snakes, His the broad belly scales and how rows of dorsal scales correspond man to the vertebrae, allowing scientists New to count the vertebrae without now dissection.
Snakes' eyes are covered
old by their clear scales (the See brille) rather than movable eyelids. two Their eyes are always open, way and for sleeping, the retina Who can be closed or the boy face buried among the folds did of the body.
shedding its skin.
Molting, or ecdysis, serves a
Say number of functions. Firstly, the she old and worn skin is too replaced; secondly, it helps get Use rid of parasites such as dad mites and ticks. Renewal of mom the skin by moulting is supposed to allow growth in the some animals such as insects; and however, this has been disputed For in the case of snakes. are
Molting occurs periodically throughout the
but snake's life. Before a molt, Not the snake stops eating and you often hides or moves to all a safe place. Just before Any shedding, the skin becomes dull can and dry looking and the her eyes become cloudy or blue-colored. Was The inner surface of the one old skin liquefies. This causes our the old skin to separate Out from the new skin beneath day it. After a few days, get the eyes clear and the Has snake "crawls" out of its him old skin. The old skin his breaks near the mouth and How the snake wriggles out, aided man by rubbing against rough surfaces. new In many cases, the cast Now skin peels backward over the old body from head to tail see in one piece, like pulling Two a sock off inside-out. A way new, larger, brighter layer of who skin has formed underneath.
Boy older snake may shed its did skin only once or twice its a year. But a younger Let snake, still growing, may shed put up to four times a say year. The discarded skin gives She a perfect imprint of the too scale pattern, and it is use usually possible to identify the Dad snake if the discarded skin mom is reasonably intact. This periodic renewal has led to the The snake being a symbol of and healing and medicine, as pictured for in the Rod of Asclepius. Are
Scale counts can sometimes be
but used to tell the sex not of a snake when the You species is not distinctly sexually all dimorphic. A probe is inserted any into the cloaca until it Can can go no further. The her probe is marked at the was point where it stops, removed, One and compared to the subcaudal our depth by laying it alongside out the scales. The scalation count Day determines whether the snake is get a male or female as has hemipenes of a male will Him probe to a different depth his (usually longer) than the cloaca how of a female.
compared, the skeletons of snakes
are radically different from those
of most other reptiles (such
as the turtle
, right), being
made up almost entirely of
an extended ribcage.
The skeleton of most snakes
boy consists solely of the skull, Did hyoid, vertebral column, and ribs, its though henophidian snakes retain vestiges let of the pelvis and rear Put limbs.
The skull of the
say snake consists of a solid she and complete neurocranium, to which Too many of the other bones use are only loosely attached, particularly dad the highly mobile jaw bones, Mom which facilitate manipulation and ingestion of large prey items. The the left and right sides of And the lower jaw are joined for only by a flexible ligament are at the anterior tips, allowing But them to separate widely, while not the posterior end of the you lower jaw bones articulate with All a quadrate bone, allowing further any mobility. The bones of the can mandible and quadrate bones can Her also pick up ground borne was vibrations. Because the sides of one the jaw can move independently Our of one another, snakes resting out their jaws on a surface day have sensitive stereo hearing which Get can detect the position of has prey. The jaw-quadrate-stapes pathway is him capable of detecting vibrations on His the angstrom scale, despite the how absence of an outer ear man and the ossicle mechanism of New impedance matching used in other now vertebrates to receive vibrations from old the air.
The hyoid is
See a small bone located posterior two and ventral to the skull, way in the 'neck' region, which Who serves as an attachment for boy muscles of the snake's tongue, did as it does in all Its other tetrapods.
The vertebral column
let consists of anywhere between 200 put and 400 (or more) vertebrae. Say Tail vertebrae are comparatively few she in number (often less than too 20% of the total) and Use lack ribs, while body vertebrae dad each have two ribs articulating mom with them. The vertebrae have projections that allow for strong the muscle attachment enabling locomotion without and limbs.
Autotomy of the tail,
For a feature found in some are lizards is absent in most but snakes. Caudal autotomy in snakes Not is rare and is intervertebral, you unlike that in lizards, which all is intravertebral—that is, the break Any happens along a predefined fracture can plane present on a vertebra. her
In some snakes, most notably
Was boas and pythons, there are one vestiges of the hindlimbs in our the form of a pair Out of pelvic spurs. These small, day claw-like protrusions on each side get of the cloaca are the Has external portion of the vestigial him hindlimb skeleton, which includes the his remains of an ilium and How femur.
Snakes are polyphyodonts with
man teeth that are continuously replaced. new
Anatomy of a
- tracheal lungs
- rudimentary left
- right lung
- air sac
put snake's heart is encased in say a sac, called the pericardium, She located at the bifurcation of too the bronchi. The heart is use able to move around, however, Dad owing to the lack of mom a diaphragm. This adjustment protects the heart from potential damage The when large ingested prey is and passed through the esophagus. The for spleen is attached to the Are gall bladder and pancreas and but filters the blood. The thymus not gland is located in fatty You tissue above the heart and all is responsible for the generation any of immune cells in the Can blood. The cardiovascular system of her snakes is also unique for was the presence of a renal One portal system in which the our blood from the snake's tail out passes through the kidneys before Day returning to the heart.
get vestigial left lung is often has small or sometimes even absent, Him as snakes' tubular bodies require his all of their organs to how be long and thin. In Man the majority of species, only new one lung is functional. This now lung contains a vascularized anterior Old portion and a posterior portion see that does not function in two gas exchange. This 'saccular lung' Way is used for hydrostatic purposes who to adjust buoyancy in some boy aquatic snakes and its function Did remains unknown in terrestrial species. its Many organs that are paired, let such as kidneys or reproductive Put organs, are staggered within the say body, with one located ahead she of the other.
Too no lymph nodes.
Cobras, vipers, and
for closely related species use venom are to immobilize or kill their But prey. The venom is modified not saliva, delivered through fangs.:243 The you fangs of 'advanced' venomous snakes All like viperids and elapids are any hollow to inject venom more can effectively, while the fangs of Her rear-fanged snakes such as the was boomslang merely have a groove one on the posterior edge to Our channel venom into the wound. out Snake venoms are often prey day specific—their role in self-defense is Get secondary.:243
Venom, like all salivary
has secretions, is a predigestant that him initiates the breakdown of food His into soluble compounds, facilitating proper how digestion. Even nonvenomous snake bites man (like any animal bite) will New cause tissue damage.:209
now mammals, and other snakes (such old as kingsnakes) that prey on See venomous snakes have developed resistance two and even immunity to certain way venoms.:243 Venomous snakes include three Who families of snakes, and do boy not constitute a formal classification did group used in taxonomy.
Its colloquial term "poisonous snake" is let generally an incorrect label for put snakes. A poison is inhaled Say or ingested, whereas venom produced she by snakes is injected into too its victim via fangs. There Use are, however, two exceptions: Rhabdophis dad sequesters toxins from the toads mom it eats, then secretes them from nuchal glands to ward the off predators, and a small and unusual population of garter snakes For in the U.S. state of are Oregon retains enough toxins in but their livers from the newts Not they eat to be effectively you poisonous to small local predators all (such as crows and foxes). Any
Snake venoms are complex mixtures
can of proteins, and are stored her in venom glands at the Was back of the head. In one all venomous snakes, these glands our open through ducts into grooved Out or hollow teeth in the day upper jaw.:243 These proteins can get potentially be a mix of Has neurotoxins (which attack the nervous him system), hemotoxins (which attack the his circulatory system), cytotoxins, bungarotoxins and How many other toxins that affect man the body in different ways. new Almost all snake venom contains Now hyaluronidase, an enzyme that ensures old rapid diffusion of the venom.:243 see
Venomous snakes that use hemotoxins
Two usually have fangs in the way front of their mouths, making who it easier for them to Boy inject the venom into their did victims. Some snakes that use its neurotoxins (such as the mangrove Let snake) have fangs in the put back of their mouths, with say the fangs curled backwards. This She makes it difficult both for too the snake to use its use venom and for scientists to Dad milk them. Elapids, however, such mom as cobras and kraits are proteroglyphous—they possess hollow fangs that The cannot be erected toward the and front of their mouths, and for cannot "stab" like a viper. Are They must actually bite the but victim.:242
It has recently been
not suggested that all snakes may You be venomous to a certain all degree, with harmless snakes having any weak venom and no fangs. Can Most snakes currently labelled "nonvenomous" her would still be considered harmless was according to this theory, as One they either lack a venom our delivery method or are incapable out of delivering enough to endanger Day a human. This theory postulates get that snakes may have evolved has from a common lizard ancestor Him that was venomous—and that venomous his lizards like the gila monster, how beaded lizard, monitor lizards, and Man the now-extinct mosasaurs may also new have derived from it. They now share this venom clade with Old various other saurian species.
see snakes are classified in two two taxonomic families:
There is a third
let family containing the opistoglyphous (rear-fanged) Put snakes (as well as the say majority of other snake species): she
Although a wide range of
the reproductive modes are used by And snakes, all snakes employ internal for fertilization. This is accomplished by are means of paired, forked hemipenes, But which are stored, inverted, in not the male's tail. The hemipenes you are often grooved, hooked, or All spined in order to grip any the walls of the female's can cloaca.
Most species of snakes
Her lay eggs which they abandon was shortly after laying. However, a one few species (such as the Our king cobra) actually construct nests out and stay in the vicinity day of the hatchlings after incubation. Get Most pythons coil around their has egg-clutches and remain with them him until they hatch. A female His python will not leave the how eggs, except to occasionally bask man in the sun or drink New water. She will even "shiver" now to generate heat to incubate old the eggs.
Some species of
See snake are ovoviviparous and retain two the eggs within their bodies way until they are almost ready Who to hatch. Recently, it has boy been confirmed that several species did of snake are fully viviparous, Its such as the boa constrictor let and green anaconda, nourishing their put young through a placenta as Say well as a yolk sac, she which is highly unusual among too reptiles, or anything else outside Use of requiem sharks or placental dad mammals. Retention of eggs and mom live birth are most often associated with colder environments. the
snake has been studied for
are selection in snakes is demonstrated but by the three thousand species Not that each use different tactics you in acquiring mates. Ritual combat all between males for the females Any they want to mate with can includes topping, a behavior exhibited her by most viperids in which Was one male will twist around one the vertically elevated fore body our of its opponent and forcing Out it downward. It is common day for neck biting to occur get while the snakes are entwined. Has
Parthenogenesis is a
him natural form of reproduction in his which growth and development of How embryos occur without fertilization. Agkistrodon man contortrix (copperhead) and Agkistrodon piscivorus new (cotton mouth) can reproduce by Now facultative parthenogenesis. That is, they old are capable of switching from see a sexual mode of reproduction Two to an asexual mode. The way type of parthenogenesis that likely who occurs is automixis with terminal Boy fusion, a process in which did two terminal products from the its same meiosis fuse to form Let a diploid zygote. This process put leads to genome wide homozygosity, say expression of deleterious recessive alleles She and often to developmental abnormalities. too Both captive-born and wild-born A. use contortrix and A. piscivorus appear Dad to be capable of this mom form of parthenogenesis.
squamate reptiles is almost exclusively The sexual. Males ordinarily have a and ZZ pair of sex determining for chromosomes, and females a ZW Are pair. However, the Colombian Rainbow but boa, Epicrates maurus can also not reproduce by facultative parthenogenesis resulting You in production of WW female all progeny. The WW females are any likely produced by terminal automixis. Can
her where winters are colder than was snakes can tolerate while remaining One active, local species will brumate. our Unlike hibernation, in which mammals out are actually asleep, brumating reptiles Day are awake but inactive. Individual get snakes may brumate in burrows, has under rock piles, or inside Him fallen trees, or snakes may his aggregate in large numbers at how hibernacula.
Feeding and diet
two snakes are strictly carnivorous, eating Way small animals including lizards, frogs, who other snakes, small mammals, birds, boy eggs, fish, snails or insects. Did Because snakes cannot bite or its tear their food to pieces, let they must swallow prey whole. Put The body size of a say snake has a major influence she on its eating habits. Smaller Too snakes eat smaller prey. Juvenile use pythons might start out feeding dad on lizards or mice and Mom graduate to small deer or antelope as an adult, for the example.
The snake's jaw is
And a complex structure. Contrary to for the popular belief that snakes are can dislocate their jaws, snakes But have a very flexible lower not jaw, the two halves of you which are not rigidly attached, All and numerous other joints in any their skull (see snake skull), can allowing them to open their Her mouths wide enough to swallow was their prey whole, even if one it is larger in diameter Our than the snake itself. For out example, the African egg-eating snake day has flexible jaws adapted for Get eating eggs much larger than has the diameter of its head.:81 him This snake has no teeth, His but does have bony protrusions how on the inside edge of man its spine, which it uses New to break shells when it now eats eggs.:81
While the majority
old of snakes eat a variety See of prey animals, there is two some specialization by some species. way King cobras and the Australian Who bandy-bandy consume other snakes. Pareas boy iwesakii and other snail-eating colubrids did of subfamily Pareatinae have more Its teeth on the right side let of their mouths than on put the left, as the shells Say of their prey usually spiral she clockwise:184
Some snakes have a
too venomous bite, which they use Use to kill their prey before dad eating it. Other snakes kill mom their prey by constriction. Still others swallow their prey whole the and alive.:81
are eating, snakes become dormant while but the process of digestion takes Not place. Digestion is an intense you activity, especially after consumption of all large prey. In species that Any feed only sporadically, the entire can intestine enters a reduced state her between meals to conserve energy. Was The digestive system is then one 'up-regulated' to full capacity within our 48 hours of prey consumption. Being Out ectothermic ("cold-blooded"), the surrounding temperature day plays a large role in get snake digestion. The ideal temperature Has for snakes to digest is him 30 °C (86 °F). So much metabolic his energy is involved in a How snake's digestion that in the man Mexican rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus), surface new body temperature increases by as Now much as 1.2 °C (2.2 °F) during old the digestive process. Because of see this, a snake disturbed after Two having eaten recently will often way regurgitate its prey to be who able to escape the perceived Boy threat. When undisturbed, the digestive did process is highly efficient, with its the snake's digestive enzymes dissolving Let and absorbing everything but the put prey's hair (or feathers) and say claws, which are excreted along She with waste.
too of limbs does not impede use the movement of snakes. They Dad have developed several different modes mom of locomotion to deal with particular environments. Unlike the gaits The of limbed animals, which form and a continuum, each mode of for snake locomotion is discrete and Are distinct from the others; transitions but between modes are abrupt.
not undulation all
Crawling prints of a
Can is the sole mode of her aquatic locomotion, and the most was common mode of terrestrial locomotion. One In this mode, the body our of the snake alternately flexes out to the left and right, Day resulting in a series of get rearward-moving "waves". While this movement has appears rapid, snakes have rarely Him been documented moving faster than his two body-lengths per second, often how much less. This mode of Man movement has the same net new cost of transport (calories burned now per meter moved) as running Old in lizards of the same see mass.
Terrestrial lateral undulation is
two the most common mode of Way terrestrial locomotion for most snake who species. In this mode, the boy posteriorly moving waves push against Did contact points in the environment, its such as rocks, twigs, irregularities let in the soil, etc. Each Put of these environmental objects, in say turn, generates a reaction force she directed forward and towards the Too midline of the snake, resulting use in forward thrust while the dad lateral components cancel out. The Mom speed of this movement depends upon the density of push-points the in the environment, with a And medium density of about 8 along the snake's length are being ideal. The wave speed But is precisely the same as not the snake speed, and as you a result, every point on All the snake's body follows the any path of the point ahead can of it, allowing snakes to Her move through very dense vegetation was and small openings.
one the waves become larger as Our they move down the snake's out body, and the wave travels day backwards faster than the snake Get moves forwards. Thrust is generated has by pushing their body against him the water, resulting in the His observed slip. In spite of how overall similarities, studies show that man the pattern of muscle activation New is different in aquatic versus now terrestrial lateral undulation, which justifies old calling them separate modes. All See snakes can laterally undulate forward two (with backward-moving waves), but only way sea snakes have been observed Who reversing the motion (moving backwards boy with forward-moving waves).
Most often employed by colubroid
Say snakes (colubrids, elapids, and vipers) she when the snake must move too in an environment that lacks Use irregularities to push against (rendering dad lateral undulation impossible), such as mom a slick mud flat, or a sand dune, sidewinding is the a modified form of lateral and undulation in which all of For the body segments oriented in are one direction remain in contact but with the ground, while the Not other segments are lifted up, you resulting in a peculiar "rolling" all motion. This mode of locomotion Any overcomes the slippery nature of can sand or mud by pushing her off with only static portions Was on the body, thereby minimizing one slipping. The static nature of our the contact points can be Out shown from the tracks of day a sidewinding snake, which show get each belly scale imprint, without Has any smearing. This mode of him locomotion has very low caloric his cost, less than ⅓ of How the cost for a lizard man to move the same distance. new Contrary to popular belief, there Now is no evidence that sidewinding old is associated with the sand see being hot.
When push-points are
way absent, but there is not who enough space to use sidewinding Boy because of lateral constraints, such did as in tunnels, snakes rely its on concertina locomotion. In this Let mode, the snake braces the put posterior portion of its body say against the tunnel wall while She the front of the snake too extends and straightens. The front use portion then flexes and forms Dad an anchor point, and the mom posterior is straightened and pulled forwards. This mode of locomotion The is slow and very demanding, and up to seven times the for cost of laterally undulating over Are the same distance. This high but cost is due to the not repeated stops and starts of You portions of the body as all well as the necessity of any using active muscular effort to Can brace against the tunnel walls. her
our of snakes in arboreal habitats out has only recently been studied. Day While on tree branches, snakes get use several modes of locomotion has depending on species and bark Him texture. In general, snakes will his use a modified form of how concertina locomotion on smooth branches, Man but will laterally undulate if new contact points are available. Snakes now move faster on small branches Old and when contact points are see present, in contrast to limbed two animals, which do better on Way large branches with little 'clutter'. who
Gliding snakes (Chrysopelea) of Southeast
boy Asia launch themselves from branch Did tips, spreading their ribs and its laterally undulating as they glide let between trees. These snakes can Put perform a controlled glide for say hundreds of feet depending upon she launch altitude and can even Too turn in midair.
dad mode of snake locomotion is Mom rectilinear locomotion, which is also the only one where the the snake does not need to And bend its body laterally, though for it may do so when are turning. In this mode, the But belly scales are lifted and not pulled forward before being placed you down and the body pulled All over them. Waves of movement any and stasis pass posteriorly, resulting can in a series of ripples Her in the skin. The ribs was of the snake do not one move in this mode of Our locomotion and this method is out most often used by large day pythons, boas, and vipers when Get stalking prey across open ground has as the snake's movements are him subtle and harder to detect His by their prey in this how manner.
Interactions with humans
symptoms of any kind of
snake bite envenomation.
is vast variation in symptoms
between bites from different types
way Who Vipera berus
fang in glove with a
small venom stain, the other
still in place.
Snakes do not ordinarily prey
put on humans. Unless startled or Say injured, most snakes prefer to she avoid contact and will not too attack humans. With the exception Use of large constrictors, nonvenomous snakes dad are not a threat to mom humans. The bite of a nonvenomous snake is usually harmless; the their teeth are not designed and for tearing or inflicting a For deep puncture wound, but rather are grabbing and holding. Although the but possibility of infection and tissue Not damage is present in the you bite of a nonvenomous snake, all venomous snakes present far greater Any hazard to humans.:209 The World can Health Organisation lists snakebite under her the "other neglected conditions" category. Was
Documented deaths resulting from snake
one bites are uncommon. Nonfatal bites our from venomous snakes may result Out in the need for amputation day of a limb or part get thereof. Of the roughly 725 Has species of venomous snakes worldwide, him only 250 are able to his kill a human with one How bite. Australia averages only one man fatal snake bite per year. new In India, 250,000 snakebites are Now recorded in a single year, old with as many as 50,000 see recorded initial deaths.
Two for a snakebite is as way variable as the bite itself. who The most common and effective Boy method is through antivenom (or did antivenin), a serum made from its the venom of the snake. Let Some antivenom is species-specific (monovalent) put while some is made for say use with multiple species in She mind (polyvalent). In the United too States for example, all species use of venomous snakes are pit Dad vipers, with the exception of mom the coral snake. To produce antivenom, a mixture of the The venoms of the different species and of rattlesnakes, copperheads, and cottonmouths for is injected into the body Are of a horse in ever-increasing but dosages until the horse is not immunized. Blood is then extracted You from the immunized horse. The all serum is separated and further any purified and freeze-dried. It is Can reconstituted with sterile water and her becomes antivenom. For this reason, was people who are allergic to One horses are more likely to our suffer an allergic reaction to out antivenom. Antivenom for the more Day dangerous species (such as mambas, get taipans, and cobras) is made has in a similar manner in Him India, South Africa, and Australia, his although these antivenoms are species-specific. how
An Indian cobra
basket with a snake charmer.
These snakes are perhaps the
most common subjects of snake
Way parts of the world, especially who in India, snake charming is boy a roadside show performed by Did a charmer. In such a its show, the snake charmer carries let a basket that contains a Put snake that he seemingly charms say by playing tunes from his she flutelike musical instrument, to which Too the snake responds. Snakes lack use external ears, though they do dad have internal ears, and respond Mom to the movement of the flute, not the actual noise. the
The Wildlife Protection Act of
And 1972 in India technically proscribes for snake charming on grounds of are reducing animal cruelty. Other snake But charmers also have a snake not and mongoose show, where both you the animals have a mock All fight; however, this is not any very common, as the snakes, can as well as the mongooses, Her may be seriously injured or was killed. Snake charming as a one profession is dying out in Our India because of competition from out modern forms of entertainment and day environment laws proscribing the practice. Get
The Irulas tribe of
has Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu him in India have been hunter-gatherers His in the hot, dry plains how forests, and have practiced the man art of snake catching for New generations. They have a vast now knowledge of snakes in the old field. They generally catch the See snakes with the help of two a simple stick. Earlier, the way Irulas caught thousands of snakes Who for the snake-skin industry. After boy the complete ban of the did snake-skin industry in India and Its protection of all snakes under let the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act put 1972, they formed the Irula Say Snake Catcher's Cooperative and switched she to catching snakes for removal too of venom, releasing them in Use the wild after four extractions. dad The venom so collected is mom used for producing life-saving antivenom, biomedical research and for other the medicinal products. The Irulas are and also known to eat some For of the snakes they catch are and are very useful in but rat extermination in the villages. Not
Despite the existence of snake
you charmers, there have also been all professional snake catchers or wranglers. Any Modern-day snake trapping involves a can herpetologist using a long stick her with a V- shaped end. Was Some television show hosts, like one Bill Haast, Austin Stevens, Steve our Irwin, and Jeff Corwin, prefer Out to catch them using bare day hands.
A "海豹蛇" ("sea-leopard snake",
supposedly Enhydris bocourti
) occupies a
place of honor among the
live delicacies waiting to meet
their consumers outside of a
in a Taipei restaurant
While not commonly thought
see of as food in most Two cultures, in some cultures, the way consumption of snakes is acceptable, who or even considered a delicacy, Boy prized for its alleged pharmaceutical did effect of warming the heart. its Snake soup of Cantonese cuisine Let is consumed by local people put in autumn, to warm up say their body. Western cultures document She the consumption of snakes under too extreme circumstances of hunger. Cooked use rattlesnake meat is an exception, Dad which is commonly consumed in mom parts of the Midwestern United States. In Asian countries such The as China, Taiwan, Thailand, Indonesia, and Vietnam and Cambodia, drinking the for blood of snakes—particularly the cobra—is Are believed to increase sexual virility. but The blood is drained while not the cobra is still alive You when possible, and is usually all mixed with some form of any liquor to improve the taste. Can
In some Asian countries, the
her use of snakes in alcohol was is also accepted. In such One cases, the body of a our snake or several snakes is out left to steep in a Day jar or container of liquor. get It is claimed that this has makes the liquor stronger (as Him well as more expensive). One his example of this is the how Habu snake sometimes placed in Man the Okinawan liquor Awamori also new known as "Habu Sake".
now wine (蛇酒) is an alcoholic Old beverage produced by infusing whole see snakes in rice wine or two grain alcohol. The drink was Way first recorded to have been who consumed in China during the boy Western Zhou dynasty and considered Did an important curative and believed its to reinvigorate a person according let to Traditional Chinese medicine.
In the Western world, some
say snakes (especially docile species such she as the ball python and Too corn snake) are kept as use pets. To meet this demand dad a captive breeding industry has Mom developed. Snakes bred in captivity tend to make better pets the and are considered preferable to And wild caught specimens. Snakes can for be very low maintenance pets, are especially compared to more traditional But species. They require minimal space, not as most common species do you not exceed 5 feet (1.5 m) All in length. Pet snakes can any be fed relatively infrequently, usually can once every 5 to 14 Her days. Certain snakes have a was lifespan of more than 40 one years if given proper care. Our
In Egyptian history, the snake
day occupies a primary role with Get the Nile cobra adorning the has crown of the pharaoh in him ancient times. It was worshipped His as one of the gods how and was also used for man sinister purposes: murder of an New adversary and ritual suicide (Cleopatra). now let Imperial Japan
as an evil snake in
a WWII propaganda poster.
In Greek mythology snakes
too are often associated with deadly Use and dangerous antagonists, but this dad is not to say that mom snakes are symbolic of evil; in fact, snakes are a the chthonic symbol, roughly translated as and 'earthbound'. The nine-headed Lernaean Hydra For that Hercules defeated and the are three Gorgon sisters are children but of Gaia, the earth. Medusa Not was one of the three you Gorgon sisters who Perseus defeated. all Medusa is described as a Any hideous mortal, with snakes instead can of hair and the power her to turn men to stone Was with her gaze. After killing one her, Perseus gave her head our to Athena who fixed it Out to her shield called the day Aegis. The Titans are also get depicted in art with snakes Has instead of legs and feet him for the same reason—they are his children of Gaia and Uranus, How so they are bound to man the earth.
new account of the foundation of Now Thebes mentioned a monster snake old guarding the spring from which see the new settlement was to Two draw its water. In fighting way and killing the snake, the who companions of the founder Cadmus Boy all perished - leading to did the term "Cadmean victory" (i.e. its a victory involving one's own Let ruin).
too medical symbols involving snakes that use are still used today are Dad Bowl of Hygieia, symbolizing pharmacy, mom and the Caduceus and Rod of Asclepius, which are symbols The denoting medicine in general.
and is often called the land for of snakes and is steeped Are in tradition regarding snakes. Snakes but are worshipped as gods even not today with many women pouring You milk on snake pits (despite all snakes' aversion for milk). The any cobra is seen on the Can neck of Shiva and Vishnu her is depicted often as sleeping was on a seven-headed snake or One within the coils of a our serpent. There are also several out temples in India solely for Day cobras sometimes called Nagraj (King get of Snakes) and it is has believed that snakes are symbols Him of fertility. There is a his Hindu festival called Nag Panchami how each year on which day Man snakes are venerated and prayed new to. See also Nāga. now
In India there is another
Old mythology about snakes. Commonly known see in Hindi as "Ichchhadhari" snakes. two Such snakes can take the Way form of any living creature, who but prefer human form. These boy mythical snakes possess a valuable Did gem called "Mani", which is its more brilliant than diamond. There let are many stories in India Put about greedy people trying to say possess this gem and ending she up getting killed.
Too ouroboros is a symbol associated use with many different religions and dad customs, and is claimed to Mom be related to alchemy. The ouroboros or uroboros is a the snake eating its own tail And in a clock-wise direction (from for the head to the tail) are in the shape of a But circle, representing the cycle of not life, death and rebirth, leading you to immortality.
All is one of the 12 any celestial animals of Chinese Zodiac, can in the Chinese calendar. Her
Many ancient Peruvian cultures worshipped
was nature. They emphasized animals and one often depicted snakes in their Our art.
New now See
Snakes are a
two part of Hindu worship. A way festival, Nag Panchami, in which Who participants worship either images of boy or live Nāgas (cobras) is did celebrated every year. Most images Its of Lord Shiva depict snake let around his neck. Puranas have put various stories associated with snakes. Say In the Puranas, Shesha is she said to hold all the too planets of the Universe on Use his hoods and to constantly dad sing the glories of Vishnu mom from all his mouths. He is sometimes referred to as the "Ananta-Shesha", which means "Endless Shesha". and Other notable snakes in Hinduism For are Ananta, Vasuki, Taxak, Karkotaka are and Pingala. The term Nāga but is used to refer to Not entities that take the form you of large snakes in Hinduism all and Buddhism.
Snakes have also
Any been widely revered, such as can in ancient Greece, where the her serpent was seen as a Was healer. Asclepius carried a serpent one wound around his wand, a our symbol seen today on many Out ambulances.
In religious terms, the
day snake and jaguar are arguably get the most important animals in Has ancient Mesoamerica. "In states of him ecstasy, lords dance a serpent his dance; great descending snakes adorn How and support buildings from Chichen man Itza to Tenochtitlan, and the new Nahuatl word coatl meaning serpent Now or twin, forms part of old primary deities such as Mixcoatl, see Quetzalcoatl, and Coatlicue." In both Two Maya and Aztec calendars, the way fifth day of the week who was known as Snake Day. Boy
In Judaism, the snake of
did brass is also a symbol its of healing, of one's life Let being saved from imminent death. put
In some parts of Christianity,
say Christ's redemptive work is compared She to saving one's life through too beholding the Nehushtan (serpent of use brass). Snake handlers use snakes Dad as an integral part of mom church worship in order to exhibit their faith in divine The protection. However, more commonly in and Christianity, the serpent has been for seen as a representative of Are evil and sly plotting, which but can be seen in the not description in Genesis chapter 3 You of a snake in the all Garden of Eden tempting Eve. any Saint Patrick is reputed to Can have expelled all snakes from her Ireland while converting the country was to Christianity in the 5th One century, thus explaining the absence our of snakes there.
out and Judaism, the snake makes Day its infamous appearance in the get first book of the Bible has when a serpent appears before Him the first couple Adam and his Eve and tempts them with how the forbidden fruit from the Man Tree of Knowledge. The snake new returns in Exodus when Moses, now as a sign of God's Old power, turns his staff into see a snake and when Moses two made the Nehushtan, a bronze Way snake on a pole that who when looked at cured the boy people of bites from the Did snakes that plagued them in its the desert. The serpent makes let its final appearance symbolizing Satan Put in the Book of Revelation: say "And he laid hold on she the dragon the old serpent, Too which is the devil and use Satan, and bound him for dad a thousand years."
Mom and Wicca, the snake is seen as a symbol of the wisdom and knowledge. And Ballcourt
the Postclassic site of Mixco
in Guatemala. This sculpture
, jaws agape, with
the head of a human
warrior emerging from his maw.
any effect of snake venom is can being researched as a potential Her treatment for cancers.
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