you (English derivation from the New all Testament of the Christian Bible Any Greek ἐπίσκοπος, epískopos, "overseer", "guardian") can is an ordained, consecrated, or her appointed member of the Christian Was clergy who is generally entrusted one with a position of authority our and oversight.
Within the Roman
Out Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, day Anglican, Old Catholic and Independent get Catholic churches and in the Has Assyrian Church of the East, him bishops claim apostolic succession, a his direct historical lineage dating back How to the original Twelve Apostles. man Within these churches, bishops are new seen as those who possess Now the full priesthood and can old ordain clergy – including other see bishops. Some Protestant churches including Two the Lutheran and Methodist churches way have bishops serving similar functions who as well, though not always Boy understood to be within apostolic did succession in the same way. its One who has been ordained Let deacon, priest, and then bishop put is understood to hold the say fullness of the (ministerial) priesthood, She given responsibility by Christ to too govern, teach and sanctify the use Body of Christ, members of Dad the Faithful. Priests, deacons and mom lay ministers cooperate and assist their bishop(s) in shepherding a The flock.
Way epískopos (Greek: ἐπίσκοπος), meaning "overseer" who in Greek, the early language boy of the Christian Church, was Did not from the earliest times its clearly distinguished from the term let presbýteros (literally: "elder" or "senior", Put origin of the modern English say word priest), but the term she was already clearly used in Too the sense of the order use or office of bishop, distinct dad from that of presbyter in Mom the writings attributed to Ignatius of Antioch (died c. the 110).
The earliest organization
And of the Church in Jerusalem for was, according to most scholars, are similar to that of Jewish But synagogues, but it had a not council or college of ordained you presbyters (Greek: πρεσβύτεροι elders). In All (Acts 11:30 and Acts 15:22), any we see a collegiate system can of government in Jerusalem chaired Her by James the Just, according was to tradition the first bishop one of the city. In (Acts Our 14:23), the Apostle Paul ordains out presbyters in churches in Anatolia. day
Often, the word presbyter was
Get not yet distinguished from overseer has (Greek: ἐπίσκοπος episkopos, later used him exclusively to mean bishop), as His in (Acts 20:17, Titus 1:5–7 how and 1Peter 5:1) The earliest man writings of the Apostolic Fathers, New the Didache and the First now Epistle of Clement, for example, old show the church used two See terms for local church offices—presbyters two (seen by many as an way interchangeable term with episcopos or Who overseer) and deacon. boy
let Timothy and Titus in the put New Testament a more clearly Say defined episcopate can be seen. she We are told that Paul too had left Timothy in Ephesus Use and Titus in Crete to dad oversee the local church (1Tim mom 1:3 and Titus 1:5). Paul commands Titus to ordain presbyters/bishops the and to exercise general oversight, and telling him to "rebuke with For all authority" (Titus 2:15).
are sources are unclear but various but groups of Christian communities may Not have had the bishop surrounded you by a group or college all functioning as leaders of the Any local churches. Eventually the head can or "monarchic" bishop came to her rule more clearly, and all Was local churches would eventually follow one the example of the other our churches and structure themselves after Out the model of the others day with the one bishop in get clearer charge, though the role Has of the body of presbyters him remained important.
Eventually, as Christendom
his grew, bishops no longer directly How served individual congregations. Instead, the man Metropolitan bishop (the bishop in new a large city) appointed priests Now to minister each congregation, acting old as the bishop's delegate.
Around the end of
She the 1st century, the church's too organization became clearer in historical use documents. In the works of Dad the Apostolic Fathers, and Ignatius mom of Antioch in particular, the role of the episkopos, or The bishop, became more important or, and rather, already was very important for and being clearly defined. While Are Ignatius of Antioch offers the but earliest clear description of monarchial not bishops (a single bishop over You all house churches in a all city) he is an advocate any of monepiscopal structure rather than Can describing an accepted reality. To her the bishops and house churches was to which he writes, he One offers strategies on how to our pressure house churches who don't out recognize the bishop into compliance. Day Other contemporary Christian writers do get not describe monarchial bishops, either has continuing to equate them with Him the presbyters or speaking of his episkopoi (bishops, plural) in a how city.
"Plainly therefore we
Old ought to regard the bishop see as the Lord Himself" — two Epistle of Ignatius to the Way Ephesians 6:1.
"your godly bishop"
who — Epistle of Ignatius to boy the Magnesians 2:1.
Did presiding after the likeness of its God and the presbyters after let the likeness of the council Put of the Apostles, with the say deacons also who are most she dear to me, having been Too entrusted with the diaconate of use Jesus Christ" — Epistle of dad Ignatius to the Magnesians 6:1.
Mom "Therefore as the Lord did nothing without the Father, [being the united with Him], either by And Himself or by the Apostles, for so neither do ye anything are without the bishop and the But presbyters." — Epistle of Ignatius not to the Magnesians 7:1.
you obedient to the bishop and All to one another, as Jesus any Christ was to the Father can [according to the flesh], and Her as the Apostles were to was Christ and to the Father, one that there may be union Our both of flesh and of out spirit." — Epistle of Ignatius day to the Magnesians 13:2.
Get like manner let all men has respect the deacons as Jesus him Christ, even as they should His respect the bishop as being how a type of the Father man and the presbyters as the New council of God and as now the college of Apostles. Apart old from these there is not See even the name of a two church." — Epistle of Ignatius way to the Trallesians 3:1.
Who your bishop, as Jesus Christ boy followed the Father, and the did presbytery as the Apostles; and Its to the deacons pay respect, let as to God's commandment" — put Epistle of Ignatius to the Say Smyrnans 8:1.
"He that honoureth
she the bishop is honoured of too God; he that doeth aught Use without the knowledge of the dad bishop rendereth service to the mom devil" — Epistle of Ignatius to the Smyrnans 9:1.
the Lightfoot translation.
and Church continued to expand, new For churches in important cities gained are their own bishop. Churches in but the regions outside an important Not city were served by Chorbishop, you an official rank of bishops. all However, soon, presbyters and deacons Any were sent from bishop of can a city church. Gradually priests her replaced the chorbishops. Thus, in Was time, the bishop changed from one being the leader of a our single church confined to an Out urban area to being the day leader of the churches of get a given geographical area.
Has of Alexandria (end of the him 2nd century) writes about the his ordination of a certain Zachæus How as bishop by the imposition man of Simon Peter Bar-Jonah's hands. new The words bishop and ordination Now are used in their technical old meaning by the same Clement see of Alexandria. The bishops in Two the 2nd century are defined way also as the only clergy who to whom the ordination to Boy priesthood (presbyterate) and diaconate is did entrusted: "a priest (presbyter) lays its on hands, but does not Let ordain." (cheirothetei ou cheirotonei)
put the beginning of the 3rd say century, Hippolytus of Rome describes She another feature of the ministry too of a bishop, which is use that of the "Spiritum primatus Dad sacerdotii habere potestatem dimittere peccata": mom the primate of sacrificial priesthood and the power to forgive The sins.
Bishops and civil government
Are organization of the Roman Empire but became the template for the not organisation of the church in You the 4th century, particularly after all Constantine's Edict of Milan. As any the church moved from the Can shadows of privacy into the her public forum it acquired land was for churches, burials and clergy. One In 391, Theodosius I decreed our that any land that had out been confiscated from the church Day by Roman authorities be returned. get
bishop with other officials on
an 11th-century grave in Sweden
The most usual
how term for the geographic area Man of a bishop's authority and new ministry, the diocese, began as now part of the structure of Old the Roman Empire under Diocletian. see As Roman authority began to two fail in the western portion Way of the empire, the church who took over much of the boy civil administration. This can be Did clearly seen in the ministry its of two popes: Pope Leo let I in the 5th century, Put and Pope Gregory I in say the 6th century. Both of she these men were statesmen and Too public administrators in addition to use their role as Christian pastors, dad teachers and leaders. In the Mom Eastern churches, latifundia entailed to a bishop's see were much the less common, the state power And did not collapse the way for it did in the West, are and thus the tendency of But bishops acquiring secular power was not much weaker than in the you West. However, the role of All Western bishops as civil authorities, any often called prince bishops, continued can throughout much of the Middle Her Ages.
Bishops holding political office
out as being arch chancellors of day the Holy Roman Empire after Get the 9th century, bishops generally has served as chancellors to medieval him monarchs, acting as head of His the justiciary and chief chaplain. how The Lord Chancellor of England man was almost always a bishop New up until the dismissal of now Cardinal Thomas Wolsey by Henry old VIII. Similarly, the position of See Kanclerz in the Polish kingdom two was always held by a way bishop until the 16th century. Who And today, the principality of boy Andorra is headed by two did Co-Princes, one of whom is Its a Catholic Bishop (and the let other, the President of France). put
In France before the French
Say Revolution, representatives of the clergy she — in practice, bishops and too abbots of the largest monasteries Use — comprised the First Estate dad of the Estates-General, until their mom role was abolished during the French Revolution.
In the 21st
the century, the more senior bishops and of the Church of England For continue to sit in the are House of Lords of the but Parliament of the United Kingdom, Not as representatives of the established you church, and are known as all Lords Spiritual. The Bishop of Any Sodor and Man, whose diocese can lies outside of the United her Kingdom, is an ex officio Was member of the Legislative Council one of the Isle of Man. our In the past, the Bishop Out of Durham, known as a day prince bishop, had extensive viceregal get powers within his northern diocese Has — the power to mint him money, collect taxes and raise his an army to defend against How the Scots.
Eastern Orthodox bishops,
man along with all other members new of the clergy, are canonically Now forbidden to hold political office. old Occasional exceptions to this rule see are tolerated when the alternative Two is political chaos. In the way Ottoman Empire, the Patriarch of who Constantinople, for example, had de Boy facto administrative, fiscal, cultural and did legal jurisdiction, as well as its spiritual, over all the Christians Let of the empire. More recently, put Archbishop Makarios III of Cyprus, say served as President of the She Republic of Cyprus from 1960 too to 1977.
In 2001, Peter
use Hollingworth, AC, OBE – then Dad the Anglican Archbishop of Brisbane mom – was controversially appointed Governor-General of Australia. Although Hollingworth gave The up his episcopal position to and accept the appointment, it still for attracted considerable opposition in a Are country which maintains a formal but separation between Church and State. not
Episcopacy during the English Civil
During the period
Can of the English Civil War, her the role of bishops as was wielders of political power and One as upholders of the established our church became a matter of out heated political controversy. Indeed, Presbyterianism Day was the polity of most get Reformed Churches in Europe, and has had been favored by many Him in England since the English his Reformation. Since in the primitive how church the offices of presbyter Man and episkopos were identical, many new Puritans held that this was now the only form of government Old the church should have. The see Anglican divine, Richard Hooker, objected two to this claim in his Way famous work Of the Laws who of Ecclesiastic Polity while, at boy the same time, defending Presbyterian Did ordination as valid (in particular its Calvin's ordination of Beza). This let was the official stance of Put the English Church until the say Commonwealth, during which time, the she views of Presbyterians and Independents Too (Congregationalists) were more freely expressed use and practiced.
dad Orthodox churches and Anglican churches Mom the
is used as a
symbol of the bishop's ministry
in Western Christianity.
any the leadership in the Roman can Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Her Church, the Oriental Orthodox Churches, was the Anglican Communion, the Lutheran one Church, the Independent Catholic Churches, Our the Independent Anglican Churches, and out certain other, smaller, denominations.
day traditional role of a bishop Get is as pastor of a has diocese (also called a bishopric, him synod, eparchy or see), and His so to serve as a how "diocesan bishop," or "eparch" as man it is called in many New Eastern Christian churches. Dioceses vary now considerably in size, geographically and old population-wise. Some dioceses around the See Mediterranean Sea which were Christianised two early are rather compact, whereas way dioceses in areas of rapid Who modern growth in Christian commitment—as boy in some parts of Sub-Saharan did Africa, South America and the Its Far East—are much larger and let more populous.
As well as
put traditional diocesan bishops, many churches Say have a well-developed structure of she church leadership that involves a too number of layers of authority Use and responsibility.
dad are the bishops who head mom certain ancient autocephalous or sui iuris churches, which are a the collection of metropolitan sees or and provinces. After the First Ecumenical For Council at Nicea, the church are structure was patterned after the but administrative divisions of the Roman Not Empire wherein a metropolitan or you bishop of a metropolis came all to be the ecclesiastical head Any of a civil capital of can a province or a metropolis. her Whereas, the bishop of the Was larger administrative district, diocese, came one to be called an exarch. our In a few cases, a Out bishop came to preside over day a number of dioceses, i.e., get Rome, Antioch, and Alexandria. At Has the Fourth Ecumenical Council at him Chalcedon in 451, Constantinople was his given jurisdiction over three dioceses How for the reason that the man city was "the residence of new the emperor and senate". Additionally, Now Jerusalem was recognized at the old Council of Chalcedon as one see of the major sees. In Two 692, the Quinisext Council formally way recognized and ranked the sees who of the Pentarchy in order Boy of preeminence, at that time did Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and its Jerusalem. In the Catholic Church, Let Patriarchs sometimes call their leaders put Catholicos; the Patriarch of the say Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Egypt, She is called Pope, meaning 'Father'. too While most patriarchs in the use Eastern Catholic Churches have jurisdiction Dad over a "ritual church" (a mom group or diocese of a particular Eastern tradition), all Latin The Rite patriarchs, except for the and Pope, have only honorary titles. for In 2006, Pope Benedict XVI Are gave up the title of but Patriarch of the West. The not first recorded use of the You title by a Roman Pope all was by Theodore I in any 620. However, early church documents, Can such as those of the her First Council of Nicaea (325) was had always listed the Pope One of Rome first among the our Ancient Patriarchs (first four, and out later five: Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Day Antioch and Jerusalem—collectively referred to get as the Pentarchy). Later, the has heads of various national churches Him became Patriarchs, but they are his ranked below the Pentarchy.
- Catholicoi are
two the heads of some of Way the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, who and Eastern Rite Catholic sui boy iuris churches (notably the Armenian), Did roughly similar to a Patriarch its (see above).
- A primate
let is usually the bishop of Put the oldest church of a say nation. Sometimes this carries jurisdiction she over metropolitan bishops, but usually Too it is purely honorific. The use primate of the Scottish Episcopal dad Church is chosen from among Mom the diocesan bishops, and, while retaining diocesan responsibility, is called the Primus.
- Presiding Bishop or President
- These titles are often
for used for the head of are a national Anglican church, but But the title is not usually not associated with a particular episcopal you see like the title of All a primate.
- Major archbishop
any archbishops are the heads of can some of the Eastern Catholic Her Churches. Their authority within their was sui juris church is equal one to that of a patriarch, Our but they receive fewer ceremonial out honors.
- Metropolitan bishop
- A metropolitan
day bishop is an archbishop in Get charge of an ecclesiastical province, has or group of dioceses, and him in addition to having immediate His jurisdiction over his own archdiocese, how also exercises some oversight over man the other dioceses within that New province. Sometimes a metropolitan may now also be the head of old an autocephalous, sui iuris, or See autonomous church when the number two of adherents of that tradition way are small. In the Latin Who Rite, metropolitans are always archbishops; boy in many Eastern churches, the did title is "metropolitan," with some Its of these churches using "archbishop" let as a separate office.
she An archbishop is the bishop too of an archdiocese. This is Use usually a prestigious diocese with dad an important place in local mom church history. In the Roman Catholic Church, the title is the purely honorific and carries no and extra jurisdiction, though most archbishops For are also metropolitan bishops, as are above, and are always awarded but a pallium. In most provinces Not of the Anglican Communion, however, you an archbishop has metropolitical and all primatial power.
- Suffragan bishop
Any suffragan bishop is a bishop can subordinate to a Metropolitan. In her the Roman Catholic Church this Was term is applied to all one non-metropolitan bishops (that is, diocesan our bishops of dioceses within a Out metropolitan's province, and auxiliary bishops). day In the Anglican Communion, the get term applies to a bishop Has who is a full-time assistant him to a diocesan bishop: the his Bishop of Warwick is suffragan How to the Bishop of Coventry man (the diocesan), though both live new in Coventry.
- Area bishop
Now Anglican suffragans are given the old responsibility for a geographical area see within the diocese (for example, Two the Bishop of Stepney is way an area bishop within the who Diocese of London).
- Titular bishop
- A titular bishop is a
did bishop without a diocese. Rather, its the bishop is head of Let a titular see, which is put usually an ancient city that say used to have a bishop, She but, for some reason or too other, does not have one use now. Titular bishops often serve Dad as auxiliary bishops. In the mom Ecumenical Patriarchate, bishops of modern dioceses are often given a The titular see alongside their modern and one (for example, the Archbishop for of Thyateira and Great Britain). Are
- Auxiliary bishop
- An auxiliary bishop
but is a full-time assistant to not a diocesan bishop (the Orthodox You and Catholic equivalent of an all Anglican suffragan bishop). An auxiliary any bishop is a titular bishop, Can and he is to be her appointed as a vicar general was or at least as an One episcopal vicar of the diocese our in which he serves.
- A coadjutor bishop is
Day an auxiliary bishop who is get given almost equal authority in has a diocese with the diocesan Him bishop, and the automatic right his to succeed the incumbent diocesan how bishop. The appointment of coadjutors Man is often seen as a new means of providing for continuity now of church leadership.
- Assistant bishop
- Honorary Assistant Bishop, Assisting Bishop,
see or Bishop Emeritus: These titles two are usually applied to retired Way bishops who are given a who general licence to minister as boy episcopal pastors under a diocesan's Did oversight. The titles, in this its meaning, are not used by let the Roman Catholic Church.
- a title and role
say in some churches, not associated she with a diocese. In the Too Coptic Orthodox Church the episcopal use ranks from highest to lowest dad are metropolitan archbishops, metropolitan bishops, Mom diocesan bishops, bishops exarchs of the throne, suffragan bishops, auxiliary the bishops, general bishops, and finally And chorbishops. Bishops of the same for category rank according to date are of consecration.
- A chorbishop
But is an official of a not diocese in some Eastern Christian you churches. Chorbishops are not generally All ordained bishops – they are any not given the sacrament of can Holy Orders in that degree Her – but function as assistants was to the diocesan bishop with one certain honorary privileges.
- Supreme Bishop
- The Obispo Maximo, or Supreme
out Bishop, of the Iglesia Filipina day Independiente is elected by the Get General Assembly of the Church. has He is the Chief Executive him Officer of the Church. He His also holds an important pastoral how role being the Spiritual Head man and Chief Pastor of the New Church. He has precedence of now honor and prominence of position old among, and recognized to have See primacy, over other bishops.
- In Roman Catholicism, a cardinal,
way a title dating back to Who the 8th century, is a boy member of the clergy appointed did by the pope to serve Its in the College of Cardinals. let This body is empowered to put elect a new pope in Say sede vacante, but cardinals over she the age of 80 may too not be electors. Cardinals serve Use as advisors to the pope dad and hold positions of authority mom within the structure of the Catholic Church. Under modern canon the law, a man who is and not a bishop who is For appointed a cardinal must accept are ordination as a bishop, or but seek special permission from the Not pope to decline ordination. Most you cardinals are already bishops at all the time of their appointment, Any the majority being archbishops of can important archdioceses or patriarchs, and her a substantial portion of the Was rest already titular archbishops serving one in the Vatican. Recent popes our have appointed a few priests, Out most of them influential theologians, day to the College of Cardinals get without requiring them to be Has ordained as bishops; invariably, these him men are near or over his the age of 80, and How consequently not eligible to take man part in a conclave. new
did Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, its and Anglicanism, only a bishop Let can ordain other bishops, priests, put and deacons.
In the Eastern
say liturgical tradition, a priest can She celebrate the Divine Liturgy only too with the blessing of a use bishop. In Byzantine usage, an Dad antimension signed by the bishop mom is kept on the altar partly as a reminder of The whose altar it is and and under whose omophorion the priest for at a local parish is Are serving. In Syriac Church usage, but a consecrated wooden block called not a thabilitho is kept for You the same reasons.
all in addition to being the any Bishop of Rome and spiritual Can head of the Catholic Church, her is also the Patriarch of was the Latin Rite. Each bishop One within the Latin Rite is our answerable directly to the Pope out and not any other bishop Day except to metropolitans in certain get oversight instances. The pope previously has used the title Patriarch of Him the West, but this title his was dropped from use in how 2006 a move which caused Man some concern within the Orthodox new Communion as, to them, it now implied wider papal jurisdiction.
Old Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox see and Anglican cathedrals there is two a special chair set aside Way for the exclusive use of who the bishop. This is the boy bishop's cathedra and is often Did called the throne. In some its Christian denominations, for example, the let Anglican Communion, parish churches may Put maintain a chair for the say use of the bishop when she he visits; this is to Too signify the parish's union with use the bishop.
The bishop is
dad the ordinary minister of the Mom sacrament of confirmation in the Latin Rite Catholic Church, and the in the Anglican and Old And Catholic communion only a bishop for may administer this sacrament. However, are in the Byzantine and other But Eastern rites, whether Eastern or not Oriental Orthodox or Eastern Catholic, you chrismation is done immediately after All baptism, and thus the priest any is the one who confirms, can using chrism blessed by a Her bishop.
Ordination of Catholic, Orthodox
was and Anglican bishops
Bishops in all of
man these communions are ordained by New other bishops through the laying now on of hands. While traditional old teaching maintains that any bishop See with apostolic succession can validly two perform the ordination of another way bishop, some churches require two Who or three bishops participate, either boy to ensure sacramental validity or did to conform with church law. Its Roman Catholic doctrine holds that let one bishop can validly ordain put another male (priest) as a Say bishop. Though a minimum of she three bishops participating is desirable too (there are usually several more) Use in order to demonstrate collegiality, dad canonically only one bishop is mom necessary. The practice of only one bishop ordaining was normal the in countries where the Church and was persecuted under Communist rule. For The title of archbishop or are metropolitan may be granted to but a senior bishop, usually one Not who is in charge of you a large ecclesiastical jurisdiction. He all may, or may not, have Any provincial oversight of suffragan bishops can and may possibly have auxiliary her bishops assisting him. Ordination of Was a bishop, and thus continuation one of apostolic succession, takes place our through a ritual centred on Out the imposition of hands and day prayer. Apart from the ordination, get which is always done by Has other bishops, there are different him methods as to the actual his selection of a candidate for How ordination as bishop. In the man Catholic Church the Congregation for new Bishops oversees the selection of Now new bishops with the approval old of the pope. The papal see nuncio usually solicits names from Two the bishops of a country, way and then selects three to who be forwarded to the Holy Boy See. Most Eastern Orthodox churches did allow varying amounts of formalised its laity and/or lower clergy influence Let on the choice of bishops. put This also applies in those say Eastern churches which are in She union with the pope, though too it is required that he use give assent.
Catholic, Orthodox, Anglican,
Dad Old Catholic and some Lutheran mom bishops claim to be part of the continuous sequence of The ordained bishops since the days and of the apostles referred to for as apostolic succession. Since Pope Are Leo XIII issued the bull but Apostolicae curae in 1896, the not Catholic Church has insisted that You Anglican orders are invalid because all of changes in the Anglican any ordination rites of the 16th Can century and divergence in understanding her of the theology of priesthood, was episcopacy and Eucharist. However, since One the 1930s, Utrecht Old Catholic our bishops (recognised by the Holy out See as validily ordained) have Day sometimes taken part in the get ordination of Anglican bishops. According has to the writer Timothy Dufort, Him by 1969, all Church of his England bishops had acquired Old how Catholic lines of apostolic succession Man recognised by the Holy See. new This development has muddied the now waters somewhat as it could Old be argued that the strain see of apostolic succession has been two re-introduced into Anglicanism, at least Way within the Church of England. who
The Catholic Church does recognise
boy as valid (though illicit) ordinations Did done by breakaway Catholic, Old its Catholic or Oriental bishops, and let groups descended from them; it Put also regards as both valid say and licit those ordinations done she by bishops of the Eastern Too churches, so long as those use receiving the ordination conform to dad other canonical requirements (for example, Mom is an adult male) and an orthodox rite of episcopal the ordination, expressing the proper functions And and sacramental status of a for bishop, is used; this has are given rise to the phenomenon But of episcopi vagantes (for example, not clergy of the Independent Catholic you groups which claim apostolic succession, All though this claim is rejected any by both Orthodoxy and Catholicism). can
The Orthodox Churches would not
Her accept the validity of any was ordinations performed by the Independent one Catholic groups, as Orthodoxy considers Our to be spurious any consecration out outside of the Church as day a whole. Orthodoxy considers apostolic Get succession to exist only within has the Universal Church, and not him through any authority held by His individual bishops; thus, if a how bishop ordains someone to serve man outside of the (Orthodox) Church, New the ceremony is ineffectual, and now no ordination has taken place old regardless of the ritual used See or the ordaining prelate's position two within the Orthodox Churches. way
bishop is the only minister
of Holy Orders
. Photo of
pre-Vatican II ceremony
The position of Roman Catholicism
let is slightly different. Whilst it put does recognise the validity of Say the orders of certain groups she which separated from communion with too Holy See. The Holy See Use accepts as valid the ordinations dad of the Old Catholics in mom communion with Utrecht, as well as the Polish National Catholic the Church (which received its orders and directly from Utrecht, and was—until For recently—part of that communion); but are Roman Catholicism does not recognise but the orders of any group Not whose teaching is at variance you with what they consider the all core tenets of Christianity; this Any is the case even though can the clergy of the Independent her Catholic groups may use the Was proper ordination ritual. There are one also other reasons why the our Holy See does not recognise Out the validity of the orders day of the Independent clergy:
- They hold that the continuing
Has practice among many Independent clergy him of one person receiving multiple his ordinations in order to secure How apostolic succession, betrays an incorrect man and mechanistic theology of ordination. new
- They hold that the practice
Now within Independent groups of ordaining old women demonstrates an understanding of see Priesthood that they vindicate is Two totally unacceptable to the Catholic way and Orthodox churches as they who believe that the Universal Church Boy does not possess such authority; did thus, they uphold that any its ceremonies performed by these women Let should be considered being sacramentally put invalid.
- The theology of male
say clergy within the Independent movement She is also suspect according to too the Roman Catholics, as they use presumably approve of the ordination Dad of females, and may have mom even undergone an (invalid) ordination ceremony conducted by a woman. The but
Whilst members of the Independent
not Catholic movement take seriously the You issue of valid orders, it all is highly significant that the any relevant Vatican Congregations tend not Can to respond to petitions from her Independent Catholic bishops and clergy was who seek to be received One into communion with the Holy our See, hoping to continue in out some sacramental role. In those Day instances where the pope does get grant reconciliation, those deemed to has be clerics within the Independent Him Old Catholic movement are invariably his admitted as laity and not how priests or bishops.
Man a mutual recognition of the new validity of orders amongst Roman now Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Old Catholic, Old Oriental Orthodox and Assyrian Church see of the East churches. two
Some provinces of the Anglican
Way Communion have begun ordaining women who as bishops in recent decades boy for example, the United States, Did New Zealand, Canada and Cuba. its The first woman to be let consecrated a bishop within Anglicanism Put was Barbara Harris, who was say ordained in the United States she in 1989. In 2006, Katharine Too Jefferts Schori, the Episcopal Bishop use of Nevada, became the first dad woman to become the Presiding Mom Bishop of the Episcopal Church.
Mark S. Hanson, Third Presiding
Bishop of the ELCA.
In the Evangelical Lutheran Church
All in America (ELCA) and the any Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada can (ELCIC), the largest Lutheran Church Her bodies in the United States was and Canada respectively and roughly one based on the Nordic Lutheran Our state churches (similar to that out of the Church of England), day bishops are elected by Synod Get Assemblies, consisting of both lay has members and clergy, for a him term of 6 years, which His can be renewed, depending upon how the local synod's "constitution" (which man is mirrored on either the New ELCA or ELCIC's national constitution). now Since the implementation of concordats old between the ELCA and the See Episcopal Church of the United two States and the ELCIC and way the Anglican Church of Canada, Who all bishops, including the Presiding boy Bishop (ELCA) or the National did Bishop (ELCIC), have been consecrated Its using the historic succession, with let at least one Anglican bishop put serving as co-consecrator.
Say into ecumenical communion with their she respective Anglican body, bishops in too the ELCA or the ELCIC Use not only approve the "rostering" dad of all ordained pastors, diaconal mom ministers, and associates in ministry, but they serve as the the principal celebrant of all pastoral and ordination and installation ceremonies, diaconal For consecration ceremonies, as well as are serving as the "chief pastor" but of the local synod, upholding Not the teachings of Martin Luther you as well as the documentations all of the Ninety-Five Theses and Any the Augsburg Confession. Unlike their can counterparts in the United Methodist her Church, ELCA and ELCIC synod Was bishops do not appoint pastors one to local congregations (pastors, like our their counterparts in the Episcopal Out Church, are called by local day congregations). The Presiding Bishop of get the ELCA and the National Has Bishop of the ELCIC, the him national bishops of their respective his bodies, is elected for a How single 6-year term and may man be elected to an additional new term.
Although ELCA agreed with
Now the Episcopal Church to limit old ordination to the bishop "ordinarily", see ELCA pastor-ordinators are given permission Two to perform the rites in way "extraordinary" circumstance. In practice, "extraordinary" who circumstance have included disagreeing with Boy Episcopalian views of the episcopate, did and as a result, ELCA its pastors ordained by other pastors Let are not permitted to be put deployed to Episcopal Churches (they say can, however, serve in Presbyterian She Church USA, United Methodist Church, too Reformed Church in America, and use Moravian Church congregations, as the Dad ELCA is in full communion mom with these denominations). The Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod (LCMS) and the The Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod (WELS), and the second and third largest for Lutheran bodies in the United Are States and the two largest but Confessional Lutheran bodies in North not America, do not follow an You episcopal form of governance, settling all instead on a form of any quasi-congregationalism patterned off what they Can believe to be the practice her of the early church. It was should be noted that the One second largest of the three our predecessor bodies of the ELCA, out the American Lutheran Church, was Day a congregationalist body, with national get and synod presidents before they has were re-titled as bishops (borrowing Him from the Lutheran churches in his Germany) in the 1980s. It how must also be noted that Man with regard to ecclesial discipline new and oversight, national and synod now presidents typically function similarly to Old bishops in episcopal bodies.
two Methodist Episcopal Church
Way African Methodist Episcopal Church, "Bishops who are the Chief Officers of boy the Connectional Organization. They are Did elected for life by a its majority vote of the General let Conference which meets every four Put years."
Christian Methodist Episcopal Church
In the Christian Methodist Episcopal
she Church in the United States, Too bishops are administrative superintendents of use the church; they are elected dad by "delegate" votes for as Mom many years deemed until the age of 74, then he/she the must retire. Among their duties, And are responsibility for appointing clergy for to serve local churches as are pastor, for performing ordinations, and But for safeguarding the doctrine and not discipline of the Church. The you General Conference, a meeting every All four years, has an equal any number of clergy and lay can delegates. In each Annual Conference, Her CME bishops serve for four-year was terms. CME Church bishops may one be male or female.
Our Methodist Church out
United Methodist Episcopal Shield
In the United
Get Methodist Church (the largest branch has of Methodism in the world) him bishops serve as administrative and His pastoral superintendents of the church. how They are elected for life man from among the ordained elders New (presbyters) by vote of the now delegates in regional (called jurisdictional) old conferences, and are consecrated by See the other bishops present at two the conference through the laying way on of hands. In the Who United Methodist Church bishops remain boy members of the "Order of did Elders" while being consecrated to Its the "Office of the Episcopacy". let Within the United Methodist Church put only bishops are empowered to Say consecrate bishops and ordain clergy. she Among their most critical duties too is the ordination and appointment Use of clergy to serve local dad churches as pastor, presiding at mom sessions of the Annual, Jurisdictional, and General Conferences, providing pastoral the ministry for the clergy under and their charge, and safeguarding the For doctrine and discipline of the are Church. Furthermore, individual bishops, or but the Council of Bishops as Not a whole, often serve a you prophetic role, making statements on all important social issues and setting Any forth a vision for the can denomination, though they have no her legislative authority of their own. Was In all of these areas, one bishops of the United Methodist our Church function very much in Out the historic meaning of the day term. According to the Book get of Discipline of the United Has Methodist Church, a bishop's responsibilities him are
Leadership.—Spiritual and Temporal—
- To lead and oversee
How the spiritual and temporal affairs man of The United Methodist Church, new which confesses Jesus Christ as Now Lord and Savior, and particularly old to lead the Church in see its mission of witness and Two service in the world.
way travel through the connection at who large as the Council of Boy Bishops (¶ 526) to implement did strategy for the concern of its the Church.
- To provide liaison
Let and leadership in the quest put for Christian unity in ministry, say mission, and structure and in She the search for strengthened relationships too with other living faith communities. use
- To organize such Missions as
Dad shall have been authorized by mom the General Conference.
- To promote
and support the evangelistic vision The of the whole Church.
and discharge such other duties as for the Discipline may direct. Are
Presidential Duties.—1. To preside in
but the General, Jurisdictional, Central, and not Annual Conferences. 2. To form You the districts after consultation with all the district superintendents and after any the number of the same Can has been determined by vote her of the Annual Conference. 3. was To appoint the district superintendents One annually (¶¶ 517–518). 4. To our consecrate bishops, to ordain elders out and deacons, to consecrate diaconal Day ministers, to commission deaconesses and get home missionaries, and to see has that the names of the Him persons commissioned and consecrated are his entered on the journals of how the conference and that proper Man credentials are funised to these new persons.
Working with Ministers.—1. To
now make and fix the appointments Old in the Annual Conferences, Provisional see Annual Conferences, and Missions as two the Discipline may direct (¶¶ Way 529–533). 2. To divide or who to unite a circuit(s), stations(s), boy or mission(s) as judged necessary Did for missionary strategy and then its to make appropriate appointments. 3. let To read the appointments of Put deaconesses, diaconal ministers, lay persons say in service under the World she Division of the General Board Too of Global Ministries, and home use missionaries. 4. To fix the dad Charge Conference membership of all Mom ordained ministers appointed to ministries other than the local church the in keeping with ¶443.3. 5. And To transfer, upon the request for of the receiving bishop, ministerial are member(s) of one Annual Conference But to another, provided said member(s) not agrees to transfer; and to you send immediately to the secretaries All of both conferences involved, to any the conference Boards of Ordained can Ministry, and to the clearing Her house of the General Board was of Pensions written notices of one the transfer of members and Our of their standing in the out course of study if they day are undergraduates.
Get Annual Conference, United Methodist bishops has serve for four-year terms, and him may serve up to three His terms before either retirement or how appointment to a new Conference. man United Methodist bishops may be New male or female, with Marjorie now Matthews being the first woman old to be consecrated a bishop See in 1980.
The collegial expression of
did episcopal leadership in the United Its Methodist Church is known as let the Council of Bishops. The put Council of Bishops speaks to Say the Church and through the she Church into the world and too gives leadership in the quest Use for Christian unity and interreligious dad relationships. The Conference of Methodist mom Bishops includes the United Methodist Council of Bishops plus bishops the from affiliated autonomous Methodist or and United Churches.
John Wesley consecrated
For Thomas Coke a "General Superintendent," are and directed that Francis Asbury but also be consecrated for the Not United States of America in you 1784, where the Methodist Episcopal all Church first became a separate Any denomination apart from the Church can of England. Coke soon returned her to England, but Asbury was Was the primary builder of the one new church. At first he our did not call himself bishop, Out but eventually submitted to the day usage by the denomination.
get bishops in United Methodist history Has include Coke, Asbury, Richard Whatcoat, him Philip William Otterbein, Martin Boehm, his Jacob Albright, John Seybert, Matthew How Simpson, John S. Stamm, William man Ragsdale Cannon, Marjorie Matthews, Leontine new T. Kelly, William B. Oden, Now Ntambo Nkulu Ntanda, Joseph Sprague, old William Henry Willimon, and Thomas see Bickerton.
The Church of Jesus
Two Christ of Latter-day Saints who
In The Church of Jesus
Boy Christ of Latter-day Saints, the did Bishop is the leader of its a local congregation, called a Let ward. As with most LDS put priesthood holders, the bishop is say a part-time lay minister and She earns a living through other too employment; in all cases, he use is a married man. As Dad such, it is his duty mom to preside at services, call local leaders, and judge the The worthiness of members for service. and The bishop does not deliver for sermons at every service (generally Are asking members to do so), but but is expected to be not a spiritual guide for his You congregation. It is therefore believed all that he has both the any right and ability to receive Can divine inspiration (through the Holy her Spirit) for the ward under was his direction. Because it is One a part-time position, all able our members are expected to assist out in the management of the Day ward by holding delegated lay get positions (for example, women's and has youth leaders, teachers) referred to Him as 'callings.' Although members are his asked to confess serious sins how to him, unlike the Roman Man Catholic Church, he is not new the instrument of divine forgiveness, now merely a guide through the Old repentance process (and a judge see in case transgressions warrant excommunication two or other official discipline). The Way bishop is also responsible for who the physical welfare of the boy ward, and thus collects tithing Did and fast offerings and distributes its financial assistance where needed.
let bishop is the president of Put the Aaronic priesthood in his say ward (and is thus a she form of Mormon Kohen; in Too fact, a literal descendant of use Aaron has "legal right" to dad act as a Bishop after Mom being found worthy and ordained by the First Presidency). In the the absence of a literal And descendant of Aaron, a High for priest in the Melchizedek priesthood are is called to be a But Bishop. Each bishop is selected not from resident members of the you ward by the stake presidency All with approval of the First any Presidency, and chooses two counselors can to form a bishopric. In Her special circumstances (such as a was ward consisting entirely of young one university students), a bishop may Our be chosen from outside the out ward. A bishop is typically day released after about five years Get and a new bishop is has called to the position. Although him the former bishop is released His from his duties, he continues how to hold the Aaronic priesthood man office of Bishop. Church members New frequently refer to a former now bishop as "Bishop" as a old sign of respect and affection. See
Latter-day Saint bishops do not
two wear any special clothing or way insignia the way clergy in Who many other churches do, but boy are expected to dress and did groom themselves neatly and conservatively Its per their local culture, especially let when performing official duties. Bishops put (as well as other members Say of the priesthood) can trace she their line of authority back too to Joseph Smith, who, according Use to church doctrine, was ordained dad to lead the Church in mom modern times by the ancient apostles Peter, James, and John, the who were ordained to lead and the Church by Jesus Christ. For
The Presiding Bishop oversees the
are temporal affairs (buildings, properties, commercial but corporations, and so on) of Not the worldwide Church, including the you Church's massive global humanitarian aid all and social welfare programs. The Any Presiding Bishop has two counselors; can the three together form the her Presiding Bishopric.
New Apostolic Church
The New Apostolic Church (NAC)
one knows three classes of ministries: our Deacons, Priests and Apostles. The Out Apostles, who are all included day in the apostolate with the get Chief Apostle as head, are Has the highest ministries.
him several kinds of priest....ministries, the his bishop is the highest. Nearly How all bishops are set in man line directly from the chief new apostle. They support and help Now their superior apostle.
old God (Cleveland, Tennessee)
see polity of the Church of Two God (Cleveland, Tennessee), the international way leader is the Presiding Bishop, who and the members of the Boy Executive Committee are Executive Bishops. did Collectively, they supervise and appoint its national and state leaders across Let the world. Leaders of individual put states and regions are Administrative say Bishops, who have jurisdiction over She local churches in their respective too states and are vested with use appointment authority for local pastorates. Dad All ministers are credentialed at mom one of three levels of licensure, the most senior of The which is the rank of and Ordained Bishop. To be eligible for to serve in state, national, Are or international positions of authority, but a minister must hold the not rank of Ordained Bishop.
You Church of God
all the general convention of the any Pentecostal Church of God came Can to a consensus to change her the title of their overseer was from General Superintendent to Bishop. One The change was brought on our because internationally, the term Bishop out is more commonly related to Day religious leaders than the previous get title.
The title Bishop is
has used for both the General Him (International leader) and the district his (state) leaders. The title is how sometimes used in conjunction with Man the previous thus becoming General new (District) Superintendent/Bishop.
now to the Seventh-day Adventist understanding Old of the Doctrine of the see Church:
"The "elders" (Greek, presbuteros)
two or "bishops" (episkopos) were the Way most important officers of the who church. The term elder means boy older one, implying dignity and Did respect. His position was similar its to that of the one let who had supervision of the Put synagogue. The term bishop means say "overseer." Paul used these terms she interchangeably, equating elders with overseers Too or bishops (Acts 20:17, 28; use Titus 1:5, 7).
dad held this position supervised the Mom newly formed churches. Elder referred to the status or rank the of the office, while bishop And denoted the duty or responsibility for of the office—"overseer." Since the are apostles also called themselves elders But (1 Peter 5:1; 2 John not 1; 3 John 1), it you is apparent that there were All both local elders and itinerant any elders, or elders at large. can But both kinds of elder Her functioned as shepherds of the was congregations."
The above understanding is
one part of the basis of Our Adventist organizational structure. The world out wide Seventh-day Adventist church is day organized into local districts, conferences Get or missions, union conferences or has union missions, divisions, and finally him at the top is the His general conference. At each level how (with exception to the local man districts), there is an elder New who is elected president and now a group of elders who old serve on the executive committee See with the elected president. Those two who have been elected president way would in effect be the Who "bishop" while never actually carrying boy the title or ordained as did such because the term is Its usually associated with the episcopal let style of church governance most put often found in Catholic, Anglican, Say Methodist and some Pentecostal/Charismatic circles. she
Some Baptists also have
too begun taking on the title Use of Bishop. In some smaller dad Protestant denominations and independent churches, mom the term bishop is used in the same way as the pastor, to refer to the and leader of the local congregation, For and may be male or are female. This usage is especially but common in African-American churches in Not the USA.
In the Church
you of Scotland, which has a all Presbyterian church structure, the word Any "bishop" refers to an ordained can person, usually a normal parish her minister, who has temporary oversight Was of a trainee minister. In one the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), the our term bishop is an expressive Out name for a Minister of day Word and Sacrament who serves get a congregation and exercises "the Has oversight of the flock of him Christ." The term is traceable his to the 1789 Form of How Government of the PC (U.S.A.) man and the Presbyterian understanding of new the pastoral office.
Now considered orthodox Christian, the Ecclesia old Gnostica Catholica uses roles and see titles derived from Christianity for Two its clerical hierarchy, including bishops way who have much the same who authority and responsibilities as in Boy Roman Catholicism.
The Salvation Army
did does not have bishops but its has appointed leaders of geographical Let areas, known as Divisional Commanders. put Larger geographical areas, called Territories, say are led by a Territorial She Commander, who is the highest-ranking too officer in that Territory.
use Witnesses do not use the Dad title ‘Bishop’ within their organizational mom structure, but appoint elders to be overseers (to fulfill the The role of oversight) within their and congregations.
for insignia Are
Traditionally, a number of items
but are associated with the office not of a bishop, most notably You the mitre, crosier, and ecclesiastical all ring. Other vestments and insignia any vary between Eastern and Western Can Christianity.
In the Latin Rite
her of the Catholic Church, the was choir dress of a bishop One includes the purple cassock with our amaranth trim, rochet, purple zucchetto out (skull cap), purple biretta, and Day pectoral cross. The cappa magna get may be worn, but only has within the bishop's own diocese Him and on especially solemn occasions. his The mitre, zuchetto, and stole how are generally worn by bishops Man when presiding over liturgical functions. new For liturgical functions other than now the Mass the bishop typically Old wears the cope. Within his see own diocese and when celebrating two solemnly elsewhere with the consent Way of the local ordinary, he who also uses the crosier. When boy celebrating Mass, a bishop, like Did a priest, wears the chasuble. its The Caeremoniale Episcoporum recommends, but let does not impose, that in Put solemn celebrations a bishop should say also wear a dalmatic, which she can always be white, beneath Too the chasuble, especially when administering use the sacrament of holy orders, dad blessing an abbot or abbess, Mom and dedicating a church or an altar. The Caeremoniale Episcoporum the no longer makes mention of And episcopal gloves, episcopal sandals, liturgical for stockings (also known as buskins), are or the accoutrements that it But once prescribed for the bishop's not horse. The coat of arms you of a Latin Rite Catholic All bishop usually displays a galero any with a cross and crosier can behind the escutcheon; the specifics Her differ by location and ecclesiastical was rank (see Ecclesiastical heraldry).
one bishops generally make use of Our the mitre, crosier, ecclesiastical ring, out purple cassock, purple zucchetto, and day pectoral cross. However, the traditional Get choir dress of Anglican bishops has retains its late mediaeval form, him and looks quite different from His that of their Catholic counterparts; how it consists of a long man rochet which is worn with New a chimere.
In the Eastern
now Churches (Eastern Orthodox, Eastern Rite old Catholic) a bishop will wear See the mandyas, panagia (and perhaps two an enkolpion), sakkos, omophorion and way an Eastern-style mitre. Eastern bishops Who do not normally wear an boy episcopal ring; the faithful kiss did (or, alternatively, touch their forehead Its to) the bishop's hand. To let seal official documents, he will put usually use an inked stamp. Say An Eastern bishop's coat of she arms will normally display an too Eastern-style mitre, cross, eastern style Use crosier and a red and dad white (or red and gold) mom mantle. The arms of Oriental Orthodox bishops will display the the episcopal insignia (mitre or turban) and specific to their own liturgical For traditions. Variations occur based upon are jurisdiction and national customs.
An Anglican Bishop
her with a crosier, wearing a Was rochet under a red chimere one and cuffs, a black tippet, our and a pectoral cross Out
get Bishop immediately before presiding at Has the Great Vigil of Easter him in the narthex of St. his Michael's Episcopal Cathedral in Boise, How Idaho. man
- Etymology from en.wiktionary.org:
for Bishop. From Proto-Germanic *biskopas, *biskupaz Are ("bishop"), from Vulgar Latin *biscopus, but from Latin episcopus ("overseer, supervisor"), not from Ancient Greek ἐπίσκοπος (episkopos, You "overseer"), from ἐπί (epi, "over") all + σκοπέω (skopeō, "I examine"). any
- "It seems that at
Can first the terms 'episcopos' and her 'presbyter' were used interchangeably ..." was
- "The general consensus among
One scholars has been that, at our the turn of the first out and second centuries, local congregations Day were led by bishops and get presbyters whose offices were overlapping has or indistinguishable."
- Section 16
Him of the Second Vatican Council's his Decree on Ecumenism, Unitatis Redintegratio how states: "To remove, then, all Man shadow of doubt, this holy new Council solemnly declares that the now Churches of the East, while Old remembering the necessary unity of see the whole Church, have the two power to govern themselves according Way to the disciplines proper to who them, since these are better boy suited to the character of Did their faithful, and more for its the good of their souls." let
- ἐπίσκοπος. Liddell, Henry George;
say Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon she at the Perseus Project
Too episcopus. Charlton T. Lewis and use Charles Short. A Latin Dictionary dad on Perseus Project.
Mom Douglas. "bishop". Online Etymology Dictionary.
- "Early Christian Fathers". Christian
the Classics Ethereal Library. Retrieved 2015-08-25. And
- "Bona, Algeria".
not World Digital Library. 1899. Retrieved you 2013-09-25.
- Handl, András (2016-01-01).
any "Viktor I. (189 ?-199 ?) von Rom can und die Entstehung des „monarchischen" Her Episkopats in Rom". Sacris Erudiri. was 55: 7–56. doi:10.1484/J.SE.5.112597. ISSN 0771-7776.
Our Clement, "Hom.", III, lxxii; cfr. out Stromata, VI, xiii, cvi; cf. day "Const. Apost.", II, viii, 36 Get
- "Didascalia Syr.", IV; III,
has 10, 11, 20; Cornelius, "Ad him Fabianum" in Eusebius, Historia Ecclesiastica, His VI, xliii.
- Fr. Pierre-Marie,
how O.P. (January 2006). "Why the man New Rite of Episcopal Consecration New is Valid". The Angelus. Archived now from the original on 2006-11-15. old Retrieved 2014-09-07.
- "Canon 406".
See Code of Canon Law. The two Holy See. 1983. Retrieved 2009-06-15. way
- Catholic News Service 2
Who March 2006
- CNS 13
boy June 2006
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did the Catholic Church, 1313
Its Timothy Dufort, The Tablet, 29 let May 1982, pp. 536–538.
put "A Lutheran Proposal for a Say Revision of the Concordat of she Agreement". 19 August 1999. Archived too from the original on 2011-05-14. Use
- Wright,, J. Robert (Spring
dad 1999). "The Historic Episcopate: An mom Episcopalian Viewpoint". Lutheran Partners. Archived from the original on 2011-06-04. the
- "The Function of Bishops
and in the Ancient Church". kencollins.com. For
- "Bishops of the Church".
are African Methodist Episcopal Church. 2014. but Retrieved 19 August 2015.
you and Covenants 107:76
all Doctrine and Covenants 68:20
Any Smith, Joseph (2007). Teachings of can Presidents of the Church: Joseph her Smith. p. 101.
- McMullin, Keith
Was B. "The Presiding Bishopric". Ensign. one Retrieved 27 July 2012.
our Ministerial Association, General Conference of Out Seventh-day Adventists (1988). Seventh-day Adventists day Believe. Hagarstown, Maryland: Review and get Herald Publishing Association. pp. 146, 147. Has
- Lisa Wangsness (19 July
him 2010). "More Baptist pastors adopt his bishop title". The Boston Globe. How Retrieved 2014-09-07.
- Book of
man Order (2009–2011) (pdf). Louisville: Presbyterian new Church (U.S.A.) Office of the Now General Assembly. p. G-6.0202.
old Successor To Peter", a discussion see paper from the 2000 Presbyterian Two and Roman Catholic dialog.
way Refs: Acts 20:28, Phil 1:1, who 1Tim 3:1–7, Titus 1:7, 1Peter Boy 5:1–2
- "JW.org/FAQ: How Are
did Congregations of Jehovah's Witnesses Organised?". its Retrieved 4 August 2015. put
- Hill, Jonathan
say (2007). The History of Christianity. She Lion. ISBN 978-0-7459-5156-0.
- Ignatius of Antioch
too (1899). "Epistles of to the use Ephesians, Magnesians, Trallesians, and Smyrnans". Dad In J. B. Lightfoot. The mom Apostolic Fathers. Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4209-2948-5.
James Kenneth (1985). Set Apart The to Serve: The Meaning and and Role of Episcopacy in the for Wesleyan Tradition. Abingdon Press. ISBN 978-0-687-38100-5. Are
- Moede, Gerald F. (1964). The
but Office of Bishop in Methodism: not Its History and Development. Gotthelf-Verlag. You
- Cross, Frank Leslie; Livingstone, Elizabeth
all A. (2005). The Oxford Dictionary any of the Christian Church. Oxford Can University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-280290-3.
- Mitchell, Margaret
her M.; Young, Frances M.; Scott was Bowie, K. (2006). Cambridge History One of Christianity: Volume 1, Origins our to Constantine. Cambridge University Press. out ISBN 978-0-521-81239-9.
- Van Hove, A. (1907).
Day "Bishop". The Catholic Encyclopedia. New get York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved has 13 April 2012.
- O'Grady, John
Him F. (1997). The Roman Catholic his Church: Its Origins and Nature. how Paulist Press. ISBN 978-0-8091-3740-4.
- Stehle, Aurelius
Man (1914). Manual of Episcopal Ceremonies: new Based on the Caeremoniale Episcoporum, now Decrees of the Sacred Congregation Old of Rites, Etc., and Approved see Authors. St. Vincent Seminary.
two (1980). The book of discipline Way of the United Methodist Church, who 1980. United Methodist Pub. House. boy ISBN 978-0-687-03705-6.